BMC Urol [journal]
- Multi-disciplinary surgical approach to the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus: 15 year experience and lessons learned. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):43.
The management of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) is challenging. We report our 15 year experience in the management of patients with RCC with VTT utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach, highlighting improved total and specifically Clavien III-V complication rates.We reviewed the records of 146 consecutive patients who underwent radical nephrectomy with venous thrombectomy between 1998 and 2012. Data on patient history, staging, surgical techniques, morbidity, and survival were analyzed. Additionally, complication rates between two surgical eras, 1998-2006 and 2006-2012, were assessed.The study included 146 patients, 97 males (66 %), and a median age of 61 years (range, 24-83). Overall complications rate was 53 %, high grade complications (Clavien III -V) occurred in 10 % of patients. Most importantly, there was a lower incidence of overall and high grade complications (45 % and 8 %, respectively) in the last 6 years compared to the earlier surgeries included in the study (67 % and 13 % respectively) [p = .008 and .03, respectively). 30 day postoperative mortality was 2.7 %. 5 year overall survival (5Y- OS) and 5 year cancer specific survival (5Y- CSS) were 51 % and 40 %, respectively. Metastasis was the only independent predictor factor for CSS (HR 3.8, CI 1.9-7.6 and p < .001) and OS (HR 2.6, CI 1.5-4.7 and p = .001) in all patients.Our data suggest that patients with RCC and VTT can be treated safely utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach leading to a decrease in complication rates.
- Obesity is associated with increased risk of invasive penile cancer. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):42.
To validate the association between obesity and penile cancer at a population level, we conducted a matched case-control study linking the Iowa Department of Motor Vehicles Drivers' License Database (DLD) with cancer surveillance data collected by the State Health Registry of Iowa (SHRI).All men diagnosed with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1985 to 2010 were identified by SHRI. Two hundred sixty-six cancer cases and 816 cancer-free male controls, selected from the Iowa DLD, were matched within 5-year age and calendar year strata. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported height and weight from the DLD.Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between BMI and the risk of developing invasive penile cancer. Obesity was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing penile cancer. For every five-unit increase in BMI the risk of invasive penile cancer increased by 53 % (OR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.29-1.81, p < 0.0001).We previously reported an association between obesity and higher risk of invasive penile cancer and advanced cancer stage at diagnosis in a hospital-based retrospective study. This population-based study confirms an association between obesity and invasive penile cancer.
- Characteristics and repair outcome of patients with Vesicovaginal fistula managed in Jimma University teaching Hospital, Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):41.
In Ethiopia, about 9000 fistula cases are estimated to occur every year with an incidence of 2.2/1000 women. This study was aimed to determine obstetric fistula characteristics and surgical repair outcomes among patients with fistula surgical repair.A Hospital based cross sectional study design was conducted on all patients with Obstetric vesicovaginal Fistula, who were admitted to Gynecology ward, and had surgical repair from January 2011 to December 2014. Data was collected from patients' chart, operation logbook and discharge logbook which were filled up from the entry of the patient to the hospital till her discharge. At discharge, a dye test was done to determine the outcome of repair.One hundred sixty eight patients with obstetric vesicovaginal fistula were repaired during the study period. The age of the women ranged from 12 to 45 years with mean of 25 (±6) years and 10.1 % were younger than 18 years. Eighty percent of patients were laboring for two or more days, 46.4 % delivered abdominally (cesarean section 24.4 %, hysterectomy for uterine rupture 22 %), and 85.7 % ended up in stillbirth. Most patients (56 %) had mid-vaginal vesicovaginal fistula. Route of repair was vaginal among 95.8 % of patients, and spinal anesthesia was applied among 70.8 % of patients. Out of 93.4 % patients who had successful closure of their fistula, 84.5 % of patients had their fistula healed and continent, 8.9 % of them developed urinary incontinence while 6.5 % of fistula repair had failed at the time of discharge.Most fistula patients in this study are older than 18 years, referred from health centers either for cephalopelvic disproportion or obstructed labor after prolonged labor at home. In this study, Spinal anesthesia as well as vaginal route was widely employed and high success rates were achieved with surgical repair. Therefore, increasing access to comprehensive emergency obstetric and new born care is essential to minimize the delay contributing to perinatal mortality and obstetric fistula. In addition use of spinal anesthesia and vaginal route of repair is essential for the high success of repair outcome and low postoperative morbidities.
