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BMC Urol [journal]
- Effectiveness of preoperative pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Dec 16; 14(1):99.
Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most common treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer. Urinary incontinence (UI) is a significant bothersome sequela after radical prostatectomy that may dramatically worsen a patient's quality of life. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the main conservation treatment for men experiencing urinary incontinence; however, whether additional preoperative PFMT can hasten the reestablishment of continence is still unclear. The objective of this meta-analysis is to determine whether the effectiveness of preoperative plus postoperative PFMT is better than postoperative PFMT only for the re-establishment of continence after RP.A meta-analysis was performed after a comprehensive search of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Quality of the included studies was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Efficacy data were pooled and analyzed using Review Manager (RevMan) Version 5.0. Pooled analyses of continence rates 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were conducted. For data deemed not appropriate for synthesis, a narrative overview was conducted.Five eligible studies were ultimately included in this analysis. No significant differences in continence rates were detected at the early (1- and 3-month) time points: RR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.71-2.08, P = 0.48; RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.09-1.34, P = 0.34, respectively), interim (6-month time point: RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.93-1.04, P = 0.59), or late recovery stage (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.67-1.29, P = 0.66). Outcomes reported were time to continence in two trials and quality of life in three, but results were inconclusive because of insufficient data.According to this meta-analysis, additional preoperative PFMT did not improve the resolution of UI after RP at early (<=3-month), interim (6-month), or late (1-year) recovery stages. However, the results of time to continence and quality of life were inconclusive because of insufficient data. More high-quality RCTs are needed for better evaluation of the effectiveness of preoperative PFMT on post-prostatectomy UI.
- Partial Segmental Thrombosis of the Corpus Cavernosum (PSTCC) diagnosed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Dec 17; 14(1):100.
Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum (PSTCC) is a rare disease predominantly occurring in young men. Cardinal symptoms are pain and perineal swelling. Although several risk factors are described in the literature, the exact etiology of penile thrombosis remains unclear in most cases. MRI or ultrasound (US) is usually used for diagnosing this condition.We report a case of penile thrombosis after left-sided varicocele ligature in a young patient. The diagnosis was established using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and was confirmed by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ceMRI). Successful conservative treatment consisted of systemic anticoagulation using low molecular weight heparin and acetylsalicylic acid.PSTCC is a rare condition in young men and appears with massive pain and perineal swelling. In case of suspected PSTCC utilization of CEUS may be of diagnostic benefit.
- Black and White men younger than 50 years of age demonstrate similar outcomes after radical prostatectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Dec 11; 14(1):98.
Black men with prostate cancer are diagnosed at a younger age, present with more aggressive disease, and experience higher mortality. We sought to assess pathological features and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in young men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) to determine if there is a difference between black and white men closer to the time of disease initiation.We identified 551 white and 99 black men at a tertiary cancer center who underwent RP at <=50 years of age. Baseline and pathological features were compared between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to examine the association of race and BCR, and Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to determine biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS).There were no differences in median age at surgery, biopsy Gleason score, or comorbidity. Black men had higher preoperative PSA (6.1 ng/ml vs 4.7 ng/ml, p = 0.004), but a greater percentage were cT1c (78% vs 63%), compared to white men. On multivariate analysis, black men demonstrated significantly lower odds of non-organ confined disease (OR 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.81; p = 0.01) and extracapsular extension (ECE) (OR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.81, p = 0.01), and had no difference in Gleason score upgrading and seminal vesicle invasion compared to white men. There was no significant difference in bRFS in men with organ-confined disease; however, among men with locally advanced disease black men trended towards greater BCR (p = 0.052). Black men had 2-year bRFS of 56% vs 75% in white men.In this single institution study, there does not appear to be a racial disparity in outcomes among younger men who receive RP for prostate cancer. Black and white men in our cohort demonstrate similar bRFS with pathologically confirmed organ-confined disease. There may be greater risk of BCR among black men locally advanced disease compared to white men, suggesting that locally advanced disease is biologically more aggressive in black men.
