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BMC neurology [journal]
- The influence of Apolipoprotein E genotype on regional pathology in Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- BMC Neurol 2013.:44.
Carriers of the ApoE ϵ4 allele are at a greater risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and those who do develop AD tend to have a much greater neuropathological disease burden. Although several studies have shown significant differences in AD pathology among ϵ4 carriers and non-carriers, few have characterized these differences in terms of brain region and neuropathological score frequency.566 pathologically-confirmed AD cases who were followed prospectively with antemortem dementia diagnoses (312 ApoE ϵ4 carriers and 254 ApoE ϵ4 non-carriers) were compared on the frequencies of neuropathological frequency scores (none, sparse, moderate, frequent) among several different brain regions (frontal, temporal, parietal, hippocampal, and entorhinal) using the CERAD scoring system. Pathology score frequencies were analyzed by carrier status (ϵ4 carrier vs. ϵ4 non-carrier) and by genotype (2/3, 3/3, 2/4, 3/4, 4/4). Both analyses investigated pathology score frequencies among different brain regions (frontal, temporal, parietal, hippocampal, and entorhinal).ϵ4 carriers had a significantly lower age at death (p <0.001) and significantly higher Braak scores (p <0.001) than ϵ4 non-carriers. Genotype comparison revealed that plaque and tangle pathologies increased in the following pattern, 2/3<3/3<2/4<3/4<4/4, for several brain regions. When stratified by age and ApoE ϵ4 carrier status, ϵ4 carriers tended to have significantly more frequent scores across most cortical areas. However, non-carriers age 90 and older tended to have greater plaque pathology than carriers. For tangle pathology, ϵ4 carriers tended to have significantly more "frequent" scores than non-carriers, except for the hippocampal and entorhinal areas in individuals age 90 and older.ApoE ϵ4 carriers had a significantly higher percentage of "frequent" scores for plaques and tangles when compared to ApoE ϵ4 non-carriers for several brain regions. However, ϵ4 non-carriers age 90 and older tended to have less plaque and tangle pathology in certain brain regions. These results demonstrate that AD pathology may manifest itself differently based on ApoE genotype and suggest that ApoE carriers and non-carriers may have different patterns of AD neuropathology location and density.
- Paradoxical worsening of seizure activity with pregabalin in an adult with isodicentric 15 (IDIC-15) syndrome involving duplications of the GABRB3, GABRA5 and GABRG3 genes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2013 May 10; 13(1):43.
BACKGROUND:Isodicentric 15 syndrome (IDIC-15) is due to partial duplications of chromosome 15 that may includes the q11--13 region that includes genes encoding the alpha5 (GABRA5) and beta3 - gamma3 (GABRB3) receptor subunits. The disease causes intellectual and physical developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability and behavioral disorders that may be related to abnormal GABA receptor function and morphology. Seizures are often severe and may be refractory to treatment. There are however no specific guidelines for the treatment of the seizures and it is unknown whether drugs that affect the GABAergic system have a different effect in IDIC-15 seizures.
CASE PRESENTATION:We report the case of an adult individual with IDIC-15 whose complex-partial seizures worsened dramatically after the introduction of pregabalin, with increased seizure frequency, frequent generalization, and appearance of new seizure pattern. Her cognitive function and verbal skills also worsened during treatment with pregabalin. Her seizures and cognitive skills quickly improved after pregabalin was discontinued and treatment with lacosamide started.
DISCUSSION:As her genetic testing confirmed that her region of duplication included GABA receptor encoding genes, it is plausible that the worsening of seizures were due to induction of an abnormal GABAergic response to pregabalin.
CONCLUSION:This case may help define proper therapeutic strategies for the treatment of IDIC-15 associated seizures.
- 'Is tinnitus accompanied by hemifacial spasm in normal-hearing patients also a type of hyperactive neurovascular compression syndrome? : A magnetoencephalography study. [Journal Article]
- BMC Neurol 2013.:42.