- Clinical characteristics of XP11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):40.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC which is firstly described as a distinct entity in 2004 so that clinical characteristics of Xp11.2 RCC in different gender and age are unknown. The purpose of systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide a comprehensive assessment on them.MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies which evaluate the clinical characteristics of Xp11.2 RCC. The literature published between July 2004 and May 2014 was searched.A total of 15 studies with 147 participants were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated that number of patients of all age in female was higher than in male with pooled OR of 3.93(95 % CI = 1.66-9.34). However, incidence of distant metastases (OR = 0.34, 95 % CI = 0.12-1.57) and lymphatic metastases (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI = 0.14-1.91), tumor stage (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.34-2.15) and overall survival (OS) (OR = 0.46, 95 % CI = 0.05-4.34) between male and female were comparable. Incidence in female was higher than in male with pooled OR of 5.13(95 % CI = 1.67-15.72) in adults, while in children no gender-related predominance (OR = 1.19, 95 % CI = 0.38-3.72) was observed. In addition, incidence of distant metastases (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.13-7.84) and lymphatic metastases (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.07-13.67) and tumor stage (OR = 1.94, 95 % CI = 0.20-19.03) between children and adults were comparable. Survival curves presented comparable outcomes between male and female (P = 0.707) as well as between children and adults (P = 0.383).Female patients with Xp11.2 RCC in adults exhibit a high incidence compared to male, but not in children. Comparable clinical characteristics including incidence of distant and lymphatic metastases, tumor stage and prognosis is presented between male and female as well as between children and adults.
- A positive Real-Time Elastography (RTE) combined with a Prostate Cancer Gene 3 (PCA3) score above 35 convey a high probability of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer in patient admitted for primary prostate biopsy. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):39.
The standard of care in patients with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) is systematic prostate biopsies. This approach leads to unnecessary biopsies in patients without PCa and also to the detection of clinical insignificant PCa. Better tools are wanted. We have evaluated the performance of real-time elastography (RTE) combined with prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) in an initial biopsy setting with the goal of better identifying patients in need of prostate biopsies.127 patients were included in this study; three were excluded because of not measureable PCA3 score leading to 124 evaluable patients. A cut-off value of 35 was used for PCA3. All patients were examined with a Hitachi Preirus with an endfire probe for RTE, a maximum of five targeted biopsies were obtained from suspicious lesions detected by RTE. All patients then had a 10-core systematic biopsy performed by another urologist unaware of the RTE results. The study includes follow-up data for a minimum of three years; all available histopathological data are included in the analysis.There was a significant difference in PCA3 score: 26.6 for benign disease, 73.6 for cancer patients (p < 0.001). 70 patients (56 %) were diagnosed with prostate cancer in the study period, 21 (30 %) low-risk, 32 (46 %) intermediate-risk and 17 (24 %) high-risk. RTE and PCA3 were significant markers for predicting intermediate- and high-risk PCa (p = 0.001). The combination of RTE and PCA3 had a sensitivity of 96 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 90 % for the group of intermediate- and high-risk PCa together and a NPV for high-risk PCa of 100 %. If both parameters are positive there is a high probability of detecting intermediate- or high-risk PCa, if both parameters are negative there is only a small chance of missing prostate cancer with documented treatment benefit.RTE and PCA3 may be used as pre-biopsy examinations to reduce the number of prostate biopsies.
- Spontaneous ureteric rupture, a reality or a faux pas? [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):37.