- Oncologic results of Nephron sparing endoscopic approach for upper tract low grade transitional cell carcinoma in comparison to nephroureterectomy - a case control study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):97.
There is paucity of data as to the results of the endoscopic approach in comparison to the golden standard of nephro-ureterectomy in elective, low grade TCC, patients. Our purpose is to report our results of a nephron sparing approach compared to nephro-ureterectomy in those patients.From a retrospective data base we identified 25 patients and 23 patients who underwent a nephron sparing ureterosocpic resection and nephro-reterectomy for low grade UT-TCC, respectively. The endoscopic technique included endoscopic tumor biopsy followed by primary resection and/or fulguration. The nephron sparing group was followed by bi-annual ureteroscopy and upper tract imaging, timely cystoscopy and urine cytology collection. Data for overall and disease related mortality, bladder and ureteral TCC recurrence and renal function are reported in both groups.Median follow - up time was 26 months. 11 (44%) patients developed bladder recurrence at a median period of 9 months after initial ureteroscopy, compared to 9 (39%) in the NUx group (P < 0.05). Recurrent ureteral low grade TCC was observed in 9 patients (median: 9 months). All were treated endoscopicaly successfully. Renal function remained stable in the nephron sparing group. No disease related mortality was recorded in the nephron-sparing group while one patient died of his disease following NUx.Disease related mortality following a nephron sparing endoscopic approach or nephroureterectomy for low grade upper tract TCC is excellent. However, the nephron sparing approach is associated with a relatively high rate of ureteral and bladder recurrence. Therefore, a stringent follow-up protocol is required.
- A rare case of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia accompanied by hypokalaemic periodic paralysis caused by a novel dominant mutation in CACNA1S: features and prognosis after adrenalectomy. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):96.
Acute hypokalaemic paralysis is characterised by acute flaccid muscle weakness and has a complex aetiological spectrum. Herein we report, for the first time, a case of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia accompanied by hypokalaemic periodic paralysis type I resulting from a novel dominant mutation in CACNA1S. We present the clinical features and prognosis after adrenalectomy in this case.A 43-year-old Han Chinese male presented with severe hypokalaemic paralysis that remitted after taking oral potassium. The patient had suffered from periodic attacks of hypokalaemic paralysis for more than 20 years. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed a nodular mass on the left adrenal gland, although laboratory examination revealed the patient had not developed primary aldosteronism. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy 4 days after admission, and the pathological examination further confirmed a 1.1 cm benign nodule at the periphery of the adrenal gland. Three months after the adrenalectomy, a paralytic attack recurred and the patient asked for assistance from the Department of Medical Genetics. His family history showed that two uncles, one brother, and a nephew also had a history of periodic paralysis, although their symptoms were milder. The patient's CACNA1S and SCN4A genes were sequenced, and a novel missense mutation, c.1582C > T (p.Arg528Cys), in CACNA1S was detected. Detection of the mutation in five adult male family members, including three with periodic paralysis and two with no history of the disease, indicated that this mutation caused hypokalaemic periodic paralysis type I in his family. Follow-up 2 years after adrenalectomy showed that the serum potassium concentration was increased between paralyses and the number and severity of paralytic attacks were significantly decreased.We identified a novel dominant mutation, c.1582C > T (p.Arg528Cys), in CACNA1S that causes hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. The therapeutic effect of adrenalectomy indicated that unilateral adrenal hyperplasia might make paralytic attacks more serious and more frequent by decreasing serum potassium. This finding suggests that the surgical removal of hyperplastic tissues might relieve the symptoms of patients with severe hypokalaemic paralysis caused by other incurable diseases, even if the adrenal lesion does not cause primary aldosteronism.
- Prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios, and multiphasic renal tomography findings in histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):95.
