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- Everolimus: A Guide to Its Use in Liver Transplantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 May 22.
The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (Zortress(®), Certican(®)) was recently approved in the USA and a number of EU countries for use in combination with a reduced dosage of tacrolimus and corticosteroids for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult liver transplant recipients. Compared with standard-exposure tacrolimus, early use of everolimus plus a reduced dosage of tacrolimus did not compromise efficacy in liver transplant recipients. In addition, significantly better renal function with everolimus plus reduced-exposure tacrolimus than with standard-exposure tacrolimus was seen from 6 weeks post-transplant onwards. Everolimus plus reduced-exposure tacrolimus has an acceptable tolerability profile in liver transplant recipients.
- Targeting CD22 in B-cell Malignancies: Current Status and Clinical Outlook. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 May 22.
CD22 is a B-cell-specific transmembrane glycoprotein found on the surface of most B cells; it modulates B-cell function, survival and apoptosis. CD22 has emerged as an ideal target for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy of B-cell malignancies including most lymphomas and many leukemias. Epratuzumab, an anti-CD22 mAb, has been developed in various forms, including as an unlabeled (naked) mAb, as a radioimmunotherapeutic, as an antibody drug conjugate (ADC), and as a vehicle for CD22-targeted nanoparticles. While clinical trials with unlabeled epratuzumab have demonstrated modest results, its combination with rituximab in phase II studies has been more encouraging. Based on the potential for CD22 to become internalized, CD22-targeted constructs carrying radioisotopes or toxins have generated promising results. Radioimmunotherapy, utilizing (90)Y-labeled epratuzumab, was shown to be highly effective in patients with follicular lymphoma, generating a complete response (CR) rate of 92 % and progression-free survival of more than 2 years. ADC therapy is a promising therapeutic approach to B-cell malignancies which includes the direct conjugation of mAbs with cytotoxic agents. Phase II studies of inotuzumab ozogamicin, an ADC which combines anti-CD22 mAb with calicheamicin, an enediyne antibiotic which mediates apoptosis, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have produced an overall response rate (ORR) of greater than 50 % in treatment-refractory patients. Phase I trials of moxetumomab pasudotox, an ADC which combines anti-CD22 with PE38, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, have been completed in hairy cell leukemia with a ORR of 86 %. Finally, a review of CD22-targeted nanoparticles, that include a doxorubicin-containing lipid complex that uses synthetic high-affinity CD22 ligand mimetics as well as anti-CD22 mAb-coated pegylated liposomas doxorubin (PLD), has demonstrated promising results in pre-clinical models of human lymphoma. Moreover, novel anti-CD22 mAb that block CD22 ligand binding as well as second generation ADC that utilize biodegradable linkers and more potent toxins hold great hope for the future of CD22-targeted therapeutics that may translate into better outcomes for patients with CD22-positive malignancies.
- Evolving Approaches to Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Pre-treated with Anthracycline and Taxane. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 May 9.
Metastatic breast cancer is currently incurable and the goals of therapy focus on prolonging survival and maintaining quality of life by controlling symptoms and minimizing toxicity. Treatments for metastatic breast cancer include chemotherapeutic agents from various classes, such as taxanes, vinca alkaloids, anthracyclines and antimetabolites. This review provides an overview of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes, focusing on a clinical evaluation of eribulin, the most recently approved agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Eribulin is a synthetic derivative of halichondrin B, a tumour growth inhibitor found in marine sponges, which prevents microtubule growth and sequesters the tubulin molecules into unusual aggregates, initiating apoptosis. Studies of eribulin have shown that the drug is effective in the treatment of previously treated metastatic breast cancer, and has an acceptable toxicity profile. Importantly, in the phase III EMBRACE study, eribulin treatment resulted in a survival advantage, a difficult endpoint to achieve with a single chemotherapeutic agent. An additional phase III study showed that eribulin has similar efficacy to capecitabine in women treated with no more than three prior therapies. Furthermore, pre-specified exploratory analyses suggest that particular patient subgroups may have greater therapeutic benefit with eribulin and may warrant further study to explore the potential mechanisms.
