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BMC Urol [journal]
- Ramelteon combined with an alpha1-blocker might decreases nocturia in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Jun 12; 13(1):30.
BACKGROUND:Nocturia is defined as waking one or more times during the night due to the urge to void. Recently, the effectiveness of several sedatives and analgesics for nocturia has been reported. We herein investigated the effects of ramelteon, an antioxidant and sleep inducer, on nocturia unresponsive to alpha1-blocker monotherapy in males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as a pilot study.
METHODS:Subjects were 19 patients who had LUTS suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia, received alpha1-blockers (tamsulosin, silodosin, or naftopidil), and continued to have two or more episodes of nocturia per night before starting ramelteon. Ramelteon at 8 mg once daily for one month was added to the alpha1-blocker. A self-administered questionnaire including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and Nocturia Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (N-QOL) were assessed before and one month after starting ramelteon.
RESULTS:The mean score on IPSS question 7 (nocturia) decreased significantly from 2.88 before starting ramelteon to 2.41 one month after starting the medication (P = 0.03). The mean total OABSS decreased significantly from 6.31 to 5.38 (P = 0.03), and the mean for OABSS question 2 (nighttime frequency of nocturia) also significantly decreased from 2.63 to 2.13 (P = 0.01). The mean total N-QOL score did not change significantly. Two patients had dizziness; the remaining patients had no adverse drug-related events.
CONCLUSIONS:Ramelteon in combination with an alpha1-blocker might be a treatment option for reducing nocturia in men with BPH.
- Therapy-resistant nephrolithiasis following renal artery coil embolization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Jun 10; 13(1):29.
BACKGROUND:Transcatheter renal artery embolization is an effective and minimally invasive treatment option for acute renal bleeding. Early post-interventional complications include groin hematoma, incomplete embolization, coil misplacement and coil migration. Late complications are rare and mostly related to coil migration.
CASE PRESENTATION:A 22-year-old woman with a history of recurrent stone disease and a lumbal meningomyelocele underwent bilateral open pyelolithotomy for bilateral staghorn calculi. Post-operatively, acute hemorrhage of the left kidney occurred and selective arterial coil embolization of a lower pole interlobular renal artery was performed twice.Four years after this intervention the patient presented with a new 15.4 mm stone in the lower calyx of the left kidney. After two extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatments disintegration of the stone was not detectable. Therefore, flexible ureterorenoscopy was performed and revealed that the stone was adherent to a partially intraluminal metal coil in the lower renal calyx. The intracalyceal part of the coil and the adherent stone were successfully removed using the holmium laser.
CONCLUSION:Therapy-resistant nephrolithiasis was caused by a migrated metal coil, which was placed four years earlier for the treatment of acute post-operative renal bleeding. Renal coils in close vicinity to the renal pelvis can migrate into the collecting system and trigger renal stone formation. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy seems to be inefficient for these composite stones. Identification of these rare stones is possible during retrograde intrarenal surgery. It also enables immediate stone disintegration and removal of the stone fragments and the intraluminal coil material.
- Cysticlean(R) a highly pac standardized content in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: an observational, prospective cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Jun 5; 13(1):28.
BACKGROUND:The present study was aimed at determining the prophylactic efficacy of American cranberry (AC) extract (Cysticlean(R)) in women with recurrent symptomatic postcoital urinary tract infections (PCUTI), non-consumer of AC extract in the past 3 months before inclusion, and to determine changes in their quality of life (QoL).
METHODS:This was a single center, observational, prospective study in a total of 20 women (mean age 35.2 years; 50.0% were married). Patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months during treatment.
RESULTS:The number of PCUTIs in the previous 3 months prior to start the treatment with Cysticlean(R) was 2.8+/-1.3 and it was reduced to 0.2+/-0.5 at Month 6 (P<0.0001), which represent a 93% improvement. At baseline, the mean score on the VAS scale (range from 0 to 100) for assessing the QoL was 62.4+/-19.1, increasing to 78.2+/-12.4 at Month 6 (P=0.0002), which represents a 20% improvement. All patients had an infection with positive urine culture at baseline, after 6 months there were only 3 symptomatic infections (P<0.001). The most common bacterium was Escherichia coli.
