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BMC Urol [journal]
- Histologic and functional outcomes of small intestine submucosa-regenerated bladder tissue. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Aug 23; 14(1):69.
Intestinal bladder augmentation has more disadvantages. One of the most promising alternative methods is tissue engineering in combination with surgical construction. Small intestine submucosa (SIS) is commonly used materials in tissue engineer. The aim of this study is determine the histologic and functional characteristics of SIS as bladder wall replacement in a rabbit augmentation model.18 New Zealand adult male rabbits, weight 2.5 +/- 0.5Kg, were used in this study. The rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 6 based on the number of days post-operative (A, 4 weeks; B, 12 weeks; C, 24 weeks). All of the animals underwent urodynamic testing under anesthesia before cystoplasty with SIS patch. The cystometrograms were repeated 4, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery with the same method. SIS-regenerated bladder strips (10 x 3 x 3 mm) and normal bladder strips (10 x 3 x 3 mm) from the same bladder were obtained at 4, 12, and 24 weeks for in vitro detrusor strip study. The frequency and amplitude of the strip over 15 min was recorded. The regenerated tissue and normal tissue underwent histologic and immunocytochemical analysis. The results were quantified as optical density (OD) values.Histologically, the SIS-regenerated bladders of group C (24 weeks post-operation) resembled normal bladder in that all 3 layers (mucosa with submucosa, smooth muscle, and serosa) were present. In the in vitro detrusor strip study, there were no significant differences in autorhythmicity and contractility between regenerated and normal tissues in group C (p > 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the quantity of A-actin grew to a normal level. Urodynamic testing showed that compliance remained stable in all groups post-operatively, and the volume increased 24 weeks post-operatively.Regenerated tissue has similar histologic and functional characteristics. SIS seems to be a viable material in the reconstruction of the rabbit urinary bladder.
- Protocol for a prospective magnetic resonance imaging study on supraspinal lower urinary tract control in healthy subjects and spinal cord injury patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for treating neurogenic detrusor overactivity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Aug 18; 14(1):68.
The control of the lower urinary tract is a complex, multilevel process involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. Due to lesions of the neuraxis, most spinal cord injury patients suffer from neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, which may jeopardise upper urinary tract function and has a negative impact on health-related quality of life. However, the alterations to the nervous system following spinal cord injury causing neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and potential effects of treatments such as intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections on lower urinary tract control are poorly understood.This is a prospective structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigating the supraspinal lower urinary tract control in healthy subjects and spinal cord injury patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for treating neurogenic detrusor overactivity.Neuroimaging data will include structural magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging) as well as functional, i.e. blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive magnetic resonance imaging using a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner. The functional magnetic resonance imaging will be performed simultaneously to three different bladder stimulation paradigms using an automated magnetic resonance compatible and synchronised pump system.All subjects will undergo two consecutive and identical magnetic resonance imaging measurements. Healthy subjects will not undergo any intervention between measurements but spinal cord injury patients will receive intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for treating neurogenic detrusor overactivity.Parameters of the clinical assessment including bladder diary, urinalysis, medical history, neuro-urological examination, urodynamic investigation as well as standardised questionnaires regarding lower urinary tract function and quality of life will serve as co-variates in the magnetic resonance imaging analysis.This study will identify structural and functional alterations in supraspinal networks of lower urinary tract control in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity compared to healthy controls. Post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging measurements in spinal cord injury patients will provide further insights into the mechanism of action of treatments such as intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections and the effect on supraspinal lower urinary tract control.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01768910.
- Prediction of clinical manifestations of transurethral resection syndrome by preoperative ultrasonographic estimation of prostate weight. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):67.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between preoperative estimated prostate weight on ultrasonography and clinical manifestations of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome.The records of patients who underwent TUR of the prostate under regional anesthesia over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. TUR syndrome is usually defined as a serum sodium level of < 125 mmol/l combined with clinical cardiovascular or neurological manifestations. This study focused on the clinical manifestations only, and recorded specific central nervous system and cardiovascular abnormalities according to the checklist proposed by Hahn. Patients with and without clinical manifestations of TUR syndrome were compared to determine the factors associated with TUR syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff value of estimated prostate weight for the prediction of clinical manifestations of TUR syndrome.This study included 167 patients, of which 42 developed clinical manifestations of TUR syndrome. There were significant differences in preoperative estimated prostate weight, operation time, resected prostate weight, intravenous fluid infusion volume, blood transfusion volume, and drainage of the suprapubic irrigation fluid between patients with and without clinical manifestations of TUR syndrome. The preoperative estimated prostate weight was correlated with the resected prostate weight (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.749). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of estimated prostate weight for the prediction of clinical manifestations of TUR syndrome was 75 g (sensitivity, 0.70; specificity, 0.69; area under the curve, 0.73).Preoperative estimation of prostate weight by ultrasonography can predict the development of clinical manifestations of TUR syndrome. Particular care should be taken when the estimated prostate weight is > 75 g.
