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- Single-Dose Intra-Articular Morphine After Arthroscopic Knee Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun 11.
PURPOSE:The purpose of this quantitative meta-analysis is to appraise the efficacy and side effects of intra-articular morphine in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery.
METHODS:The comprehensive literature search, using Medline (1966 to 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE databases, was conducted to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials that used single-dose intra-articular morphine for postoperative pain. The relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using statistical software.
RESULTS:Twenty-six articles were included in the meta-analysis. The acute postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores of the morphine group compared with the control group were significantly lower (SMD, -1.16; 95% CI, -1.79 to -0.53; P = .0003). The number of patients requiring supplementary analgesia was also significantly reduced (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93; P = .008), and there was a significant difference in the time to first analgesic request (SMD, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.49 to 2.44; P = .003) when the morphine group was compared with the placebo group. However, there was no significant difference in side effects between the morphine group and the control group (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.28; P = .65).
CONCLUSIONS:The key findings of the present study were that the administration of single-dose intra-articular morphine at the end of arthroscopic knee surgery provided better pain relief, reduced the need for supplementary analgesics, and lengthened the time interval before the first request for additional analgesic medication, all with short-term side effects similar to those of the saline placebo.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level II, meta-analysis of Level I-II studies.
- Readability of arthroscopy-related patient education materials from the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons and arthroscopy association of north america web sites. [Journal Article]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):1108-12.
We sought to assess the readability levels of arthroscopy-related patient education materials available on the Web sites of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We identified all articles related to arthroscopy available in 2012 from the online patient education libraries of AAOS and AANA. After performing follow-up editing, we assessed each article with the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of the articles from the AAOS Web site and the AANA Web site were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the eighth-grade level (the average reading ability of the US adult population) and sixth-grade level (the widely recommended level for patient education materials). Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability of FK grade assessment were evaluated. A total of 62 articles were reviewed (43 from AAOS and 19 from AANA). The mean overall FK grade level was 10.2 (range, 5.2 to 12). The AAOS articles had a mean FK grade level of 9.6 (range, 5.2 to 12), whereas the AANA articles had a mean FK grade level of 11.4 (range, 8.7 to 12); the difference was significant (P < .0001). Only 3 articles had a readability level at or below the eighth-grade level and only 1 was at or below the sixth-grade level; all were from AAOS. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 1 for both). Online patient education materials related to arthroscopy from AAOS and AANA may be written at a level too difficult for a large portion of the patient population to comprehend.
- Biological and Biomechanical Evaluation of the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS AC) in a Sheep Model of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Replacement: A 3-Month and 12-Month Study. [Journal Article]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):1079-88.
The purposes of this study were to assess tissue ingrowth within the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) artificial ligament (LARS AC; LARS, Arc sur Tille, France) and to study the biomechanical characteristics of the reconstructed knees in a sheep model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement.Twenty-five female sheep underwent excision of the proximal third of the left ACL and intra-articular joint stabilization with a 44-strand polyethylene terephthalate ligament (mean ultimate tensile failure load, 2,500 N). Animals were killed either 3 or 12 months after surgery. Explanted knees were processed for histology (n = 10) or mechanical tests including tests of laxity and loading to failure in tension (n = 15).Well-vascularized tissue ingrowth within the artificial ligament was only observed in the portions of the ligament in contact with the host's tissues (native ligament and bone tunnels). Ligament wear was observed in 40% of explanted knees. The ultimate tensile failure loads of the operated knees at both time points were inferior to those of the contralateral, intact knees (144 ± 69 N at 3 months and 260 ± 126 N at 12 months versus 1,241 ± 270 N and 1,218 ± 189 N, respectively) (P < .01). In specimens with intact artificial ligaments, failure occurred by slippage from the bone tunnels in all specimens explanted 3 months postoperatively and in half of the specimens explanted 12 months postoperatively.This study provides evidence that the LARS AC has a satisfactory biointegration but that it is not suitable for ACL replacement if uniform tissue ingrowth is contemplated. Despite good clinical performance up to 1 year after implantation, none of the reconstructions approached the mechanical performance of the normal ACL in the ovine model. Partial tearing of the artificial ligament, which led to a significant decrease in ultimate tensile strength, was observed in 40% of cases in the ovine model.The LARS is not a suitable scaffold for ACL replacement. Further animal studies are needed to evaluate its potential for augmentation of ligament repair.
- Synovial membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells supported by platelet-rich plasma can repair osteochondral defects in a rabbit model. [Journal Article]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):1034-46.
The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo effectiveness of synovial membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cell (SDSC)-encapsulated injectable platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel in the repair of damaged articular cartilage in the rabbit.An osteochondral defect was created in the trochlear groove of the rabbit femur, and the defects were divided into 3 treatment groups: untreated control group, PRP group, and PRP-SDSC group. After 4, 12, and 24 weeks, the tissue specimens were assessed by macroscopic examination and histologic evaluation and stained immunohistochemically for type II collagen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In addition, total glycosaminoglycan content was determined at 24 weeks.Rabbit PRP contained a high concentration of platelets and high concentration of growth factors compared with those in whole blood. Twenty-four weeks after transplantation, there was fibrous tissue in the control group. In both the PRP group and the PRP-SDSC group, the defects were repaired with hyaline cartilage and exhibited significantly higher safranin O staining, type II collagen immunostaining, glycosaminoglycan content, cumulative histologic scores, and number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells. However, incomplete bone regeneration and irregular cartilage surface integration were observed in the PRP group.Our results indicate that SDSC-embedded PRP gel could successfully resurface the defect with cartilage and restore the subchondral bone in the rabbit model.This study indicates that in an animal model, the application of PRP and SDSC in combination for the treatment of local cartilage defects appears promising; however, PRP-SDSC products might be more or less appropriate to treat different types of tissues and pathologies. The clinical efficacy of PRP remains under debate. Therefore further research is needed at both the basic science and clinical levels.