To determine the relationship between renal cell carcinoma subtypes and the associated mortality and biochemical parameters. An additional aim was to analyze multiphasic multidetector computed tomography findings.This study is a hospital-based retrospective investigation, using 211 patients with a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma upon computed tomography examination. The histological subtypes included clear cell in 119 patients, chromophobe cell in 30 patients, papillary cell in 25 patients, mixed cell in 32 patients, and sarcomatoid cell in 4 patients.The mean age of the patients participating in this study was 61.18 ± 11.81 years, and the mortality rate was 10.4% (n = 22) through the 2-year follow-up. The ratios of both the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte upon admission to the hospital and platelet-to-lymphocyte of the non-surviving group were significantly higher than those of the surviving group (p < 0.05). When the analysis of the 2-year survival of the patients was examined according to the median platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio values, the Kaplan-Meier survival curves were significantly different between the surviving and non-surviving groups (p = 0.01). In two-way analysis of variance test, statistically significant results which were influenced by mortality (p = 0.028) and were found between renal cell carcinoma subtypes in the computed tomography density of corticomedullary phase (p = 0.001).The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio may represent widely available biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma, and the logistic regression model indicated that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was a significant predictor for mortality. According to the median platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio values, the Kaplan-Meier survival curves were significantly different between the surviving and non-surviving groups.
- Prostatic artery embolization versus conventional TUR-P in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: protocol for a prospective randomized non-inferiority trial. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):94.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent entity in elderly men and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) still represents the gold standard of surgical treatment despite its considerable perioperative morbidity. Recently, prostatic artery embolization (PAE) was described as a novel effective and less invasive treatment alternative. Despite promising first results, PAE still has to be considered experimental due to a lack of good quality studies. Prospective randomized controlled trials comparing PAE with TUR-P are highly warranted.This is a single-centre, prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial comparing treatment effects and adverse events of PAE and TURP in a tertiary referral centre. One hundred patients who are electable for both treatment options are randomized to either PAE or TURP. Changes of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) after 3 months are defined as primary endpoint. Changes in bladder diaries, laboratory analyses, urodynamic investigations and standardised questionnaires are assessed as secondary outcome measures. In addition contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis before and after the interventions will provide crucial information regarding morphological changes and vascularisation of the prostate. Adverse events will be assessed on every follow-up visit in both treatment arms according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse events and the Clavien classification.The aim of this study is to assess whether PAE represents a valid treatment alternative to TURP in patients suffering from BPH in terms of efficacy and safety.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02054013.
- 2-octyl cyanoacrylate versus reintervention for closure of urethrocutaneous fistulae after urethroplasty for hypospadias: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):93.
Urethrocutaneous fistulae (UCFs) represent one of the most frequent causes of morbidity after urethroplasty. Hypospadias can be repaired using different surgical techniques, but-regardless of technique-the incidence of UCF ranges between 10% and 40%. Surgical repair of UCF remains the treatment of choice, even if some patients need further surgery because of recurrences. Cyanoacrylates have been used as skin suture substitutes, and some evidence suggests a beneficial effect when these adhesives are used as an adjuvant in the management of UCF. Here we describe the results of management of UCF using 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) compared with surgical repair.A randomized clinical trial conducted from January 2008 to December 2012 included 42 children with UCF complications after urethroplasty for hypospadias. Twenty-one children were assigned to receive OCA as ambulatory patients and 21 were treated surgically. The main outcome variable was closure of the UCF. The estimated costs of both treatments were also calculated, as were absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction (RRR) and number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent a surgical intervention.The mean numbers of UCF were 1.3 in the OCA group (n = 28) and 1.1 in the surgical group (n = 25) with no statistically significant difference. The external orifices measured were 2.96 ± 1.0 mm and 3.8 ± 0.89 mm, respectively (NS). Sixty per cent of the UCFs treated with cyanoacrylate were completely closed and 68% of the surgical group healed completely (NS). More than one reoperation to improve complications was needed in the surgical group (3.5 ± 1.2). The clinical significance of the therapeutic usefulness of OCA was demonstrated by an ARR of 0.08, RRR of 0.25 and NNT of 12 to avoid further surgical treatment. The total costs of adhesive applications and reoperations were $US 14,809.00 and $US 158,538.50, respectively.The results showed a similar success rate for both treatments. However, sealant use should be considered before surgical treatment because this is a simple outpatient procedure with a reasonable success rate.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02115191. Date: April 13, 2014.