- Cationic Host Defence Peptides: Potential as Antiviral Therapeutics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 May 7.
There is a pressing need to develop new antiviral treatments; of the 60 drugs currently available, half are aimed at HIV-1 and the remainder target only a further six viruses. This demand has led to the emergence of possible peptide therapies, with 15 currently in clinical trials. Advancements in understanding the antiviral potential of naturally occurring host defence peptides highlights the potential of a whole new class of molecules to be considered as antiviral therapeutics. Cationic host defence peptides, such as defensins and cathelicidins, are important components of innate immunity with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory capabilities. In recent years they have also been shown to be natural, broad-spectrum antivirals against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and herpes simplex virus. Here we review the antiviral properties of several families of these host peptides and their potential to inform the design of novel therapeutics.
- Canakinumab: A Guide to Its Use in Acute Gouty Arthritis Flares. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 May 7.
Canakinumab (Ilaris(®)), an anti-interleukin-1β monoclonal antibody, is a novel approach to treat acute gouty arthritis flares in a targeted population of patients in whom treatment options are limited. Relative to on-demand treatment with intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg, on-demand treatment with subcutaneous canakinumab 150 mg significantly relieved the pain and inflammation of a new gout flare, and reduced the risk of new flares in patients with acute gouty arthritis flares in whom standard treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and/or colchicine was inappropriate. Canakinumab has an acceptable tolerability profile in this difficult-to-treat population. The increased risk of infections and neutropenia associated with canakinumab treatment can be minimized by following the recommended precautions.
- Physicochemical and Functional Comparability Between the Proposed Biosimilar Rituximab GP2013 and Originator Rituximab. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 May 7.
BACKGROUND:Regulatory approval for a biosimilar product is provided on the basis of its comparability to an originator product. A thorough physicochemical and functional comparability exercise is a key element in demonstrating biosimilarity. Here we report the characterization of a proposed biosimilar rituximab (GP2013) and originator rituximab.
OBJECTIVE:To compare GP2013 with originator rituximab using an extensive array of routine analytical and extended characterization methods.
METHODS:Primary and higher order protein structures were analyzed using a variety of methods that included high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), peptide mapping with UV and MS detection, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) MS, 1D (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Charge and amino acid modifications were assessed using cation exchange chromatography (CEX) and peptide mapping using reversed-phase (RP) HPLC. Boronate affinity chromatography was used to determine the relative amount of glycation. Glycans were identified and quantified after 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) labeling and separation using normal phase HPLC with fluorescence and MS detection, respectively. Glycan site occupancy was determined using reducing capillary electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS). Size heterogeneity was determined using reducing and non-reducing CE-SDS, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4). Biological characterization included a series of bioassays (in vitro target binding, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity [ADCC], complement-dependent cytotoxicity [CDC] and apoptosis) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) Fc receptor binding assays.
RESULTS:Intact mass analysis of GP2013 and the heavy and light chains using RP HPLC-ESI-MS revealed the expected molecular mass of rituximab. The amino acid sequence was shown to be identical between GP2013 and the originator rituximab. Further sequence confirmation using RP-HPLC-UV/MS peptide mapping showed non-distinguishable chromatograms for Lys-C digested GP2013 and originator rituximab. The higher order structure of GP2013 was shown to be indistinguishable from originator rituximab using a large panel of redundant and orthogonal methods. GP2013 and originator rituximab were comparable with regard to charge variants, specific amino acid modifications and the glycan pattern. GP2013 was also shown to have similar purity, aggregate and particle levels when compared with the originator. Functionally, and by using a comprehensive set of bioassays and binding assays covering a broad range of rituximab's functional activities, GP2013 could not be distinguished from originator rituximab.
CONCLUSION:GP2013 was shown to be physicochemically highly similar to originator rituximab at the level of primary and higher order structure, post-translational modifications and size variants. An extensive functional characterization package indicated that GP2013 has the same biological properties as originator rituximab.
