BMC Urol [journal]
- Clinical importance of the antibiotic regimen in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy: quinolone versus cephalosporin. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):51.
Quinolone is recommended as an antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent infectious complication after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy, but the increased appearance of quinolone-resistant organism has raised concerns about the efficacy of quinolone. The current study was performed to evaluate various clinical factors including antimicrobial regimens associated with infectious complication after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.The medical records of 5215 patients who underwent a multicore transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy between May 2003 and January 2013 at our institution were reviewed. We analyzed clinical variables including prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score, antimicrobial regimen, prostate size, and number of biopsy cores. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of infection-related hospitalization after prostate biopsy were performed.The mean age and median prostate-specific antigen of the entire cohort were 66 years and 6.4 ng/ml, respectively. Twenty-eight (0.54 %) patients developed an infectious complication after prostate biopsy that required hospitalization. Patients who received prophylactic quinolone showed a higher infectious hospitalization rate than patients who received prophylactic third-generation cephalosporin (1.5 vs. 0.3 %; p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the International Prostate Symptom Score (odds ratio = 3.18, 95 % confidence interval 1.24-8.13, p = 0.016) and the use of third-generation cephalosporin (odds ratio = 0.21, 95 % confidence interval 0.10-0.44, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of infection-related hospitalization after prostate biopsy.With the emergence of quinolone-resistant microorganisms, third-generation cephalosporin may effectively reduce the risk of infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Severe lower urinary tract symptoms may also be an independent risk factor for infection-related hospitalization after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.
- Physical activity before radical prostatectomy reduces sick leave after surgery - results from a prospective, non-randomized controlled clinical trial (LAPPRO). [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):50.
Studies have reported that early physical rehabilitation after surgical procedures is associated with improved outcome measured as shorter hospital stay and enhanced recovery. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the preoperative physical activity level and subsequent postoperative complications, sick-leave and hospital stay after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in the setting of the LAPPRO trial (LAParoscopic Prostatectomy Robot Open).LAPPRO is a prospective controlled trial, comparing robot-assisted laparoscopic and open surgery for localized prostate cancer between 2008 and 2011. 1569 patients aged 64 or less with an occupation were included in this sub-study. The Gleason score was <7 in 52 % of the patients. Demographics and the level of self-assessed preoperative physical activity, length of hospital stay, complications, quality of life, recovery and sick-leave were extracted from clinical record forms and questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression, with log-link and logit-link functions, was used to adjust for potential confounding variables.The patients were divided into four groups based on their level of activity. As the group with lowest engagement of physical activity was found to be significantly different in base line characteristics from the other groups they were excluded from further analysis. Among patients that were physically active preoperativelly (n = 1467) there was no significant difference between the physical activity-groups regarding hospital stay, recovery or complications. However, in the group with the highest self-assessed level of physical activity, 5-7 times per week, 13 % required no sick leave, compared to 6.3 % in the group with a physical activity level of 1-2 times per week only (p < 0.0001).In our study of med operated with radical prostatectomy, a high level of physical activity preoperatively was associated with reduced need for sick leave after radical prostatectomy compared to men with lower physical activity.The trial is registered at the ISCRTN register. ISRCTN06393679 .
- The combination of herbal medicine Weng-li-tong with Tolterodine may be better than Tolterodine alone in the treatment of overactive bladder in women: a randomized placebo-controlled prospective trial. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):49.
