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BMC Urol [journal]
- External validation of risk classification in patients with docetaxel-treated castration-resistant prostate cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Apr 18; 14(1):31.
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients have poor prognoses, and docetaxel (DTX) is among the few treatment options. An accurate risk classification to identify CRPC patient groups for which DTX would be effective is urgently warranted. The Armstrong risk classification (ARC), which classifies CRPC patients into 3 groups, is superior; however, its usefulness remains unclear, and further external validation is required before clinical use. This study aimed to examine the clinical significance of the ARC through external validation in DTX-treated Japanese CRPC patients.CRPC patients who received 2 or more DTX cycles were selected for this study. Patients were classified into good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups according to the ARC. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses and overall survival (OS) were calculated and compared between the risk groups. A multivariate analysis was performed to clarify the relationship between the ARC and major patient characteristics.Seventy-eight CRPC patients met the inclusion criteria. Median PSA levels at DTX initiation was 20 ng/mL. Good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups comprised 51 (65%), 17 (22%), and 10 (13%) patients, respectively. PSA response rates >=30% and >=50% were 33%, 41%, and 30%, and 18%, 41%, and 20% in the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups, respectivcixely, with no significant differences (p = 0.133 and 0.797, respectively). The median OS in the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001) at 30.1, 14.2, and 5.7 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that the ARC and PSA doubling time were independent prognostic factors.Most of CRPC patients were classified into good-risk group according to the ARC and the ARC could predict prognosis in DTX-treated CRPC patients.Trial registration: University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) number, UMIN000011969.
- Concern for overtreatment using the AUA/ASTRO guideline on adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2014 Apr 7; 14(1):30.
Recently, three prospective randomized trials have shown that adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) after radical prostatectomy for the patients with pT3 and/or positive margins improves biochemical progression-free survival and local recurrence free survival. But, the optimal management of these patients after radical prostatectomy is an issue which has been debated continuously. The object of this study was to determine the necessity of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) by reviewing the outcomes of observation without ART after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with pathologic indications for ART according to the American Urological Association (AUA)/American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) guideline.From a prospectively maintained database, 163 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. These men had a pathological stage pT2-3 N0 with undetectable PSA level after RP and met one or more of the three following risk factors: capsular perforation, positive surgical margins, or seminal vesicle invasion. We excluded the patients who had received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy or adjuvant treatment, or had less than 24 months of follow-up. To determine the factors that influenced biochemical recurrence-free (BCR), univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed.Among the 163 patients, median follow-up was 50.5 months (24.0-88.2 months). Of those men under observation, 27 patients had BCR and received salvage radiotherapy (SRT). The multivariate Cox analysis showed that BCR was marginally associated with pre-operative serum PSA (P = 0.082), and the pathologic GS (HR, 4.063; P = 0.001) was an independent predictor of BCR. More importantly, in 87 patients with pre-operative PSA < 6.35 ng/ml and GS <= 7, only 3 developed BCR.Of the 163 patients who qualified for ART based on the current AUA/ASTRO guideline, only 27 (16.6%) developed BCR and received SRT. Therefore, using ART following RP using the current recommendation may be an overtreatment in an overwhelming majority of the patients.
- Approach via a small retroperitoneal anterior subcostal incision in the supine position for gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy: initial experience of 42 patients. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014; 14(1):29.
Gasless laparoendoscopic single-port surgery (GasLESS) for radical nephrectomy (GasLESSRN) in the flank position is a minimally invasive treatment option for patients with T1-3 renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, RCC patients considered suitable for supine positioning rather than flank positioning for radical nephrectomy are occasionally encountered. This study evaluated the safety and feasibility of approach via a small retroperitoneal anterior subcostal incision (RASI) in the supine position for GasLESSRN (RASI-GasLESSRN) on the basis of our initial experience.RASI-GasLESSRN was performed on 42 patients with RCC or suspected RCC from 2011-2013. The RASI, which was 6 cm long in principle, was made parallel to the tip of the rib from the lateral border of rectus abdominis muscle toward the flank in the supine position. The specimen was extracted via the RASI using a retrieval device. All procedures were performed retroperitoneally under flexible endoscopy with reusable instruments and without carbon dioxide insufflation or insertion of hands into the operative field.RASI-GasLESSRN was successfully performed in all patients without complications. The mean incision length was 6.3 cm, mean operative time was 198 minutes, and mean blood loss was 284 mL. All 42 patients were classified as Clavien grade I. The mean times to oral feeding and walking were 1.1 and 2 days, respectively. The mean number of postoperative days required for patients to be dischargeable was 3.7 days.The approach via a small RASI in the supine position for GasLESSRN is a safe and feasible technique. RASI-GasLESSRN in the supine position is an alternative minimally invasive treatment option, especially for RCC patients considered suitable for supine positioning.
- A combined index to classify prognostic comorbidity in candidates for radical prostatectomy. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014.:28.