- A pilot prospective study to evaluate whether the bladder morphology in cystography and / or urodynamic may help predict the response to botulinum toxin a injection in neurogenic bladder refractory to anticholinergics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Aug 14; 14(1):66.
We have observed different clinical responses to botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in patients who had similar urodynamic parameters before the procedure. Furthermore, some bladders evaluated by cystography and cystoscopy during the procedure had different characteristics that could influence the outcome of the treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether cystography and urodynamic parameters could help predict which patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) refractory to anticholinergics respond better to treatment with injection of BTX-A.In total, 34 patients with spinal cord injury were prospectively evaluated. All patients emptied their bladder by clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and had incontinence and NDO, despite using 40 mg or more of intravesical oxybutynin and undergoing detrusor injection of BTX-A (300 IU). Pretreatment evaluation included urodynamic, and cystography. Follow-up consisted of urodynamic and ambulatory visits four months after treatment. The cystography parameters used were bladder shape, capacity and presence of diverticula. Urodynamic parameters used for assessment were maximum cystometric capacity (MCC), maximum detrusor pressure (MDP), compliance and reflex volume (RV).After injection of BTX-A, 70% of the patients had success, with 4 months or more of continence. Before the treatment, there were significant differences in most urodynamic parameters between those who responded successfully compared to those who did not. Patients who responded successfully had greater MCC (p = 0.019), higher RV (p = 0.041), and greater compliance (p = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the MDP (0.691). The cystography parameters were not significantly different between these groups bladder shape (p = 0.271), capacity (p > 0.720) and presence of diverticula (p > 0.999). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 20.0) and included Student's t-test for two paired samples and Fisher's exact test, with a significance threshold of 0.05.This study suggests that the cystography parameters evaluated cannot be used to help predict the response to injection of BTX-A in the treatment of refractory NDO. However, the urodynamic parameters were significantly different in patients who responded to the treatment, with the exception of the MDP.
- Protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial investigating sacral neuromodulation for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Aug 13; 14(1):65.
Sacral neuromodulation has become a well-established and widely accepted treatment for refractory non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, but its value in patients with a neurological cause is unclear. Although there is evidence indicating that sacral neuromodulation may be effective and safe for treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, the number of investigated patients is low and there is a lack of randomized controlled trials.Methods and design: This study is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial including 4 sacral neuromodulation referral centers in Switzerland. Patients with refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction are enrolled. After minimally invasive bilateral tined lead placement into the sacral foramina S3 and/or S4, patients undergo prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing for 3-6 weeks. In case of successful (defined as improvement of at least 50% in key bladder diary variables (i.e. number of voids and/or number of leakages, post void residual) compared to baseline values) prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing, the neuromodulator is implanted in the upper buttock. After a 2 months post-implantation phase when the neuromodulator is turned ON to optimize the effectiveness of neuromodulation using sub-sensory threshold stimulation, the patients are randomized in a 1:1 allocation in sacral neuromodulation ON or OFF. At the end of the 2 months double-blind sacral neuromodulation phase, the patients have a neuro-urological re-evaluation, unblinding takes place, and the neuromodulator is turned ON in all patients. The primary outcome measure is success of sacral neuromodulation, secondary outcome measures are adverse events, urodynamic parameters, questionnaires, and costs of sacral neuromodulation.It is of utmost importance to know whether the minimally invasive and completely reversible sacral neuromodulation would be a valuable treatment option for patients with refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. If this type of treatment is effective in the neurological population, it would revolutionize the management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.Trial registration: Trial registration number: www.clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT02165774.
- Could hyaluronic acid (HA) reduce Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) local side effects? Results of a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014.:64.
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered the most effective treatment to reduce recurrence and progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) but can induce local side effects leading to treatment discontinuation or interruption. Aim of this exploratory study is to investigate if the sequential administration of Hyaluronic acid (HA) may reduce local side effects of BCG.30 consecutive subjects undergoing BCG intravesical administration for high risk NMIBC were randomized to receive BCG only (Group A) or BCG and HA (Group B). A 1 to 10 Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for bladder pain, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and number of micturitions per day were evaluated in the two groups before and after six weekly BCG instillations. Patients were also evaluated at 3 and 6 months by means of cystostopy and urine cytology.One out of 30 (3,3%) patients in group A dropped out from the protocol, for local side effects. Mean VAS for pain was significantly lower in group B after BCG treatment (4.2 vs. 5.8, p = 0.04). Post vs. pre treatment differences in VAS for pain, IPSS and number of daily micturitions were all significantly lower in group B. Three patients in group A and 4 in group B presented with recurrent pathology at 6 month follow up.These preliminary data suggest a possible role of HA in reducing BCG local side effects and could be used to design larger randomized controlled trials, assessing safety and efficacy of sequential BCG and HA administration.NCT02207608 (ClinicalTrials.gov) 01/08/2014. Policlinico Tor Vergata Ethics Committee, resolution n 69-2011.