To assess the efficacy and safety of the herbal medicine, Weng-li-tong (WLT) as monotherapy or combined with tolterodine in women with overactive bladder (OAB).A prospective, randomized, single-blind multi-center trial was performed which included 182 OAB patients treated with either placebo (n = 26), WLT (n = 52), tolterodine (n = 52) or WLT plus tolterodine (n = 52). The overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and micturition behavior were measured to evaluate treatment efficacy.In total, 146 patients [placebo (n = 23), WLT (n = 39), tolterodine (n = 41) and WLT plus tolterodine (n = 43)] completed 8 weeks of treatment. Compared to those treated with placebo, patients in three intervention groups showed significant improvements in the OABSS, voiding frequency, average voided volume and urgency incontinence. WLT had a slower onset than tolterodine or combination therapy in reducing urgency incontinence. Compared with tolterodine, WLT had a weaker effect in improving OABSS (P = 0.022) and daily voiding frequency (P = 0.034). The combination therapy had better efficacy than WLT or tolterodine alone in improving the OABSS, voiding frequency and voided volume. No significant differences in the changes in quality of life scores were observed among the three intervention groups. Residual urine increased significantly in tolterodine group (P = 0.004), but not in combination group. WLT resulted in fewer adverse effects than tolterodine such as dry mouth (P = 0.002), weak stream (P = 0.002) and less residual urine (P < 0.001).WLT could improve OAB symptoms in women, while it had slower onset and weaker efficacy but fewer adverse effects than tolterodine. The combination of WLT and tolterodine was more efficacious than tolterodine alone in improving OAB symptoms.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry [ ChiCTR-IPR-14005626 ]. Date of registration: 7 December 2014.
- 10-Year experience regarding the reliability and morbidity of radio guided lymph node biopsy in penile cancer patients and the associated radiation exposure of medical staff in this procedure. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):47.
The guidelines of the European Association of Urologists (EAU), of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN), and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for lymph node staging in penile cancer with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes as one diagnostic method. Despite this, the method is neither widely nor regularly applied in Germany - the same applies to many other countries, which may be due to insecurity in dealing with open radioactive tracers. This study aims to assess the reliability and morbidity of this method, as well as the associated radioactive burden for clinical staff.Between 2006 and 2016, 34 patients with an invasive penile carcinoma and inconspicuous inguinal lymph node status underwent SLNB in 57 groins after application of a radiotracer (Tc-99 m nanocolloid). We collected the results prospectively. The reliability of the method was assessed by determining the false-negative rate. In addition, we evaluated complication rates and determined the radioactive burden for the clinical staff both pre- and intraoperatively.SLNB was performed in 34 patients with penile cancer with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes in 57 groins. In two patients inguinal lymph node metastases were detected by means of SLNB. In one patient recurrent inguinal lymph node disease was found after negative SLNB in both groins. Thus, the false negative rate was 3.13 % per patient (1/32 patients) and 3.51 % per groin (2/57 groins). The morbidity rate was 2.94 % per patient (1/34 patients) and 1.75 % per groin (1/57 groins). Radiation exposure for the clinical staff during this procedure was low at a maximum of ca. four μSV per intervention.SLNB is a reliable method with low morbidity that is associated with a low radiation burden for clinical staff. Due to the enhanced methodological and logistic demands, this intervention should be performed in specialized centres and in an interdisciplinary approach.
- Quality of life effects of androgen deprivation therapy in a prostate cancer cohort in New Zealand: can we minimize effects using a stratification based on the aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 rs12529 gene polymorphism? [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):48.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective palliation treatment in men with advanced prostate cancer (PC). However, ADT has well documented side effects that could alter the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The current study aims to test whether a genetic stratification could provide better knowledge for optimising ADT options to minimize HRQoL effects.A cohort of 206 PC survivors (75 treated with and 131 without ADT) was recruited with written consent to collect patient characteristics, clinical data and HRQoL data related to PC management. The primary outcomes were the percentage scores under each HRQoL subscale assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaires (QLQ-C30 and PR25) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales developed by the University of Melbourne, Australia. Genotyping of these men was carried out for the aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (AKR1C3) rs12529 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Analysis of HRQoL scores were carried out against ADT duration and in association with the AKR1C3 rs12529 SNP using the generalised linear model. P-values <0 · 05 were considered significant, and were further tested for restriction with Bonferroni correction.Increase in hormone treatment-related effects were recorded with long-term ADT compared to no ADT. The C and G allele frequencies of the AKR1C3rs12529 SNP were 53·4 % and 46·6 % respectively. Hormone treatment-related symptoms showed an increase with ADT when associated with the AKR1C3 rs12529 G allele. Meanwhile, decreasing trends on cancer-specific symptoms and increased sexual interest were recorded with no ADT when associated with the AKR1C3 rs12529 G allele and reverse trends with the C allele. As higher incidence of cancer-specific symptoms relate to cancer retention it is possible that associated with the C allele there could be higher incidence of unresolved cancers under no ADT options.If these findings can be reproduced in larger homogeneous cohorts, a genetic stratification based on the AKR1C3 rs12529 SNP, can minimize ADT-related HRQoL effects in PC patients. Our data additionally show that with this stratification it could also be possible to identify men needing ADT for better oncological advantage.