CONCLUSIONS:Prophylaxis with American cranberry extract (Cysticlean(R)) could be an alternative to classical therapies with antibiotics. Further studies are needed to confirm results obtained in this pilot study.
- Prevalence, incidence and remission of urinary incontinence in women: longitudinal data from the Norwegian HUNT study (EPINCONT). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 May 30; 13(1):27.
BACKGROUND:To determine incidence and remission of UI as well as changes in UI prevalence in the Norwegian EPINCONT surveys.
METHODS:The EPINCONT surveys were conducted in the county of Nord-Tr[latin small letter o with stroke]ndelag, Norway, as part of two large cross-sectional health surveys (HUNT2 and HUNT3) in 1995 -- 1997 (EPINCONT1 (E1)), and 2006 -- 2008 (EPINCONT2 (E2)). EPINCONT collected information about prevalence of UI, as well as information about type and severity of UI.
RESULTS:A 16% relative increase in UI prevalence was found in 11 years. The women who answered E2 were significantly older, had a higher BMI and higher prevalence of diseases such as asthma, diabetes and angina compared with the women who answered E1.The incidence of UI was 18.7%. Increase in BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02 -- 1.04), weight increase (OR 1.29 (95% CI: 1.14 -- 1.45) for gaining 3 -- 10 kilos and OR 1.71 (95% CI: 1.47 -- 1.99) for gaining 10 kilos or more) and parity (OR 1.37 (95% CI: 1.04 -- 1.79) for 1 childbirth, OR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03 -- 1.61) for 2 childbirths, and OR 1.56 (95% CI: 1.26 -- 1.95) for 3 or more childbirths when participating in E2) were all found to be associated with increased odds of incident UI in adjusted regression analyses. Increasing age reduced the odds of incident UI. The 11 year remission of UI was 34.1%. Increasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98 -- 0.99), increasing BMI (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95 -- 0.98) and large weight gains of 10 kilos or more (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54 -- 0.88) were all associated with reduced remission of UI.
CONCLUSION:Crude UI prevalence increased between the studies. Changes in known risk factors for UI such as age, BMI, weight and parity could explain some of the relative increase in prevalence, and were also found to be associated with either incidence of UI, remission of UI or both.
- Efficacy of temsirolimus in metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 May 21; 13(1):26.
BACKGROUND:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a histopathologically and molecularly heterogeneous disease with the chromophobe subtype (chRCC) accounting for approximately 5% of all cases. The median overall survival of advanced RCC has improved significantly since the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. However, high-quality evidence for the use of new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced chRCC is lacking. Few published case reports have highlighted the use of temsirolimus in chRCC.
CASE PRESENTATION:Here, we report the case of a 36-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic chRCC with predominantly skeletal metastases who was refractory to sunitinib who demonstrated a durable clinical response to temsirolimus lasting 20 months. We review the available evidence pertaining to the use of new generation molecularly targeted agents, in particular mTOR inhibitors in chRCC and discuss their emerging role in the management of this disease which would aid the oncologists faced with the challenge of treating this rare type of RCC.
CONCLUSION:Conducting randomised clinical trials in this rarer sub-group of patients would be challenging and our case report and the evidence reviewed would guide the physicians to make informed decision regarding the management of these patients.
- Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:25.
Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients.The activity of different MMPs including HMW species was determined using zymographic analysis technique in the urine samples procured from sixty six bladder cancer patients (bilharzial and non-bilharzial) as well as hundred healthy control subjects. Also, the correlation between these HMW MMPs activities and different clinico-pathological parameters was investigated.High frequency of urine MMPs (uMMPs) activity was determined in 63.6% of examined tumor cases, however, none of the control cases showed any uMMPs activity. MMP-9 had the highest activity (62%) followed by MMP9/NGAL (60%), MMP-2 (54.5%), MMP-9 dimer (53%), ADAMTS (25.6%), and the lowest one was MMP-9/TIMP-1 (12%) only. There was no correlation between uMMPs and any of clinico-pathological parameters including age, gender, tumor size and type, bilharziasis, grade, lymph node involvement, and invasion to the prostate. A significant correlation was established only between MMP-9/TIMP-1 activities with the tumor size.This study revealed that the detection of urinary MMPs including HMWs activity might be sensitive biomarkers for prediction of bladder cancer. It is also demonstrate that the detection of these urinary HMW gelatinases could not differentiate between bilharzial and non bilharzial bladder cancer subtypes.