In patients with early prostate cancer, stratification by comorbidity could be of importance in clinical decision making as well as in characterizing patients enrolled into clinical trials. In this study, we investigated several comorbidity classifications as predictors of overall mortality after radical prostatectomy, searching for measures providing complementary prognostic information which could be combined into a single score.The study sample consisted of 2205 consecutive patients selected for radical prostatectomy with a mean age of 64 years and a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (median: 8.6). Seventy-four patients with incomplete tumor-related data were excluded. In addition to age and tumor-related parameters, six comorbidity classifications and the body mass index were assessed as possible predictors of overall mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves and Mantel-Haenszel hazard ratios were used for univariate analysis. The impact of different causes of death was analyzed by competing risk analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were calculated to analyze combined effects of variables.Age, Gleason score, tumor stage, Charlson score, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class and body mass index were identified a significant predictors of overall mortality in the multivariate analysis regardless whether two-sided and three-sided stratifications were used. Competing risk analysis revealed that the excess mortality in patients with a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or higher was attributable to competing mortality including second cancers, but not to prostate cancer mortality.Stratifying patients by a combined consideration of the comorbidity measures Charlson score, ASA classification and body mass index may assist clinical decision making in elderly candidates for radical prostatectomy.
- The effect of smoking on spontaneous passage of distal ureteral stones. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014.:27.
Animal studies have shown that nicotine affects the peristalsis of the ureter. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of smoking on spontaneous passage of distal ureteral stones.88 patients in whom distal ureteral stone below 10 mm diameter diagnosed with helical computerized tomography enhanced images were reviewed. Patients were grouped as either smokers (n:33) or non smokers (n:50). Follow-up for spontaneous passage of stones was limited with 4 weeks. Patients did not receive any additional medical treatment other than non-steroid anti inflamatory drugs only during painful renal colic episodes.Two groups were compared with the chi-square test in terms of passing the stone or not. Stone passage was confirmed with either the patient collecting the stone during urination or by helical CT.Smoking habits was present in 30(34%) patients and the frequency in both groups were similar (smokers: 23(76%) vs non-smokers: 46(79%)). Spontaneous passage of the stone was observed in 69(78%) patients. The two groups were comparable in terms of patien age, male to female ratio and stone size. Stone passage decreased as stone diameter increased. Total stone passage rates were similar in both groups (smokers: 76% vs. non-smokers: 79%) (p > 0.05). Passage of stones > 4 mm was observed in 46% and 67% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. However passage of stones with a diameter ≤ 4 mm were similar in both groups (smokers: 100% vs non-smokers: 92%) (p > 0.05).Smoking has neither a favorable nor un-favorable effect on spontaneous passage of distal ureteral stones. However, spontaneous passage rates in patients with a stone diameter > 4 mm was lower in smokers. These results should be further confirmed with studies including larger numbers of patients.
- Organ-specific and tumor-size-dependent responses to sunitinib in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2014.:26.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been used as standard therapy for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, information on factors predicting response to treatment with TKIs is lacking. This study aimed to assess the association between initial tumor size, involved organs, pre-treatment C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and reduction in tumor size in patients with clear cell RCC (CCRCC) treated with sunitinib.Patients with advanced CCRCC with target lesions with a maximum diameter ≥ 10 mm treated with sunitinib were evaluated. The tumor diameter representing the best overall response was designated as the post-treatment tumor diameter.A total of 179 lesions in 38 patients were analyzed. Organ-specific analysis demonstrated that pre-treatment diameter of lung metastatic lesions had a moderate inverse association with percent reduction in post-treatment tumor diameter (R = 0.341). Lung lesions showed significantly greater percent reductions in diameter than liver and kidney lesions (P = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, based on a CRP cut-off level of 2.0 mg/dl, mean tumor size reduction was significantly greater in patients with low CRP levels than in patients with high CRP levels in lesions with diameters < 20 mm (P = 0.002). CRP level had no effect on mean size reduction in lesions with a diameter ≥ 20 mm.Patients with CCRCC with smaller lung metastatic lesions and lower CRP levels may achieve greater percent reductions in tumor size with sunitinib therapy than patients with extra-pulmonary lesions, large lung lesions, and/or higher CRP levels.
- Effects of surgeon variability on oncologic and functional outcomes in a population-based setting. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Urol 2014.:25.