- A Korean multi-center, real-world, retrospective study of first-line pazopanib in unselected patients with metastatic renal clear-cell carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):46.
The efficacy and/or tolerability of pazopanib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have been found to differ in Western and Asian populations. This retrospective multicenter study analyzed the results of first-line pazopanib treatment in 93 consecutive patients with mRCC who were treated at the medical oncology departments of three tertiary cancer centers in Seoul, Korea.The decision to administer pazopanib as first-line therapy was at the discretion of the treating physician in all patients with mRCC. Patients enrolled in clinical trials were excluded to ensure that the results would reflect real-world outcomes representative of daily clinical settings. All patients received 800 mg/day pazopanib. Outcomes included response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety.The 93 patients included72 (77 %) male and 21 (23 %) female individuals, of median age 65 years (range, 19-84 years). The median number of metastatic sites per patient was two (range, 1-5), with the lungs being the most frequently involved site. Most patients had favorable (n = 46) or intermediate (n = 36) risk as determined by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center criteria. Pazopanib was generally welltolerated: the major hematologic adverse effect was grade 1/2 anemia (14 %); and the most frequently observed non-hematologic toxicity was grade 1/2 mucositis (22 %), followed by hair discoloration and hypertension. Of the 93 patients, three (3 %) showed complete response, 52 (56 %) showed partial response, and 21 (23 %) showed stable disease, making the objective response rate 59 % and the disease control rate 82 %. At a median follow-up of 21 months, the estimated median PFS and OS were 12.2 months (95 % confidence interval, 7.1-17.4 months) and 21.9 months (95 % confidence interval, 12.9-30.9 months), respectively.In this retrospective study, first-line therapy with pazopanib demonstrated clinically relevant efficacy and tolerability in unselected real-world Korean patients with mRCC. OS and PFS of these Korean patients were similar to those reported in phase III trials.
- The efficacy of mirabegron additional therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms after treatment with α1-adrenergic receptor blocker monotherapy: prospective analysis of elderly men. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):45.
Mirabegron is a β3-adrenoreceptor agonist developed for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). α1-Adrenergic receptor blockers are effective for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in male patients. However, the efficacy of mirabegron additional treatment in elderly male patients with persistent male LUTS, especially in OAB after monotherapy with α1-adrenergic blockers, is not fully understood.This study was conducted in male LUTS patients who were ≥ 65 years of age and had persistent OAB symptoms, regardless of whether they took an α1-adrenergic receptor blocker orally. Before and 12 weeks after mirabegron additional therapy (50 mg once daily), we evaluated the efficacy of this treatment using the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and changes in the maximum flow rate (Qmax) and post-void residual urine volume (PVR). We evaluated patients overall and divided into two groups by age: young-old (from 65 to 74 years old) and old-old (from 75 to 84 years old).Fifty men were enrolled in this study. Mirabegron additional therapy improved the total OABSS, total IPSS, and IPSS-quality of life (QOL) score. The voided volume (VV) and Qmax improved after treatment in patients overall. However, there was no significant change in PVR. The total OABSS, total IPSS, and IPSS-QOL score significantly improved in both of the young-old and old-old groups. However, a significant increasing of VV was detected in the young-old group. There were no significant differences in the Qmax or PVR in either group.Mirabegron additional therapy was effective for male patients whose persistent LUTS and particularly OAB was not controlled with α1-adrenergic receptor blocker monotherapy, and mirabegron did not have negative effects on voiding function. Additionally, mirabegron additional therapy was considered effective regardless of patient age.Trial registration number (TRN) trial registration number (TRN) and date of registration: ISRCTN16759097 in July 8, 2016.
- MMP9 overexpression is associated with good surgical outcome in children with UPJO: Preliminary results. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):44.
