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BMC Urol [journal]
- Sequential bilateral testicular tumours presenting with intervals of 20 years and more. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Dec 9; 13(1):71.
About 3 - 5% of all patients with testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) develop a contralateral cancer, the majority of which arise within 10-15 years. Little is known about the risk of second GCTs after more than two decades. Here we present 3 cases with very late presenting contralateral GCT and provide a summary of similar cases reported previously.Case presentations: (1)This white Caucasian man underwent right-sided orchiectomy for a nonseminomatous GCT at the age of 22 years. Additional treatment consisted of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and chemotherapy with 4 cycles of vinblastin / bleomycin. 36 years later, contralateral seminoma clinical stage 1 developed. Cure was achieved by orchiectomy. Histologically, testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN; intratubular germ cell neoplasia) was detected in the tumour-surrounding tissue.(2)This white Caucasian male had right-sided orchiectomy for nonseminomatous GCT at the age of 29 years. Pathological stage 1 was confirmed by RPLND. 25 years later, he received left sided orchiectomy for seminoma stage 1. Histologically, TIN was found in the tissue adjacent to seminoma. Two brothers had testicular GCT, too, one with bilateral GCT. (3) This 21 year old white Caucasian man underwent left-sided orchiectomy for nonseminomatous GCT. Pathological stage 1 was confirmed by RPLND. 21 years later, he received organ-preserving excision of a right-sided seminoma, followed by BEP chemotherapy for stage 3 disease. Histologically, TIN was found in the surrounding testicular tissue.22 cases of bilateral GCT with intervals of 20 or more years have previously been reported, thereof three with intervals of more than 30 years, the longest interval being 40 years.Apart from increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and non-testicular malignancies, patients with GCT face the specific probability of a second GCT in the long run. This risk persists life-long and is not eliminated by chemotherapy. Contralateral testicular biopsy can identify patients at risk by revealing precursor cells of GCT though false-negative biopsies may occur sporadically. However, in view of the multi-facetted late hazards of GCT patients, this minor surgical procedure might somewhat simplify the long-time care of these patients.
- Neuromodulation attenuates bladder hyperactivity in a rat cystitis model. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:70.
We investigated the regulation of urinary bladder function by electrical stimulation of the L6 spinal nerve (SN) using cystometry in normal rats and in rats with cystitis induced by intravesical infusion of dilute acetic acid.In anesthetized rats, a cannula was placed into the bladder dome for saline/acetic acid infusion and intravesical pressure monitoring. Threshold pressure (TP), basal pressure (BP) and inter-contraction interval (ICI) were measured from the bladder pressure recording and void volume (VV) was measured by weighing the voided fluid.Comparison of cystometrograms obtained with infusion of saline or acetic acid showed that acetic acid decreases TP, ICI and VV. These excitatory effects, characteristic of acetic acid induced bladder hyperactivity, were significantly reversed by bilateral SN stimulation (P <0.05, vs pre-stimulation, Student t-test). In saline perfused rats, one hour of bilateral SN stimulation at 10 Hz and at motor threshold (0.19 ± 0.01 milliamps) increased ICI (265%) and VV (217%). In rats perfused with acetic acid, the corresponding increases produced by SN stimulation were 350% for ICI and 383% for VV. The percentage increases in the acetic acid-treated group were not significantly higher than those in saline-treated group.Using continuous flow cystyometry, we find that SN stimulation can produce effects on micturition consistent with its effects on isovolumetric model, and consistent with the therapeutic effect observed with InterStim® therapy in overactive bladder patients. Although the effect of SN stimulation was slightly greater in bladder irritated over normal rats, the difference was not statistically significant.
- Metachronous renal vein and artery injure after percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Dec 5; 13(1):69.
Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy is important approach for kidney stones removal. A percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube placement is an effective method to stop venous bleeding. Occasionally, the catheter can pierce into the renal parenchyma, and migrate into the renal vein even to the vena cava.A 66-year-old woman underwent a percutaneous nephrostolithotomy for kidney staghorn stone complicating severe bleeding. A computed tomography angiography showed the percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube inside the renal vein. The percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube was withdrawn 3 cm back to the renal parenchyma/sinus/pelvis in stages with the surgical team on standby. Seven days later, the patient developed severe hematuria. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated the pseudoaneurysm located near the percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube. Pseudoaneurysm is embolized successfully.Our case shows intravenous misplacement of the nephrostomy tube and subsequent pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous nephrostolithotomy. To our knowledge, this seems to be the first documentation of major bleeding from the injury to both renal vein and artery. The percutaneous nephrostomy drainage tube can be withdrawn back to the renal parenchyma/sinus/pelvis in stages with the surgical team on standby, and the withdrawn distance may vary according to patient and catheter position.