- The impact of discrete modes of spinal cord injury on bladder muscle contractility. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:24.
Prior studies have compared the effect of spinal cord injury elicited using distinct approaches on motor and visceral function. However, the impact of such discrete modes of injury specifically on bladder muscle contractility has not been explored in detail. The goal of this study is to compare the impact of complete spinal cord transection versus clip compression at thoracic vertebra eight (T8) on bladder muscle contractility.Rats underwent no treatment (Control), laminectomy (Sham, SH); complete extradural transection (TX); or cord compression with an aneurysm clip (CX). Bladders and spinal cords were harvested at 6 wk for contractility studies or histological analysis.Detrusor strips from TX and CX rats showed higher spontaneous activity than those from SH rats. Furthermore, the duration of the neurally-mediated contractile response was longer in TX and CX rats compared to controls and showed attenuated relaxation. No significant differences were observed between muscle strips from SH, TX or CX rats in response to KCl, ATP or phenylephrine. However, tissues from TX and CX rats showed a higher sensitivity to carbachol compared to that from SH animals.Complete SCI in rats either by cord transection or compression elicits qualitatively similar changes in bladder muscle contractility. Whereas cord transection is arguably easier to perform experimentally, cord compression better models the situation observed clinically, such that each approach has clear advantages and limitations.
- The natural history of secondary muscle-invasive bladder cancer. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2013.:23.
The management of patients with high-grade non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) brings diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In the current study, we sought to study the natural history of progression to "secondary" muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)-cancer that developed during follow up of patients presenting with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).Between 1998 and 2008, 760 patients were treated for bladder cancer. Primary MIBC (>=T2) tumors (present upon presentation) were diagnosed in 114 patients. All patients with high-grade NMIBC were treated with intravesical BCG. Mean follow-up was 44 months.Forty patients (6.1%) developed secondary MIBC after a mean period of 21 months from initial diagnosis of bladder cancer. The 2- and 5-year disease-specific survival rates were better for patients with secondary MIBC (90% and 56% compared to 69% and 42% for patients with primary disease, p=0.03). The Kaplan-Meier curves of the two groups were parallel but displaced by approximately 2 years.In the current series, MIBC progression occurred among initially presenting patients with NMIBC in 6.1%. In most patients, the initial diagnosis of NMIBC is correct and muscle invasion occurs after a mean period of about 2 years. This supports a non-radical approach in patients with high-grade T1, Ta or Tis. Meticulous follow-up with liberal biopsy of any suspicious lesion may provide early diagnosis of invasive disease.
- Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a systematic review of the contemporary literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Apr 29; 13(1):22.
BACKGROUND:Pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor. Herein we sought to review the contemporary literature on pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder in order to further illustrate the presentation, treatment options and outcomes of patients diagnosed with these tumors.
METHODS:A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database and using the search terms "paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, bladder." This search resulted in the identification of 186 articles published between January 1980 and April 2012 of which 80 articles were ultimately included in our analysis.
RESULTS:Pheochromocytomas usually occurred in young adult Caucasians (mean age, 43.3 years; range, 11--84 years). According to the literature, the most common symptoms and signs of pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder were hypertension, headache, and hematuria. Of the 77 cases that commented on catecholamine production, 65 patients had biochemically functional tumors. Approximately 20% of patients were treated by transurethral resection alone, 70% by partial cystectomy and 10% by radical cystectomy. The 75 patients with follow-up information had a mean follow-up of 35 months. At the time of last follow-up, 15 (14.2%) had disease recurrence, 10 (9.4%) had metastasis, and 65 (61.3%) were alive.
CONCLUSIONS:Pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder tend to be functional and occur mostly in young adult Caucasians. Patients with localized tumors have an extremely favorable prognosis and may be managed by less aggressive modalities, whereas patients with metastatic disease have a significant reduction in survival rates despite aggressive treatment.
- Laparoendoscopic single site adrenalectomy: initial results of cosmetic satisfaction and the potential for postoperative pain reduction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Urol 2013 Apr 12; 13(1):21.