- Staging lymphadenectomy in patients with localized high risk prostate cancer: comparison of the laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) technique with conventional multiport laparoscopy. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):92.
In patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer awaiting radiation therapy, pelvic lymphadenectomy (PL) is a reliable minimally invasive staging procedure. We compared outcomes after laparoendoscopic single site PL (LESSPL) with those after conventional multiport laparoscopic PL (MLPL).A retrospective case-control study was carried out at the authors' center. For LESSPL the reusable X-Cone single port was combined with straight and prebent laparoscopic instruments and an additional 3 mm needlescopic grasper. MLPL was performed via four trocars of different sizes using standard laparoscopic instruments.Patients who underwent either LESSPL (n = 20) or MLPL (n = 97) between January 2008 and July 2013, were included in the study. Demographic data were comparable between groups. Patients in the LESSPL group tended to be older and had a significantly higher ASA-score. The mean operating time was 172.4 ± 34.1 min for LESSPL and 116.6 ± 40.1 min for MLPL (P < .001). During LESSPL, no conversion to MLPL was necessary. An average of 12 lymph nodes per patient was retrieved, with no significant difference between study groups. Postoperative pain scores were similar between groups. The hospital stay was 2.3 ± 0.7 days after LESSPL and 3.1 ± 1.2 days after MLPL (P = .01). Two days postoperatively, significantly more patients after LESSPL than after MLPL recovered their normal physical activity (P < .001). Six months postoperatively, no complications were registered in the LESSPL group and cosmetic results were excellent.In the present study, shorter hospitalization and quicker postoperative recovery were major benefits of LESSPL over MLPL. In patients with localized prostate cancer, staging LESS pelvic lymphadenectomy may be a safe alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy.
- Bladder irrigation and urothelium disruption: a reminder apropos of a case of fatal fluid absorption. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):91.
Irrigation or washouts of the bladder are usually performed in various clinical settings. In the 1980s Elliot and colleagues argued that urothelial damage could occur after washouts and irrigations of the bladder. The exact mechanism underlying urothelial damage has not yet been discovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fatal fluid overload and pulmonary edema, due to urothelium disruption occurring during bladder irrigation, approached performing complete histological and immunohistochemical investigation on bladder specimens. The exposed case deserves attention since it demonstrates that, although very rarely, irrigation or washouts of the bladder may have unexpected serious clinical consequences.An 85 year-old Caucasian man, unable to eat independently and whose fluid intake was controlled, underwent continuous bladder irrigation with a 3-way catheter due to a severe episode of macrohematuria. During the third day of hospitalization, while still undergoing bladder irrigation, he suddenly experienced extreme shortness of breath, breathing difficulties, and cough with frothy sputum. His attending nurse immediately noted that there was no return of the fluid (5 liters) introduced through bladder irrigation. He was treated urgently with hemodialysis. At the beginning of the dialysis treatment, the patient had gained 7.4 kg since the previous measurement (24 hours prior) without any clear explanation. Although a significant weight loss (from 81 to 76 kg) due to the dialysis procedure, the patient died shortly after the final treatment. The autopsy revealed that the brain and the lungs were heavily edematous. Microscopic examination of bladder specimens revealed interstitial and mucosal swelling, and loss of the superficial cell layer. Intermediate and basal urothelial cells were preserved. Altogether the abovementioned findings were suggestive of a diffuse disruption of the urothelium. In conclusion the death of the man was attributed to an acute severe pulmonary edema due to massive fluid absorption.Our case demonstrates that urothelium disruption may occur during irrigation and washouts of the bladder, also in the absence of other well-known predisposing conditions. Inappropriate use of bladder irrigation should be avoided and a close attention is required of the fluid balance is mandatory when irrigating the bladder.