- The impact of real-time 3d imaging by ultra-high speed optical coherence tomography in urothelial carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:65.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a promising diagnostic tool in many medical fields. In particular, noninvasive real-time optical biopsy of internal organs is one of the most attractive applications of OCT, enabling in situ diagnosis of carcinoma at an early stage. We used an ultra-high speed OCT system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging of three excised specimens of advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) and investigated the association of the images with results from histopathological examination.Case 1 was a 69-year-old man underwent radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive UC (pT2). Case 2 was a 53-year-old man underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and partial cystectomy for left ureter carcinoma (pT2) and case 3 was a 77-year-old woman underwent radical cystectomy for advanced bladder carcinoma (pT3b). Real-time 3D OCT images of normal bladder wall and ureter showed three layers, including the urothelium, lamina propria, and muscularis layer. In contrast, normal structure was not seen in the muscle-invasive UC area or the scar tissue area.This study highlighted a new diagnostic method with potential application for UC diagnosis. We will investigate more cases in the future and expect improvement in the diagnosing efficiency of carcinoma in situ or organ-confined muscle-invasive cancer by cystoscopy or ureteroscopy with ultra-high speed OCT.
- Severe hematuria after transurethral electrocoagulation in a patient with an arteriovesical fistula. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Dec 1; 13(1):68.
Arteriovesical fistulas are extremely rare. Only eleven cases were previously reported in the literature. They can occur iatrogenically, traumatically or spontaneously.We report an unusual case of a 62-year-old woman with arteriovesical fistula that developed fatal hematuria after transurethral electrocoagulation. Computed tomography (CT) and selective angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the right superior vesical artery with arteriovesical fistula formation, which was managed by transarterial embolization.Contrast enhanced CT or CT angiography should be performed when a pulsatile hemorrhage is revealed during cystoscopy. Therapeutic vesical arterial embolization should be considered as a safe and effective procedure for arteriovesical fistulas. Transurethral electrocoagulation may cause severe hematuria for pulsatile bladder bleeding in patients with pelvic vascular malformation.
- Relationships between perioperative physical activity and urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: an observational study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:67.
Higher physical activity levels are continence-protective in non-prostate cancer populations. Primary aims of this study were to investigate changes in physical activity levels over the perioperative period in patients having radical prostatectomy, and relationships between perioperative physical activity levels and post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence.A prospective analysis of patients having radical prostatectomy and receiving perioperative physiotherapy including pelvic floor muscle training and physical activity prescription (n = 33). Physical activity levels were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and/or the SenseWear Pro3 Armband at four timepoints: before preoperative physiotherapy, the week before surgery, and 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Urinary incontinence was measured at 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively using a 24-hour pad test and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ).Physical activity levels changed significantly over the perioperative period (p < 0.001). At 6 weeks postoperatively, physical activity levels did not differ significantly from baseline (p = 0.181), but remained significantly lower than the week before surgery (p = 0.002). There was no significant interaction effect between preoperative physical activity category and time on the 24-hour pad test (p = 0.726) or ICIQ (p = 0.608). Nor were there any significant correlations between physical activity levels and the 24-hour pad test and ICIQ at 3 or 6 weeks postoperatively.This study provides novel data on perioperative physical activity levels for patients having radical prostatectomy. There was no relationship between perioperative physical activity levels and post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence, although participants had high overall preoperative physical activity levels and low overall urinary incontinence.
- An unusual delayed complication of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:66.
Penile self-injection of various oils is still carried out among Eastern Europe people for penile girth augmentation despite the potential destructive complications of this practice are well known. Penile reactions to such foreign bodies include scarring, abscess formation, ulceration, and even Fournier's gangrene; voiding problems due to mineral oil self-injection have been reported only once. To our knowledge, we describe the first case of paraffin self-injection for penile girth augmentation presenting with acute urinary retention.A 27-year-old Romanian man presented with severe penile pain and acute urinary retention five years after having practiced repeated penile self-injections of paraffin for penile girth augmentation. The penile shaft was massively enlarged, fibrotic and phymotic; urethral catheterization failed due to severe stricture of the proximal pendulum urethra. The patients refused placement of a suprapubic catheter and underwent immediate penile surgical exploration. The scarred tissue between dartos and Buck's fascia and a fibrotic ring occluding the urethra were removed and the penile skin reconstructed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of paraffinoma. The patient resumed normal voiding immediately after catheter removal on second postoperative day; he was very pleased with cosmetic, sexual and voiding results at six weeks, six months and 1 year follow-up.The present report describes a novel complication of penile self-injection for penile girth augmentation. Because of the increasing number of patients seeking penile augmentation, physicians dealing with sexual medicine should pay more attention to such request to prevent the use of non medical treatments that can turn into medical disasters.