Traditionally, tinnitus accompanied by hemifacial spasm has been considered a type of hyperactive neurovascular compression syndrome that is similar to hemifacial spasm alone because of the anatomically close relationship between the facial nerve and cochlear nerve as well as the hyperactive clinical nature.Participants were 29 subjects who presented with hemifacial spasm and neuroradiological evidence of vascular compression of the cranial (facial/cochlear) nerve. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to estimate the activity of the cochlear nerve in patients with and without tinnitus on the ipsilateral side. We compared the difference in the latency and the ratio of the equivalent current dipole (ECD) strength between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the spasm and tinnitus.Cochlear nerve activity in patients with tinnitus was increased with a shorter latency (p = 0.016) and stronger ECD strength (p = 0.028) compared with patients without tinnitus.The MEG results from normal-hearing patients who had tinnitus accompanied by hemifacial spasm suggest that the hyperactivity of the auditory central nervous system may be a crucial pathophysiological factor in the generation of tinnitus in these patients. The neurovascular compression that causes sensory input from the pathologic facial nerve activity may contribute to this hyperactivity of the central auditory nervous system.
- Surgery and risk for multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. [Journal Article]
- BMC Neurol 2013.:41.
Although the precise etiology of multiple sclerosis is largely unknown, there is some speculation that a prior history of surgery may be associated with the subsequent risk for developing the disease. Therefore, we aimed to examine surgery as a risk factor for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.We searched for observational studies that evaluated the risk for developing multiple sclerosis after surgery that occurred in childhood (≤ 20 years of age) or "premorbid" (> 20 years of age). We specifically included surgeries classified as: tonsillectomy, appendectomy, adenoidectomy, or "surgery". We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses and calculated odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model.We identified 33 case-control studies, involving 27,373 multiple sclerosis cases and 211,756 controls. There was a statistically significant association between tonsillectomy (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61; 12 studies, I2 = 44%) and appendectomy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.34; 7 studies, I2 = 0%) in individual's ≤ 20 years of age and the subsequent risk for developing multiple sclerosis. There was no statistically significant association between risk for multiple sclerosis and tonsillectomy occurring after age 20 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.94-1.53; 9 studies, I2 = 32%), in those with appendectomy at > 20 years (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.92-1.72; 5 studies, I2 = 46%), and in those with adenoidectomy at ≤ 20 years of age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.68-1.68; 3 studies, I2 = 35%). The combined OR of 15 studies (N = 2,380) looking at "surgery" before multiple sclerosis diagnosis was not statistically significant (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.83-1.70; I2 = 71%).We found a small but statistically significant and clinically important increased risk for developing multiple sclerosis, in those with tonsillectomy and appendectomy at ≤ 20 years of age. There was no convincing evidence to support the association of other surgeries and the risk for multiple sclerosis. Well-designed prospective etiological studies, pertaining to the risk for developing multiple sclerosis, ought to be conducted and should include the examination of various surgeries as risk factors.
- Rapid-developed primary malignant myoepithelioma in the cavernous sinus: a case report. [Journal Article]
- BMC Neurol 2013.:40.
Malignant myoepithelioma is a relatively rare malignant tumor occurring most frequently in the salivary glands. A few isolated cases have been described in other locations, including soft tissue, bone, lung, bronchus, oral cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, and maxillary sinus. Malignant myoepithelioma, however, is uncommonly involved within the cavernous sinus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant myoepithelioma arising from within the cavernous sinus.Herein, we report a case of a 48-year-old woman who presented a 1-month history of diplopia and blepharoptosis as well as radiological evidence of a rapidly developing cavernous sinus tumor. The patient underwent a trans-sphenoidal biopsy and a histological diagnosis indicated a malignant myoepithelioma. After diagnosis, the tumor grew rapidly and her clinical condition deteriorated progressively. Therefore, a pterional craniotomy with partial tumor removal was performed. The patient's clinical state was worsened, and she died two months after the initial operation. Because the malignant myoepithelioma could not be traced to an organ of origin, other than the cavernous sinus, this case was diagnosed as a primary intracranial malignant myoepithelioma.The purpose of presenting this case report is to raise awareness among clinicians to consider malignant myoepithelioma as a differential diagnosis when a cavernous sinus mass is identified. Furthermore, an ideal management strategy for malignant myoepithelioma is not known and the prognosis seems to be unfavorable; therefore, more cases are needed to enhance our knowledge of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this rare intracranial lesion.
- Autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia in Sri Lanka. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2013 May 1; 13(1):39.
BACKGROUND:Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Prevalence of SCA subtypes differ worldwide. Autosomal dominant ataxias are the commonest types of inherited ataxias seen in Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to determine the genetic etiology of patients with autosomal dominant ataxia in Sri Lanka and to describe the clinical features of each genetic subtype.
METHODS:Thirty four patients with autosomal dominant ataxia were recruited. For every patient the following was done: recording of clinical details and genotyping for SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 12, and 17.
