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- Response to Drs Grimbergen and Den Heeten. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Radiol 2013 May 20.
- Does bone compaction around the helical bladeof a proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) decrease the riskof cut-out?: A subject-specific computational study. [Journal Article]
- Bone Joint Res 2013; 2(5):79-83.
Because of the contradictory body of evidence related to the potential benefits of helical blades in trochanteric fracture fixation, we studied the effect of bone compaction resulting from the insertion of a proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA).We developed a subject-specific computational model of a trochanteric fracture (31-A2 in the AO classification) with lack of medial support and varied the bone density to account for variability in bone properties among hip fracture patients.We show that for a bone density corresponding to 100% of the bone density of the cadaveric femur, there does not seem to be any advantage in using a PFNA with respect to the risk of blade cut-out. On the other hand, in a more osteoporotic femoral head characterised by a density corresponding to 75% of the initial bone density, local bone compaction around the helical blade provides additional bone purchase, thereby decreasing the risk of cut-out, as quantified by the volume of bone susceptible to yielding.Our findings indicate benefits of using a PFNA over an intramedullary nail with a conventional lag screw and suggest that any clinical trial reporting surgical outcomes regarding the use of helical blades should include a measure of the femoral head bone density as a covariable.
- Muscle 'regenerative potential' determinesphysical recovery following total knee replacement. [Journal Article]
- Bone Joint Res 2013; 2(4):70-8.
Lower limb muscle power is thought to influence outcome following total knee replacement (TKR). Post-operative deficits in muscle strength are commonly reported, although not explained. We hypothesised that post-operative recovery of lower limb muscle power would be influenced by the number of satellite cells in the quadriceps muscle at time of surgery.Biopsies were obtained from 29 patients undergoing TKR. Power output was assessed pre-operatively and at six and 26 weeks post-operatively with a Leg Extensor Power Rig and data were scaled for body weight. Satellite cell content was assessed in two separate analyses, the first cohort (n = 18) using immunohistochemistry and the second (n = 11) by a new quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) protocol for Pax-7 (generic satellite cell marker) and Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM; marker of activated cells).A significant improvement in power output was observed post-operatively with a mean improvement of 19.7 W (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.43 to 30.07; p < 0.001) in the first cohort and 27.5 W (95% CI 13.2 to 41.9; p = 0.002) in the second. A strong correlation was noted between satellite cell number (immunohistochemistry) and improvement in patient power output (r = 0.64, p = 0.008). Strong correlation was also observed between the expression of Pax-7 and power output (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), and the expression of NCAM and power output (r = 0.84, p = 0.001). The generic marker explained 58% of the variation in power output, and the marker of activated cells 67%.Muscle satellite cell content may determine improvement in lower limb power generation (and thus function) following TKR.
- The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire(MOXFQ): Development and validation of a summary index score. [Journal Article]
- Bone Joint Res 2013; 2(4):66-9.
The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score.The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three domains of the MOXFQ (pain, walking/standing and social interaction) were subjected to higher order factor analysis. Reliability and validity of the summary index score was assessed.The mean age of the participants was 52.8 years (sd 15.68; 18 to 89). Higher order principle components factor analysis produced one factor, accounting for 74.7% of the variance. The newly derived single index score was found to be internally reliable (α = 0.93) and valid, achieving at least moderate correlations (r ≥ 0.5, p < 0.001) with related (pain/function) domains of the SF-36.Analyses indicated that data from the MOXFQ can be presented in summary form. The MOXFQ summary index score (MOXFQ-Index) provides an overall indication of the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Furthermore, the single index reduces the number of statistical comparisons, and hence the role of chance, when exploring MOXFQ data.