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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem [journal]
- Two jacalin-related lectins from seeds of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana L.). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug 26.:1-9.
Two jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) were purified by mannose-agarose and melibiose-agarose from seeds of Treculia africana. One is galactose-recognizing JRL (gJRL), named T. africana agglutinin-G (TAA-G), and another one is mannose-recognizing JRL (mJRL), TAA-M. The yields of the two lectins from the seed flour were approximately 7.0 mg/g for gJRL and 7.2 mg/g for mJRL. The primary structure of TAA-G was determined by protein sequencing of lysyl endopeptic peptides and chymotryptic peptides. The sequence identity of TAA-G to other gJRLs was around 70%. Two-residue insertion was found around the sugar-binding sites, compared with the sequences of other gJRLs. Crystallographic studies on other gJRLs have shown that the primary sugar-binding site of gJRLs can accommodate Gal, GalNAc, and GalNAc residue of T-antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-). However, hemagglutination inhibition and glycan array showed that TAA-G did not recognize GalNAc itself and T-antigen. TAA-G preferred melibiose and core 3 O-glycan.
- Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves exercise economy and reduces perceived exertion during submaximal steady-state exercise in normal healthy untrained men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug 21.:1-8.
Based on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on reduction of blood viscosity, we theorized that PUFA could improve aerobic performance by increasing oxygen supply to tissues. Twenty male subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): a fish oil group (FG) and a control (CG). Maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise were measured using a cycle ergometer. For 8 weeks, the FG then ingested capsules containing 3.6 g/day of EPA-rich fish oil, while the CG took 3.6 g/day of a medium-chain triglyceride. After supplementation, erythrocyte EPA and DHA in the FG were significantly increased. In the FG, a negative linear correlation was detected in the change between erythrocyte EPA and whole oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise pre- and post-supplementation. The present study showed that EPA-rich fish oil supplementation improves exercise economy in humans.
- Inhibition by acrolein of light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of inward-rectifying potassium channels in Arabidopsis thaliana. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug 21.:1-4.
Acrolein is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde derived from lipid peroxides, which are produced in plants under a variety of stress. We investigated effects of acrolein on light-induced stomatal opening using Arabidopsis thaliana. Acrolein inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited plasma membrane inward-rectifying potassium (Kin) channels in guard cells. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited Kin channel KAT1 expressed in a heterologous system using Xenopus leaves oocytes. These results suggest that acrolein inhibits light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of Kin channels in guard cells.
- The sole cysteine residue (Cys301) of tetrathionate hydrolase from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans does not play a role in enzyme activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug 21.:1-6.
Cysteine residues are absolutely indispensable for the reactions of almost all enzymes involved in the dissimilatory oxidation pathways of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. Tetrathionate hydrolase from the acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (Af-Tth) catalyzes tetrathionate hydrolysis to generate elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfate. Af-Tth is a key enzyme in the dissimilatory sulfur oxidation pathway in this bacterium. Only one cysteine residue (Cys301) has been identified in the deduced amino acid sequence of the Af-Tth gene. In order to clarify the role of the sole cysteine residue, a site-specific mutant enzyme (C301A) was generated. No difference was observed in the retention volumes of the wild-type and mutant Af-Tth enzymes by gel-filtration column chromatography, and surprisingly the enzyme activities measured in the cysteine-deficient and wild-type enzymes were the same. These results suggest that the sole cysteine residue (Cys301) in Af-Tth is involved in neither the tetrathionate hydrolysis reaction nor the subunit assembly. Af-Tth may thus have a novel cysteine-independent reaction mechanism.
- Antioxidant activities of cysteine derivatives against lipid oxidation in anhydrous media. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug; 78(8):1452-5.
This study investigated antioxidant activities of cysteine derivatives of amino and carboxylic acid moieties against lipid oxidation in anhydrous acetonitrile. Only cysteine derivatives bearing free amino or carboxylate ion were found to exert potent antioxidant activities. Sequential proton loss and electron transfer-like proton shift and subsequent electron transfer (PS-ET) mechanism may facilitate the antioxidant activities of cysteine derivatives against lipid oxidation in anhydrous media.
