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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem [journal]
- Identification of the region of rice 13 kDa prolamin essential for the formation of ER-derived protein bodies using a heterologous expression system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 18.:1-8.
Cereal prolamins, which are alcohol-soluble seed storage proteins, can induce ER-derived protein bodies (PBs) in heterologous tissue. Like maize and wheat prolamins, rice prolamins can form ER-derived PBs, but the region of mature polypeptides that is essential for PB formation has not been identified. In this study, we examined the formation mechanisms of ER-derived PB-like structures by expressing rice 13 kDa prolamin-deletion mutants fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in heterologous tissues such as yeast. The 13 kDa prolamin-GFP fusion protein was stably accumulated in transgenic yeast and formed an ER-derived PB-like structure. In contrast, rice α-globulin-GFP fusion protein was transported to vacuoles. In addition, the middle and COOH-terminal regions of 13 kDa prolamin formed ER-derived PB-like structures, whereas the NH2-terminal region of 13 kDa prolamin did not form such structures. These results suggest that the middle and COOH-terminal regions of 13 kDa prolamin can be retained and thus can induce ER-derived PB in yeast.
- Lactosucrose attenuates intestinal inflammation by promoting Th2 cytokine production and enhancing CD86 expression in colitic rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 18.:1-9.
Some oligosaccharides have immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory functions in the intestine. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effect of lactosucrose (LS) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitic rats. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased but myeloperoxidase activity was decreased in the LS-TNBS group, as compared with the TNBS group (colitis rats without receiving LS). LS supplementation stimulated IL-4 and IL-10 production, while up-regulating CD86 expression in dendritic cells. LS supplementation reduced the ratio of CD80/CD86 and the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 compared to the TNBS group. Moreover, IFN-γ was significantly correlated with CD80 (r = 0.764, p < 0.01), whereas IL-4 was significantly correlated with CD86 (r = 0.489, p < 0.05). These results indicated that LS attenuated colitis by promoting the production of Th2-type cytokines and rebalancing the ratio of Th1/Th2 and that enhanced IL-4 production is correlated with enhanced CD86 expression in the gut. Therefore, LS is a functional food for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
- Functional and structural characteristics of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Pyrococcus horikoshii. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 17.:1-8.
Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) requires 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor and is widely distributed in organisms from bacteria and animals. Although genes encoding putative MCMs are present in many archaea, they are separately encoded in large and small subunits. The large and small subunits of archaeal MCM are similar to the catalytic and AdoCbl-binding domains of human MCM, respectively. In Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3, putative genes PH1306 and PH0275 encode the large and small subunits, respectively. Because information on archaeal MCM is extremely restricted, we examined the functional and structural characteristics of P. horikoshii MCM. Reconstitution experiments using recombinant PH0275 and PH1306 showed that these proteins assemble in equimolar ratios and form of heterotetrameric complexes in the presence of AdoCbl. Subsequent immunoprecipitation experiments using anti-PH0275 and anti-PH1306 antibodies suggested that PH0275 and PH1306 form a complex in P. horikoshii cells in the presence of AdoCbl.
- In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of natural plant-derived compounds against Vibrio cholerae of O1 El Tor Inaba serotype. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 17.:1-9.
In this study, we investigated antibacterial activities of 20 plant-derived natural compounds against Gram-negative enteric pathogens. We found that both flavonoids and non-flavonoids, including honokiol and magnolol, possess specific antibacterial activities against V. cholerae, but not against other species of Gram-negative bacterium which we tested. Using various antibacterial assays, we determined that there was a dose-dependent bactericidal and biofilm inhibitory activity of honokiol and magnolol against Vibrio cholerae. In addition to antibacterial activities, these molecules also induced an attenuating effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and pro-inflammatory responses generated by macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Additionally, Caenorhabditis elegans lethality assay revealed that honokiol and magnolol have an ability to extend a lifespan of V. cholerae-infected worms, contributing to prolonged survival of worms after lethal infection. Altogether, our data show for the first time that honokiol and magnolol may be considered as attractive protective or preventive food adjuncts for cholera.
- The opioid system majorly contributes to preference for fat emulsions but not sucrose solutions in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 17.:1-6.
Rodents show a stronger preference for fat than sucrose, even if their diet is isocaloric. This implies that the preference mechanisms for fat and sucrose differ. To compare the contribution of the opioid system to the preference of fat and sucrose, we examined the effects of mu-, delta-, kappa-, and non-selective opioid receptor antagonists on the preference of sucrose and fat, assessed by a two-bottle choice test and a licking test, in mice naïve to sucrose and fat ingestion. Administration of non-selective and mu-selective opioid receptor antagonists more strongly inhibited the preference of fat than sucrose. While the preference of fat was reduced to the same level as water by the antagonist administration that of sucrose was still greater than water. Our results suggest that the preference of fat relies strongly on the opioid system, while that of sucrose is regulated by other mechanisms in addition to the opioid system.