Rupture of the urinary collecting system with or without any perinephric extravasation is an extremely rare occurrence and usually known to occur following an obstructive pathology. Spontaneous or non-traumatic rupture, in the absence of any distal obstruction, though reported in literature, is not yet a proven entity and needs to be distinguished from physiological forniceal rupture, to validate its occurrence. Our case illustrates that spontaneous ureteric rupture does exist and requires a high level of vigil for prompt diagnosis and early simple management.A 65 year old non diabetic gentleman presented with a 2 day history of right sided severe abdominal pain with no history of any prior trauma, surgery, urinary retention or calculus disease. His ultrasound whole-abdomen was suggestive of increased liver echogenicity, but his contrast enhanced CT scan (CECT) documented a ureteric rupture, with leakage of contrast from the upper ureters, well away from the renal pelvis He was promptly managed with cysto-ureteroscopy, retrograde pyelography (RGP) and double-J (DJ) stenting. His post operative course was uneventful and he was discharged on the second post operative day, without event. An RGP at 6 weeks of follow up showed no contrast extravasation from the ureter and his DJ stent was removed without event.Spontaneous ureteric rupture, in the absence of any inciting cause, is an entity which exists and is easily manageable, once diagnosed timely. Thus, the need to maintain a high index of vigil, in order to identify this clinically entity at the earnest, institute prompt treatment and hence ensure that a "spontaneous" rupture, doesn't become a "faux pas" in the true sense of the word.
- Case report: Xanthogranulomutous pyelonephritis presenting as "Wilms' tumor". [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):36.
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare renal tumor that arises as a complication of chronic obstructive pyelonephritis of uncertain etiology. It is primarily an adult tumor seen occasionally in children associated with urinary tract obstruction due to congenital urological anomalies, nephrolithiasis, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Radiologically, it may show neoplastic features such as those seen in common pediatric renal malignancies like wilms' tumor and renal cell carcinoma. This overlap in radiological manifestation frequently leads to misdiagnosis and delay in appropriate intervention. We report a case of a 3 years old boy who presented with history of recurrent urinary tract infections and a left renal mass initially thought to be Wilms' tumor.We present a case of a 3 years old boy admitted to the Pediatric oncology unit at Muhimbli National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania with one year history of recurrent fever and urinary tract infection signs and symptoms refractory to antibiotic therapy. He was eventually found to have a left kidney mass detected at the District hospital by abdominal ultrasound performed to evaluate a flank mass that was felt by his mother. He was then referred to our unit for a suspicion of Wilms' tumor which finally turned out to be a left kidney Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. He underwent a successful left nephrectomy and was discharged from hospital in a stable clinical condition and remains asymptomatic at the time of submission of this case report.This case report underscores the need for clinicians attending a febrile child with a renal mass that can be confused with common pediatric renal malignancies such as Wilms' tumor to broaden their differential diagnosis. The case also underlines the significance of individualized patient evaluation because this patient would have otherwise received preoperative chemotherapy under the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) guidelines if the diagnosis of Wilms tumor was not ruled out.
- Acute bacterial prostatitis and abscess formation. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):38.
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for abscess formation in acute bacterial prostatitis, and to compare treatment outcomes between abscess group and non-abscess group.This is a multicenter, retrospective cohort study. All patients suspected of having an acute prostatic infection underwent computed tomography or transrectal ultrasonography to discriminate acute prostatic abscesses from acute prostatitis without abscess formation.A total of 31 prostate abscesses were reviewed among 142 patients with acute prostatitis. Univariate analysis revealed that symptom duration, diabetes mellitus and voiding disturbance were predisposing factors for abscess formation in acute prostatitis. However, diabetes mellitus was not related to prostate abscess in multivariate analysis. Patients with abscesses <20 mm in size did not undergo surgery and were cured without any complications. In contrast, patients with abscesses >20 mm who underwent transurethral resection had a shorter duration of antibiotic treatment than did those who did not have surgery. Regardless of surgical treatment, both the length of hospital stay and antibiotic treatment were longer in patients with prostatic abscesses than they were in those without abscesses. However, the incidence of septic shock was not different between the two groups. A wide spectrum of microorganisms was responsible for prostate abscesses. In contrast, Escherichia coli was the predominant organism responsible for acute prostatitis without abscess.Imaging studies should be considered when patients with acute prostatitis have delayed treatment and signs of voiding disturbance. Early diagnosis is beneficial because prostatic abscesses require prolonged treatment protocols, or even require surgical drainage. Surgical drainage procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate were not necessary in all patients with prostate abscesses. However, surgical intervention may have potential merits that reduce the antibiotic exposure period and enhance voiding function in patients with prostatic abscess.