- The Th17 Pathway as a Therapeutic Target in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Other Autoimmune and Inflammatory Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 Apr 26.
Production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 by Th17 cells and other cells of the immune system protects the host against bacterial and fungal infections, but also promotes the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Several biologicals targeting IL-17, the IL-17 receptor, or IL-17-related pathways are being tested in clinical trials, and might ultimately lead to better treatment for patients suffering from various IL-17-mediated disorders. In this review, we provide a clear overview of current knowledge on Th17 cell regulation and the main Th17 effector cytokines in relation to IL-17-mediated conditions, as well as on recent IL-17-related drug developments. We demonstrate that targeting the Th17 pathway is a promising treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and various other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, improvements in technical developments assisting in the identification of patients suffering from IL-17-driven disease are needed to enable the application of tailor-made, personalized medicine.
- A Review of Dendritic Cell Therapy for Cancer: Progress and Challenges. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 Apr 17.
Dendritic cells are the professional antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system with the potential to generate robust antigen-specific T cell immune responses. Immunotherapeutic strategies have attempted to monopolize on this ability of dendritic cells to deliver antigens as a means of therapeutic vaccination in individuals with advanced malignancies. Since the publication of the first clinical trial in melanoma patients in 1995, therapeutic dendritic cell cancer vaccines have been extensively studied in numerous phase I and II trials. While advances have been encountered (especially with prostate cancer), there are still considerable challenges that need to be addressed in future clinical trials. In this review, we describe the current methodology and highlight trials which have contributed to the development of dendritic cell vaccines. We then review strategies to optimize dendritic cell vaccines in order to improve antitumor responses in cancer patients.
- Genome-Based Bacterial Vaccines: Current State and Future Outlook. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 Apr 16.
Genome-based reverse vaccinology (RV) is a multi-step experimental strategy which starts from in silico analysis of whole genome sequences, from which vaccine candidates can be selected by using bioinformatic algorithms to identify putative protective antigens. In this review, we examine the current state of genome-based RV-engineered vaccines and future applications. The first product of genome-based RV is Bexsero(®), a vaccine developed for preventing Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B infection, and the strategy is currently being used for the development of new vaccines for other obdurate and emerging bacterial diseases. Improved sequencing technologies and the ongoing whole-genome sequence analyses of helminths, protozoa, and ectoparasites also currently serve as a basis for an RV strategy to produce new potential vaccines against eukaryotic pathogens. We also highlight an emerging approach-structure-based vaccinology-that exploits the information derived from the determined three-dimensional structures of vaccine candidates. Regardless, genome-based RV and other vaccine discovery platforms still depend on empirical experimental science to glean, from the hundreds of identified antigens from any one pathogen, those that should be combined to produce an effective vaccine.
- Adalimumab: A Review of Its Use in the Treatment of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BioDrugs 2013 Apr 12.
Adalimumab is a fully human, recombinant, monoclonal IgG1 antibody specific for the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α. It is approved for the treatment of patients with inflammatory diseases, including adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis who are refractory to, or intolerant of, corticosteroids and/or immunomodulators. In two well-designed 8- and 52-week clinical trials in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis despite treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunomodulators, subcutaneous adalimumab (160 mg, week 0; 80 mg, week 2; 40 mg every other week starting at week 4) was more effective than placebo for inducing and maintaining clinical remission. A statistically significant effect size (albeit <10 %) over placebo for the remission per Mayo score (primary endpoint) was observed with adalimumab at 8 weeks in both trials and at 52 weeks in one trial. Compared with placebo, adalimumab was associated with reductions in hospitalizations and improvements in other secondary endpoints, including clinical response, mucosal healing, corticosteroid-sparing, and health-related quality of life measures. Additionally, an early response to adalimumab was shown to be predictive of long-term efficacy. Adalimumab was generally well tolerated, compared with placebo, during clinical trials in patients with ulcerative colitis; the adverse event profile was similar to that in patients with Crohn's disease or other approved indications. Adalimumab provides a new treatment option for patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis who are refractory to, or intolerant of, corticosteroids and/or immunomodulators.