- Evaluation of bifidobacterial adhesion to acidic sugar chains of porcine colonic mucins. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug; 78(8):1444-51.
The aim of this study was to assess the adhesion of Bifidobacterium strains to acidic carbohydrate moieties of porcine colonic mucin. Mucins were extracted and purified via gel filtration chromatography followed by density-gradient ultracentrifugation. The presence of sulfated and sialylated carbohydrates in mucins was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using PGM34 and HMC31 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), respectively. Adhesion of Bifidobacterium strains to mucin preparations was markedly affected by the degree of purification. In eight of 22 strains, we observed increased adhesion to mucin preparations purified by ultracentrifugation. Moreover, in some of these eight strains, adhesion to mucin was reduced by pretreatment with sulfatase and/or sialidase, and competitively inhibited by pretreatment with PGM34 and/or HCM31 mAbs. Our results showed that some Bifidobacterium strains adhered to sulfo- and/or sialomucin and were able to recognize carbohydrate structures of the mAbs epitopes.
- Comparison of hydrophilic variation and bioethanol production of furfural residues after delignification pretreatment. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug; 78(8):1435-43.
Furfural residue (FR) is a waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. In this study, bioethanol production from FR after delignification was compared. Hydrophilic variation was measured by conductometric titration to detect the relationship between hydrophilicity and bioethanol production. It was found that ethanol yield increased as delignification enhanced, and it reached up to 75.6% of theoretical yield for samples with 8.7% lignin. The amount of by-products decreased as delignification increased. New inflection points appeared in conductometric titration curves of samples that were partially delignified, but they vanished in the curves of the highly delignified samples. Total charges and carboxyl levels increased after slight delignification, and they decreased upon further delignification. These phenomena suggested some new hydrophilic groups were formed during pretreated delignification, which would be beneficial to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, some newly formed groups may act as toxicant to the yeast during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.
- A cell wall protein (YqgA) is genetically related to the cell wall-degrading dl-endopeptidases in Bacillus subtilis. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug; 78(8):1428-34.
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has a thick cell wall. The cell wall contains various proteins, both for secretion and for peptidoglycan (PG) maintenance. Penicillin-binding proteins for PG synthesis, PG hydrolases (autolysins), and regulator proteins for the autolysins are the known components of the PG maintenance system. YqgA was identified as an abundant protein attached to the cell wall of B. subtilis through a proteomics analysis. The YqgA protein was localized at cell division sites during the transition period between the exponential and the stationary phases. YqgA localization was affected by mutations in the dl-endopeptidases (DLEPases), which are the autolysins involved in cell morphogenesis. Furthermore, yqgA mutations on a background of defective DLEPases led to delays in cell growth and cell morphological changes. These results demonstrate that yqgA is genetically related to the genes encoding DLEPases involved in cell morphogenesis.
- Optimization of culture conditions of Fusarium solani for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug; 78(8):1421-7.
The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions of Fusarium solani KCCM90040 on cereal grain for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide, a novel low-molecular-weight cyclic pentadepsipeptide exhibiting cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal effects. From the analysis of variance results using response surface methodology, temperature, initial moisture content, and growth time were shown to be important parameters for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on cereal grain. A model was established in the present study to describe the relationship between environmental conditions and the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on rice, the selected cereal grain. The optimal culture conditions were determined at 25.79 °C with the initial moisture content of 40.79%, and 16.19 days of growth time. This report will give important information concerning the optimization of environmental conditions using statistic methodology for the production of a new cyclic pentadepsipeptide from fungi.
- Diallyl trisulfide induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells by the modification of cysteine residues in thioredoxin. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Aug; 78(8):1418-20.
We reported the regulation of protein function by oxidative modification of the specific cysteine residue(s) by diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In this study, we examined if DATS modifies the cysteine residue of thioredoxin (Trx) by urea-polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis. DATS modified two specific cysteine residues in Trx and this oxidative modification of cysteine residues would be sole causative of the apoptosis induced by DATS in leukemic cells.