Oncologic and functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) can vary between surgeons to a greater extent than is expected by chance. We sought to examine the effects of surgeon variation on functional and oncologic outcomes for patients undergoing RP for prostate cancer in a European center.The study comprised 1,280 men who underwent open retropubic RP performed by one of nine surgeons at an academic institution in Sweden between 2001 and 2008. Potency and continence outcomes were measured preoperatively and 18 months postoperatively by patient-administered questionnaires. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value > 0.2 ng/mL with at least one confirmatory rise. Multivariable random effect models were used to evaluate heterogeneity between surgeons, adjusting for case mix (age, PSA, pathological stage and grade), year of surgery, and surgical experience.Of 679 men potent at baseline, 647 provided data at 18 months with 122 (19%) reporting potency. We found no evidence for heterogeneity of potency outcomes between surgeons (P = 1). The continence rate for patients at 18 months was 85%, with 836 of the 979 patients who provided data reporting continence. There was statistically significant heterogeneity between surgeons (P = 0.001). We did not find evidence of an association between surgeons' adjusted probabilities of functional recovery and 5-year probability of freedom from BCR.Our data support previous studies regarding a large heterogeneity among surgeons in continence outcomes for patients undergoing RP. This indicates that some patients are receiving sub-optimal care. Quality assurance measures involving performance feedback, should be considered. When surgeons are aware of their outcomes, they can improve them to provide better care to patients.
- Simvastatin improves the sexual health-related quality of life in men aged 40 years and over with erectile dysfunction: additional data from the erectile dysfunction and statin trial. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Urol 2014.:24.
Erectile dysfunction is prevalent in men over 40 years, affecting their quality of life and that of their partners. The aims of this study were:a) To evaluate the internal reliability of the male erectile dysfunction specific quality of life (MED-QoL) scale and explore its factor structure.b) To evaluate the effect of simvastatin on subscales of the MED-QoL in men over forty years with erectile dysfunction.This is a double blind randomised controlled trial of 40 mg simvastatin or placebo given once daily for six months to men over forty years with untreated erectile dysfunction, who were not at high cardiovascular risk and were not on anti-hypertensive or lipid-lowering medication. 173 eligible men were recruited from 10 general practices in East of England. Data were collected at two points over 30 weeks.We report on the factor structure of MED-QoL, the internal reliability of the scale and the derived subscales, and the effect of simvastatin on MED-QoL subscales.An initial analysis of the MED-QoL items suggested that a number of items should be removed (MED-QoL-R). Exploratory factor analysis identified three subscales within the MED-QoL-R which accounted for 96% of the variance, related to feelings of Control, initiating Intimacy, and Emotional response to erectile dysfunction. The alpha value for the revised scale (MED-Qol-R) was >0.95 and exceeded .82 for each subscale. Regression analysis showed that patients in the placebo group experienced a significantly reduced feeling of Control over erectile dysfunction than those in the statin group. Those in the placebo group had significantly lower Emotional response than those in the statin group at the close of trial, but there was no significant treatment effect on Intimacy.Our revised MED-QoL-R identified three subscales. Secondary analysis showed a significant improvement in sexual health related quality of life, specifically in relation to perception of control and emotional health in men with untreated erectile dysfunction given 40 mg simvastatin for six months.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66772971.
- Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Urol 2014.:23.
Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism.All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys were followed for a diagnosis until their 16th birthday. The age at first diagnosis was noted and used as proxy for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression.Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort.These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction of cryptorchidism would play a negligible role in male infertility in a life course perspective. Geographical region may have exerted some influence, especially for the oldest cohort.
- Key considerations for the experimental training and evaluation of cancer odour detection dogs: lessons learnt from a double-blind, controlled trial of prostate cancer detection. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- BMC Urol 2014.:22.
Cancer detection using sniffer dogs is a potential technology for clinical use and research. Our study sought to determine whether dogs could be trained to discriminate the odour of urine from men with prostate cancer from controls, using rigorous testing procedures and well-defined samples from a major research hospital.We attempted to train ten dogs by initially rewarding them for finding and indicating individual prostate cancer urine samples (Stage 1). If dogs were successful in Stage 1, we then attempted to train them to discriminate prostate cancer samples from controls (Stage 2). The number of samples used to train each dog varied depending on their individual progress. Overall, 50 unique prostate cancer and 67 controls were collected and used during training. Dogs that passed Stage 2 were tested for their ability to discriminate 15 (Test 1) or 16 (Tests 2 and 3) unfamiliar prostate cancer samples from 45 (Test 1) or 48 (Tests 2 and 3) unfamiliar controls under double-blind conditions.Three dogs reached training Stage 2 and two of these learnt to discriminate potentially familiar prostate cancer samples from controls. However, during double-blind tests using new samples the two dogs did not indicate prostate cancer samples more frequently than expected by chance (Dog A sensitivity 0.13, specificity 0.71, Dog B sensitivity 0.25, specificity 0.75). The other dogs did not progress past Stage 1 as they did not have optimal temperaments for the sensitive odour discrimination training.Although two dogs appeared to have learnt to select prostate cancer samples during training, they did not generalise on a prostate cancer odour during robust double-blind tests involving new samples. Our study illustrates that these rigorous tests are vital to avoid drawing misleading conclusions about the abilities of dogs to indicate certain odours. Dogs may memorise the individual odours of large numbers of training samples rather than generalise on a common odour. The results do not exclude the possibility that dogs could be trained to detect prostate cancer. We recommend that canine olfactory memory is carefully considered in all future studies and rigorous double-blind methods used to avoid confounding effects.