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) diagnosed prenatally occurs in 1:150 - 1:1200 pregnancies. Although many studies investigating the molecular changes of this obstructed segment have been performed, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The role of extracellular matrix (ECM) components remains controversial, and the investigations in the field of ECM changes, might help the better understanding of the pathogenesis of this common condition. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time in the literature whether MMP9 and its specific inhibitors, TIMP1 and RECK, are expressed in a reproducible, specific pattern in UPJ.UPJO specimens were obtained from 16 children at the time of dismembered pyeloplasty due to intrinsic UPJ stenosis. Expression levels of the three genes (MMP9, TIMP1 and RECK) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then correlated the expression levels of the genes according to grade study population that was divided in 2 categories according to Society of Fetal Urology classification, grade 3 (moderate) and 4 (severe). For DTPA we subdivided the childrens in 2 groups, obstructive (T 1/2 more than 20 min) and partial obstructive (T 1/2 between 10 and 20 min) and success in a surgery was defined as decrease in T 1/2 to less than 20 min, absence of symptoms, improving renal function and decreasing dilatation on successive exams.MMP9 was underexpressed and TIMP1 and RECK were overexpressed in children with obstructive DTPA but the differences were not statistically significant. Overexpression of MMP9 was higher among patients with severe grade of UPJ compared to those with moderate grade. Surprisingly expression levels of MMP-9 was three times higher in children who were successfully treated by surgery (n = 10) (p = 0.072), so those who were followed for at least 1 year after surgery and remained with improvement in renal function and decreasing dilation on intravenous urogram and TIMP-1 was underexpressed in 100 % of this cases (p = 0.00).We showed an increase in expression of MMP9 and a decrease in expression of TIMP1 in children who improving renal function and decreasing dilation after surgery. We believe that the higher expression of MMP9 in these cases can reflect an increase in degradation and remodeling process that could be used as a marker for surgical outcome.
- Multi-disciplinary surgical approach to the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus: 15 year experience and lessons learned. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):43.
The management of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) is challenging. We report our 15 year experience in the management of patients with RCC with VTT utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach, highlighting improved total and specifically Clavien III-V complication rates.We reviewed the records of 146 consecutive patients who underwent radical nephrectomy with venous thrombectomy between 1998 and 2012. Data on patient history, staging, surgical techniques, morbidity, and survival were analyzed. Additionally, complication rates between two surgical eras, 1998-2006 and 2006-2012, were assessed.The study included 146 patients, 97 males (66 %), and a median age of 61 years (range, 24-83). Overall complications rate was 53 %, high grade complications (Clavien III -V) occurred in 10 % of patients. Most importantly, there was a lower incidence of overall and high grade complications (45 % and 8 %, respectively) in the last 6 years compared to the earlier surgeries included in the study (67 % and 13 % respectively) [p = .008 and .03, respectively). 30 day postoperative mortality was 2.7 %. 5 year overall survival (5Y- OS) and 5 year cancer specific survival (5Y- CSS) were 51 % and 40 %, respectively. Metastasis was the only independent predictor factor for CSS (HR 3.8, CI 1.9-7.6 and p < .001) and OS (HR 2.6, CI 1.5-4.7 and p = .001) in all patients.Our data suggest that patients with RCC and VTT can be treated safely utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach leading to a decrease in complication rates.
- Obesity is associated with increased risk of invasive penile cancer. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):42.
To validate the association between obesity and penile cancer at a population level, we conducted a matched case-control study linking the Iowa Department of Motor Vehicles Drivers' License Database (DLD) with cancer surveillance data collected by the State Health Registry of Iowa (SHRI).All men diagnosed with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1985 to 2010 were identified by SHRI. Two hundred sixty-six cancer cases and 816 cancer-free male controls, selected from the Iowa DLD, were matched within 5-year age and calendar year strata. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight from the DLD.Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of developing invasive penile cancer. Obesity was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing penile cancer. For every five-unit increase in BMI the risk of invasive penile cancer increased by 53 % (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.29-1.81, p < 0.0001).We previously reported an association between obesity and higher risk of invasive penile cancer and advanced cancer stage at diagnosis in a hospital-based retrospective study. This population-based study confirms an association between obesity and invasive penile cancer.