- Arthroscopic excision of dorsal wrist ganglion: factors related to recurrence and postoperative residual pain. [Journal Article]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):1019-24.
The purpose of this study was to assess the recurrence rate and postoperative residual pain rate after arthroscopic excision of dorsal wrist ganglia and the risk factors for recurrence and residual pain.A total of 115 wrists (111 patients: 57 men, 54 women; average age 34 years; range, 9 to 72 years) treated with arthroscopic excision for wrist dorsal ganglia between April 2005 and December 2009 were enrolled. The follow-up averaged 32 months (range, 12 to 67 months). Demographic data and operative details, including the presence of a ganglion stalk, were retrospectively reviewed and tested against recurrence and residual pain at final follow-up.The recurrence rate of dorsal wrist ganglia after arthroscopic excision was 11% (13 of 115 wrists). Recurrence was on the dominant side in 12 of 13 (91%) patients, which was the most important risk factor for recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 68.49), followed by female sex (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 0.84 to 28.39) and age 24 years or younger (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.75 to 12.74). Twenty-seven wrists (23%) had postoperative residual pain at final follow-up. The results of logistic regression showed that pain before surgery was the most important risk factor for residual pain after surgery (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.36 to 18.3), followed by female sex (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.22 to 8.53).Dominant side, female sex, and age of 24 years or younger are considered to be the most influential risk factors for recurrence after arthroscopic excision of dorsal wrist ganglia. However, the presence or absence of the cyst stalk was not a significant factor for recurrence. Female patients who have preoperative pain around the dorsal wrist ganglia were most likely to experience residual pain after surgery.Level IV, therapeutic case series.
- Footprint Contact Restoration Between the Biceps-Labrum Complex and the Glenoid Rim in SLAP Repair: A Comparative Cadaveric Study Using Pressure-Sensitive Film. [Journal Article]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):1005-11.
To compare pressurized footprint contact and interface pressure between the biceps-labrum complex and the superior glenoid rim after SLAP repair using 3 different techniques.Twenty-four fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders were divided into 3 groups. SLAP lesions were repaired by (1) 2 single-loaded anchors in a simple suture configuration (group T), (2) a double-loaded anchor in a simple suture configuration in a V shape (group V), or (3) a double-loaded anchor by use of a hybrid simple and mattress suture configuration (group H). Pressure-sensitive film quantified pressurized contact areas and interface pressures between the biceps-labrum complex and the glenoid rim after SLAP repair.Groups T and V showed significantly larger contact areas than group H (P < .0001). However, there was no significant difference between groups T and V. Despite a substantial contact area around the biceps-labrum complex in group T, there was a lack of sufficient contact area just below the biceps anchor. Group V showed a uniform contact area around the entire biceps-labrum complex, but in group H the contact area was concentrated only around the posterior superior labrum, where the simple suture was used.The methods using 2 single-loaded suture anchors and using 1 double-loaded suture anchor with a simple suture configuration showed significantly larger pressurized contact areas than the method using 1 double-loaded suture anchor with both a simple and mattress suture configuration. The interface pressure was not significantly different among groups.Although there have been several kinds of repair techniques and biomechanical studies for the type II SLAP lesion, there has been no study about footprint restoration on the superior glenoid rim. This study analyzed and compared the footprint contact restoration after type II SLAP repair among 3 different techniques.
- Addition of a suture anchor for coracoclavicular fixation to a superior locking plate improves stability of type IIb distal clavicle fractures. [Journal Article]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):998-1004.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of coracoclavicular (CC) fixation on biomechanical stability in type IIB distal clavicle fractures fixed with plate and screws.Twelve fresh-frozen matched cadaveric specimens were used to create type IIB distal clavicle fractures. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans ensured similar bone quality. Group 1 (6 specimens) was stabilized with a superior precontoured distal clavicle locking plate and supplemental suture anchor CC fixation. Group 2 (6 specimens) followed the same construct without CC fixation. Each specimen was cyclically loaded in the coronal plane at 40 to 80 N for 17,500 cycles. Load-to-failure testing was performed on the specimens that did not fail cyclic loading. Outcome measures included mode of failure and the number of cycles or load required to create 10 mm of displacement in the construct.All specimens (12 of 12) completed cyclic testing without failure and underwent load-to-failure testing. Group 1 specimens failed at a mean of 808.5 N (range, 635.4 to 952.3 N), whereas group 2 specimens failed at a mean of 401.3 N (range, 283.6 to 656.0 N) (P = .005). Group 1 specimens failed by anchor pullout without coracoid fracture (4 of 6) and distal clavicle fracture fragment fragmentation (1 of 6); one specimen did not fail at the maximal load the materials testing machine was capable of exerting (1,000 N). Group 2 specimens failed by distal clavicle fracture fragment fragmentation (3 of 6) and acromioclavicular (AC) joint displacement (1 of 6); 2 specimens did not fail at the maximal load of the materials testing machine.During cyclic loading, type IIB distal clavicle fractures with and without CC fixation remain stable. CC fixation adds stability to type IIB distal clavicle fractures fixed with plate and screws when loaded to failure.CC fixation for distal clavicle fractures is a useful adjunct to plate-and-screw fixation to augment stability of the fracture.
- Authors' reply. [Letter]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):970-1.
- A biological approach to orthopaedic surgery: are they lost in translation? [Letter]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):969-70.
- "I Found It on the Internet:" How Reliable and Readable is Patient Information? [Editorial]
- Arthroscopy 2013 Jun; 29(6):967-8.