- TMPRSS2:ERG gene aberrations may provide insight into pT stage in prostate cancer. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):35.
TMPRSS2:ERG gene aberration may be a novel marker that improves risk stratification of prostate cancer before definitive cancer therapy, but studies have been inconclusive.The study cohort consisted of 202 operable prostate cancer Slovenian patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively constructed tissue microarrays of their prostatic specimens for fluorescence in situ hybridization, with appropriate signals obtained in 148 patients for subsequent statistical analyses.The following genetic aberrations were found: TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, TMPRSS2 split (a non-ERG translocation) and ERG split (an ERG translocation without involvement of TMPRSS2). TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion happened in 63 patients (42 %), TMPRSS2 split in 12 patients and ERG split in 8 patients. Association was tested between TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and several clinicopathological variables, i.e., pT stage, extended lymph node dissection status, and Gleason score, correcting for multiple comparisons. Only the association with pT stage was significant at p = 0.05: Of 62 patients with pT3 stage, 34 (55 %) had TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion. In pT3 stage patients, stronger (but not significant) association between eLND status and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion was detected. We detected TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in 64 % of the pT3 stage patients where we did not perform an extended lymph node dissection.Our results indicate that it is possible to predict pT3 stage at final histology from TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion at initial core needle biopsy. FISH determination of TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion may be particularly useful for patients scheduled to undergo a radical prostatectomy in order to improve oncological and functional results.
- Pazopanib as a second-line treatment for non-cytokine-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of the effect of treatment. [Journal Article]
- BMC Urol 2016; 16(1):34.
The currently recommended treatment algorithm for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who fail the first-line targeted therapy does not normally include pazopanib as a second-line treatment option. It would therefore be of interest to determine the efficiency of pazopanib in this setting in terms of the partial response rate (PRR), disease control rate (DCR), and progression-free survival (PFS).Peer-reviewed clinical reports without language restriction, both full papers and conference abstracts, which assessed the second-line use of pazopanib following failure of first-line non-cytokine-targeted therapy, were included. After the literature retrieval, we conducted a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-compliant systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the size of the effect of each outcome measure (PRR, DCR, and PFS). The effect size and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effect or random-effects models based on the heterogeneity represented by I(2) of selected studies. Meta-analysis forest plots with a fixed-effect model showing the PRR and DCR were created.Our results show that there are no available comparative studies on pazopanib second-line treatment. Only phase II trials or retrospective analysis reports were retrievable. Six studies (comprising 217 patients) were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Pazopanib as a second-line treatment resulted in a PRR of 23 % (95 % CI, 17-31 %; I(2) = 52.6 %) and a DCR of 73 % (95 % CI, 65-80 %; I(2) = 0.00 %). The meta-analysis with fixed-effect model revealed that PFS was 6.5 months (95 % CI, 5.6-7.5 months; I(2) = 86.2 %).In conclusion, the effectiveness and indication of pazopanib for use in the second-line setting has not yet been examined in-depth; however, this meta-analysis has shown that the treatment effects in terms of PRR, DCR, and PFS may be similar to other well-studied second-line targeted therapies. Rigorous comparative phase III trials testing this hypothesis are required.