- Experience of treating high risk prostate hyperplasia patients with a HPS120 laser. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:64.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of 120 watt PVP surgery for the high risk prostate hyperplasia patients.120 watt PVP surgery was performed on 120 cases of high risk prostate hyperplasia patients. The assessment included the operation time, energy consumed, hemoglobin changes, and serum salt concentration, whether to keep urinary catheter, hospitalization time, and complications after the operation. International Prostate Symptom Scoring (IPSS), the maximum urine flow rate (Qmax) and residual urine volume (RUV) were conducted preoperatively and postoperatively for the patients.There were 30% of patients taking oral anti-coagulant drug (n = 36), 88 cases with abnormal ECGs. All the patient's internal diseases, include the cardiovascular disease (42/120), the hypertension (56/120), the respiratory system diseases (51/120), the cerebrovascular diseases (39/120), anemia (24/120), liver or kidney dysfunction (16/120), diabetes (18/120), hypoproteinemia (15/120) were under controlled. The average age, prostate volume and energy consumed was 82.8 ± 8.6 (70-96) years, 66.1 ± 25.3 (30-160) ml, and 224 ± 85 (31-596) kJ respectively. The average follow-up time was 20.8 ± 3.2 (18-24) months. The incidence of bladder neck contracture and urethral stricture were 1.7% and 0.8% respectively, no prostate cancer occurred during the subsequent follow-up period.120 watt PVP surgery can safely and effectively alleviate the urination parameters of high risk prostate hyperplasia patients. The surgical process is safe and effective, and is not affected by the various internal diseases or the use of oral anti-coagulant drugs.
- Morphometric profile of the localised renal tumors managed either by open or robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgery: the impact of scoring systems on the decision making process. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:63.
Nephrometric scoring systems aim to improve the manner in which tumoral complexity is measured and reported. Each system provides a way to objectively measure specific tumor features that influence technical feasibility. In this study we aimed to determine how nephrometric scoring systems tailored our approach to the surgical treatment of localised renal masses.Charts of the patients with localised renal tumors, who were managed by either open or robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgery between May 2010 and June 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Nephrometric scores [radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness, anterior/posterior, location (R.E.N.A.L.) score, preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic (P.A.D.U.A.) classification and centrality index (C-index)] were calculated based on preoperative imaging findings. Perioperative data were recorded. Morphometric characteristics of the renal masses were compared. Additionally, the difference between surgical alternative subgroups in terms of morphometric variables and the predictive power of each scoring system in determining the details of the surgical plan were investigated. Furthermore, surgical preferences in different nephrometric categories were compared.Mean R.E.N.A.L. and P.A.D.U.A. scores of the tumors treated with robotic surgery were significantly lower than those managed by open surgery. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score showed significant differences between most of the surgical alternative subgroups. P.A.D.U.A. and C-index differences were significant only between robotic off-clamp and open clamped cases. Tumors that required open conversion had significantly higher mean R.E.N.A.L. and P.A.D.U.A. score. High R.E.N.A.L. score (cut-off: 6.5) and high P.A.D.U.A. score (cut-off: 7.5) were found to be significant predictors of the surgical route. Significantly more tumors with moderate R.E.N.A.L. score were managed through the open approach, while the significant majority of those with low R.E.N.A.L. and low P.A.D.U.A. score were operated by robotic assistance.R.E.N.A.L. and P.A.D.U.A. scores influenced our surgical treatment strategy for localized renal masses. High R.E.N.A.L. and P.A.D.U.A. scores increased the likelihood of an open NSS.
- Recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 activates satellite cells in the mouse urethral rhabdosphincter. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:62.
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of urinary incontinence by stimulation of urethral rhabdosphincter satellite cells. We show that satellite cells do exist in the sphincter muscle of retired male mice breeders by staining for c-Met, a satellite cell specific protein. Once activated by recombinant mouse Insulin-like Growth Factor-1(rIgf-1), the satellite cells develop into muscle cells within the rhabdosphincter thereby potentially strengthening it.20 μl (1 μg/μl) of rIgf-1 was surgically injected directly into the urethral wall of retired male mouse breeders. Mice injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were used as controls. 4 weeks later, urethras were harvested and serially-sectioned through the sphincter for routine hematoxylin-eosin staining as well as immunohistochemical staining with satellite cell specific anti-c-Met antibody and proliferation specific anti-Ki-67 antibody.Anti-c-Met antibody positive cells (c-Met+) were identified in the rhabdosphincter. c-Met+ cells increased by 161.8% relative to controls four weeks after rIGF-1 injection. Anti- Ki-67 antibody positive cells were identified and characterized as cells with centrally located nuclei in striated muscle bundles of rIGF-1 treated animals.Satellite cells in the mouse rhabdosphincter can be activated by rIGF-1 treatment, which subsequently are incorporated into existing skeletal muscle bundles. Using this approach, the rhabdosphincter can be induced to regenerate and potentially strengthen via satellite cell activation and likely improve urinary continence.