- Modern extraction techniques and their impact on the pharmacological profile of Serenoa repens extracts for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014.:63.
Bioactive compounds from plants (i.e., Serenoa repens) are often used in medicine in the treatment of several pathologies, among which benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).There are different techniques of extraction, also used in combination, with the aim of enhancing the amount of the target molecules, gaining time and reducing waste of solvents. However, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the bioactives depends on the extractive process, and so the brands of the recovered products from the same plant are different in terms of clinical efficacy (no product interchangeability among different commercial brands).In this review, we report on several and recent extraction techniques and their impact on the composition/biological activity of S. repens-based available products.
- Efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripsy for ureteroscopic removal of proximal and distal ureteral calculi. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014.:62.
Laser lithotripsy is an established endourological modality. Ho:YAG laser have broadened the indications for ureteroscopic stone managements to include larger stone sizes throughout the whole upper urinary tract. Aim of current work is to assess efficacy and safety of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy during retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral calculi in different locations.88 patients were treated with ureteroscopic Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in our institute. Study endpoint was the number of treatments until the patient was stone-free. Patients were classified according to the location of their stones as Group I (distal ureteric stones, 51 patients) and group II (proximal ureteral stones, 37). Group I patients have larger stones as Group II (10.70 mm vs. 8.24 mm, respectively, P = 0.020).Overall stone free rate for both groups was 95.8%. The mean number of procedures for proximal calculi was 1.1 ± 0.1 (1-3) and for distal calculi was 1.0 ± 0.0. The initial treatment was more successful in patients with distal ureteral calculi (100% vs. 82.40%, respectively, P = 0.008). No significant difference in the stone free rate was noticed after the second laser procedure for stones smaller versus larger than 10 mm (100% versus 94.1%, P = 0.13). Overall complication rate was 7.9% (Clavien II und IIIb). Overall and grade-adjusted complication rates were not dependant on the stone location. No laser induced complications were noticed.The use of the Ho:YAG laser appears to be an adequate tool to disintegrate ureteral calculi independent of primary location. Combination of the semirigid and flexible ureteroscopes as well as the appropriate endourologic tools could likely improve the stone clearance rates for proximal calculi regardless of stone-size.
- Interpositional substitution of free vas deferens segment autografts in rat: feasibility and potential implications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Aug 7; 14(1):61.
Insufficient vas length for performing a tension-free vasovasostomy is a problem occasionally encountered by microsurgeons. Herein we evaluated utilization of a non-vascularized vas deferens autograft in a rat model.Segments of isolated vas deferens, 2.5 cm in length, were used as bilateral autografts in 15 rats. Each autograft was implanted between the two transected ends of vas deferens using end-to-end anastomosis. Fertility, sperm motility, and graft survival was evaluated and compared with the control group.At the end of the 3 months, 9/15 (60%) rats were able to breed successfully and 24 (80%) vas grafts were patent and viable. Large granulomata developed at the proximal anastomosis sites in 6 (20%) autografts that failed. Unilateral minimal fluid leakage was observed in 6 (20%) of the proximal (testicular end) anastomosis sites in those rats that were able to breed. Histological evaluations demonstrated that graft survival was associated with mild to severe changes in the structure of the vas autograft. On semen analysis 76% of the sperms in the experimental group had forward motility compared to 78% in the control group (p > 0.05).Vas autograft can successfully be performed in a rat model with ultimate breeding capability.
- Measuring the improvement in health-related quality of life using King's health questionnaire in non-obese and obese patients with lower urinary tract symptoms after alpha-adrenergic medication: a preliminary study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):60.
The efficacy of medical treatment among obese men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has been less clear, especially regarding the improvement of QoL. We aimed to investigate the difference in efficacy and consequent satisfaction of life quality after medical treatment of male LUTS according to obesity.An 8-week prospective study was performed for a total of 140 patients >50 years old with International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) > 12 points and prostate volume > 20 mL. Obesity was determined by either body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to BMI or WC. Patients received tamsulosin at a dose of 0.4 mg daily for 8 weeks. The changes from baseline in the IPSS, maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual volume, questionnaire of quality of life (QoL), and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) were analyzed.Of the 150 enrolled patients, 96 completed the study. Seventy-five patients (78.1%) had BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2, and 24 (25.0%) had WC > 90 cm. Overall, the IPSS, IPSS QoL, and total KHQ showed significant improvement. Obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI < 23 kg/m2) both showed improvement of the IPSS and IPSS QoL scores, but only the obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) group showed improvement of the total KHQ score (P < 0.001 vs. P = 0.55). Only the obese (WC > 90 cm) group showed improvement of the IPSS and total KHQ scores (P < 0.001).Our preliminary study showed the different efficacy of an alpha-blocker for improvement of LUTS and life quality according to obesity. Obese patients, defined by BMI or WC, showed the tendency toward a more favorable improvement of LUTS and life quality.Current Controlled Trials 2010-058. Registered 2 September 2010 in Soonchunhyang Univeristy Hospital.