- Perfluorooctanoic acid binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and promotes adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 17.:1-4.
We examined the effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on adipose cells using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that PFOA increased adipocyte differentiation, triglyceride accumulation, and the mRNA level of factors related to adipocyte differentiation. In addition, PFOA bound to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ). These results suggest that PFOA promotes adipocyte differentiation as a PPAR γ ligand.
- Identification and characterization of the interactive proteins with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2α [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 17.:1-11.
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2α (CTLA-2α) is a potent inhibitor of cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases. Recombinant CTLA-2α is known to be a potent, competitive inhibitor of cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases. In this study, cathepsin L, cathepsin C, and tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-related protein 1 (TINAGL1) were identified as novel interactive proteins of CTLA-2α by the yeast two-hybrid screening system. The direct interactions and co-localization of these proteins with CTLA-2α were confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The disulfide-bonded CTLA-2α/cathepsin L complex was isolated from mouse tissue. CTLA-2α was found to be specific and consistently expressed on the maternal side of the mouse placenta. Double immunofluorescence analysis showed that CTLA-2α was co-localized with cathepsin L, cathepsin C, and TINAGL1 in placenta. A simple cell-based fluorescence assay revealed that CTLA-2α exhibited inhibitory activity toward cathepsin C in live cells, which indicated that CTLA-2α is a novel endogenous inhibitor of cathepsin C.
- Screening of lactic acid bacteria that can form mixed-species biofilm with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 17.:1-6.
The abilities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to form mixed-species biofilm with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a static co-culture were investigated out of 168 LAB stock cultures, and two Lactobacillus plantarum strains (D71 and E31) and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain K01 were found to form mixed-species biofilm with S. cerevisiae BY4741. SEM observation showed that there was no significant difference in morphological properties among these three mixed-species biofilms and they resembled that formed by S. cerevisiae with L. plantarum ML11-11 previously isolated from a brewing sample of Fukuyama pot vinegar. The co-aggregation assays showed that L. plantarum D71 and L. plantarum E31 could co-aggregate with S. cerevisiae similarly to L. plantarum ML11-11, while L. mesenteroides K01 had no ability to co-aggregate with yeast. The above results indicate that aggregation followed by direct cell-to-cell contact is required for mixed-species biofilm formation between these L. plantarum strains and S. cerevisiae, though some different mechanism may be involved in biofilm formation between L. mesenteroides strain and S. cerevisiae.
- Asp48 function in the hydrogen-bonding network involving Asp52 of hen egg-white lysozyme. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 16.:1-9.
To characterize the hydrogen-bonding network in lysozyme, we focused on the residue of Asp48 located at the active site in hen egg-white lysozyme. We constructed a mutant lysozyme (D48A) and analyzed using (GlcNAc)3 and chitin-affinity chromatography. The substrate binding of subsites D-F in D48A and the activity against (GlcNAc)5 were decreased. The parameters of substrate binding and rate constants obtained from computer simulations confirmed these changes. In the crystal structure, (GlcNAc)4 was located at the same position as wildtype. However, the side chains of Arg45 and Thr47 at subsites E-F were moved by the replacement. Further, the loss of the hydrogen bond between Asp48 and Ser50 changed the hydrogen-bonding network, and this resulted in an alteration of the side chain of Asn59. This result suggests that the hydrogen-bonding network plays a crucial in the function of Asp52 and of transglycosylation at subsites E-F.
- Gene expression profiling of coelomic cells and discovery of immune-related genes in the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, using expressed sequence tags. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Dec 11.:1-7.
The coelomic cells of the earthworm consist of leukocytes, chlorogocytes, and coelomocytes, which play an important role in innate immunity reactions. To gain insight into the expression profiles of coelomic cells of the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, we analyzed 1151 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from the cDNA library of the coelomic cells. Among the 1151 ESTs analyzed, 493 ESTs (42.8%) showed a significant similarity to known genes and represented 164 unique genes, of which 93 ESTs were singletons and 71 ESTs manifested as two or more ESTs. From the 164 unique genes sequenced, we found 24 immune-related and cell defense genes. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that levels of lysenin-related proteins mRNA in coelomic cells of E. andrei were upregulated after the injection of Bacillus subtilis bacteria. This EST data-set would provide a valuable resource for future researches of earthworm immune system.