RESULTS:Sixty one per cent of the subjects were identified as SCA1. One subject had SCA2, 12 remain unidentified. Mean age at onset was 34.8 +/- 10years for SCA1 and 32.7 +/- 9.8 for non SCA1. 76% of SCA1 patients and 50% of non SCA1 were using walking aids. Quantification of symptoms and signs were similar in the SCA1 and non SCA1 groups. Clinical depression was evidenced in 68.4% of SCA1 and 75% non SCA-1 patients. Mean CAG repeat length in SCA1 patients was 52.0 +/- 3.8, with greater anticipation seen with paternal inheritance.
CONCLUSION:SCA1 was the predominant subtype and showed similar phenotype to previous reports. However, disease severity was higher and depression more prevalent in this population than previously described.
- Reviewer acknowledgement 2012. [Journal Article]
- BMC Neurol 2013.:25.
CONTRIBUTING REVIEWERS: The editors of BMC Neurology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 12 (2012).
- Analysis of EIF4G1 in ethnic Chinese. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2013 Apr 26; 13(1):38.
BACKGROUND:Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-gamma 1 (EIF4G1) gene mutations have recently been reported in autosomal dominant, late-onset Parkinson's disease (LOPD). We carried out genetic analysis to determine the prevalence of EIF4G1 variants in an ethnic Chinese population and to better understand the association between EIF4G1 and PD.
METHODS:We conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of EIF4G1 in a cohort of 29 probands of autosomal dominant, LOPD families. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and sequencing was carried out of the entire EIF4G1 exonic regions and exon-intron boundaries. Specific mutation and exonic variants were chosen for further sequencing in a case--control study including 503 sporadic PD and 508 healthy controls. Statistical significance was analyzed by the Chi-square test.
RESULTS:Our analysis revealed three exonic variants (rs2230571, rs13319149 and rs2178403) and eight intronic variants across the entire EIF4G1 gene. No reported mutations were detected in EIF4G1 exonic regions. The synonymous coding variant rs2230571 in exon 27 and the eight intronic variants were not used for further sequencing, but the specific mutation c.3614G > A (p.R1205H) and the two nonsynonymous variants (rs13319149 and rs2178403) were chosen for further analysis in a case--control study. None of the 503 sporadic PD or 508 healthy controls carried p.R1205H, and there was no statistical significance in rs2178403 genotype or allele frequencies in EIF4G1 between the PD cases and the healthy controls (p = 0.184 and p = 0.774, respectively; Chi-square test). The rs13319149 genotype in all PD cases and healthy controls was GG.
CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that in an ethnic Chinese population, the pathogenic mutation p.R1205H in EIF4G1 is not common and that EIF4G1 exonic variants rs2178403 and rs13319149 are not associated with PD. EIF4G1 does not appear to be a frequent cause of PD in this ethnic Chinese population.
- Validation of patient determined disease steps (PDDS) scale scores in persons with multiple sclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2013 Apr 25; 13(1):37.
BACKGROUND:The Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) is a promising patient-reported outcome (PRO) of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, there is limited evidence regarding the validity of PDDS scores, despite its sound conceptual development and broad inclusion in MS research.This study examined the validity of the PDDS based on (1) the association with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and (2) the pattern of associations between PDDS and EDSS scores with Functional System (FS) scores as well as ambulatory and other outcomes.
METHODS:96 persons with MS provided demographic/clinical information, completed the PDDS and other PROs including the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), and underwent a neurological examination for generating FS and EDSS scores. Participants completed assessments of cognition, ambulation including the 6-minute walk (6 MW), and wore an accelerometer during waking hours over seven days.
RESULTS:There was a strong correlation between EDSS and PDDS scores (rho = .783). PDDS and EDSS scores were strongly correlated with Pyramidal (rho = .578 & rho = .647, respectively) and Cerebellar (rho = .501 & rho = .528, respectively) FS scores as well as 6 MW distance (rho = .704 & rho = .805, respectively), MSWS-12 scores (rho = .801 & rho = .729, respectively), and accelerometer steps/day (rho = -.740 & rho = -.717, respectively).
CONCLUSION:This study provides novel evidence supporting the PDDS as valid PRO of disability in MS.
- Shear rate specific blood viscosity and shear stress of carotid artery in patients with lacunar infarction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Neurol 2013 Apr 18; 13(1):36.