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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem [journal]
- Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Oct 30.:1-5.
RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.
- Late-maturing cooking rice Sensyuraku has excellent properties, equivalent to sake rice, for high-quality sake brewing. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov; 78(11):1954-62.
Low protein content and sufficient grain rigidity are desired properties for the rice used in high-quality sake brewing such as Daiginjo-shu (polishing ratio of the rice, less than 50%). Two kinds of rice, sake rice (SR) and cooking rice (CR), have been used for sake brewing. Compared with those of SR, analyses of CR for high-quality sake brewing using highly polished rice have been limited. Here we described the original screening of late-maturing CR Sensyuraku (SEN) as rice with low protein content and characterization of its properties for high-quality sake brewing. The protein content of SEN was lower than those of SR Gohyakumangoku (GOM) and CR Yukinosei (YUK), and its grain rigidity was higher than that of GOM. The excellent properties of SEN with respect to both water-adsorption and enzyme digestibility were confirmed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Further, we confirmed a clear taste of sake produced from SEN by sensory evaluation. Thus, SEN has excellent properties, equivalent to those of SR, for high-quality sake brewing.
- VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 and VOZ2 repress the FLOWERING LOCUS C clade members to control flowering time in Arabidopsis. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov; 78(11):1850-5.
Floral transition is regulated by environmental and endogenous signals. Previously, we identified VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2 as phytochrome B-interacting factors. VOZ1 and VOZ2 redundantly promote flowering and have pivotal roles in the downregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a central repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis. Here, we showed that the late-flowering phenotypes of the voz1 voz2 mutant were suppressed by vernalization in the Columbia and FRIGIDA (FRI)-containing accessions, which indicates that the late-flowering phenotype of voz1 voz2 mutants was caused by upregulation of FLC. We also showed that the other FLC clade members, MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING (MAF) genes, were also a downstream target of VOZ1 and VOZ2 as their expression levels were also increased in the voz1 voz2 mutant. Our results suggest that the FLC clade genes integrate signals from VOZ1/VOZ2 and vernalization to regulate flowering.
- Does the brassinosteroid signal pathway in photomorphogenesis overlap with the gravitropic response caused by auxin? [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov; 78(11):1839-49.
Brassinosteroid (BR) and auxin co-regulate plant growth in a process termed cross-talking. Based on the assumption that their signal transductions are partially shared, inhibitory chemicals for both signal transductions were screened from a commercially available library. A chemical designated as NJ15 (ethyl 2-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrazole-2-yl]acetate) diminished the growth promotion of both adzuki bean epicotyls and Arabidopsis seedlings, by the application of either BR or auxin. To understand its target site(s), bioassays with a high dependence on the signal transduction of either BR (BR-signaling) or auxin (AX-signaling) were performed. NJ15 inhibited the photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark, which mainly depends on BR-signaling, while NJ15 also inhibited their gravitropic responses mainly depending on AX-signaling. On the study for the structure-activity relationships of NJ15 analogs, they showed strong correlations on the inhibitory profiles between BR- and AX-signalings. These correlations imply that NJ15 targets the downstream pathway after the integration of BR- and AX-signals.
- Lgr4 is required for endometrial receptivity acquired through ovarian hormone signaling. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov; 78(11):1813-6.
Previously, using the Keratin5-Cre transgenic mouse model we reported that female Lgr4-conditional KO mice (Lgr4(K5 KO)) showed subfertility with defective stromal decidualization due to abnormal development of the uterine gland. However, the impact of the LGR4 defect on luminal epithelial cells was not investigated in the previous report. Here, we focused on the receptive state of the luminal epithelium in Lgr4(K5 KO) mice that received ovarian hormone treatment. In Lgr4(K5 KO) mice, progesterone failed to inhibit the luminal epithelial cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR analyses revealed down-regulated progesterone signaling in the uterus of Lgr4(K5 KO) mice. These results demonstrated that LGR4 is essential for the acquisition of endometrial receptivity through ovarian hormone signaling.
- Topical application of ALK5 inhibitor A-83-01 reduces burn wound contraction in rats by suppressing myofibroblast population. [Journal Article]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov; 78(11):1805-12.
Burn scar contracture that follows the healing of deep dermal burns causes severe deformation and functional impairment. However, its current therapeutic interventions are limited with unsatisfactory outcomes. When we treated deep second-degree burns in rat skin with activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) inhibitor A-83-01, it reduced wound contraction and enhanced the area of re-epithelialization so that the overall time for wound closing was not altered. In addition, it reduced myofibroblast population in the dermis of burn scar with a diminished deposition of its biomarker proteins such as α-SMA and collagen. Treatment of rat dermal fibroblast with A-83-01 inhibited transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-dependent induction of α-SMA and collagen type I. Taken together, these results suggest that topical application of ALK5 inhibitor A-83-01 could be effective in preventing the contraction of burn wound without delaying the wound closure by virtue of its inhibitory activity against the TGF-β-induced increase of myofibroblast population.
- Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Oct 29.:1-9.
We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.
- Roles of Ala-149 in the catalytic activity of diadenosine tetraphosphate phosphorylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Oct 28.:1-3.
Diadenosine 5',5'''-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MtAPA) belongs to the histidine triad motif (HIT) superfamily, but is the only member with an alanine residue at position 149 (Ala-149). Enzymatic analysis revealed that the Ala-149 deletion mutant displayed substrate specificity for diadenosine 5',5'''-P(1),P(5)-pentaphosphate and was inactive on Ap4A and other substrates that are utilized by the wild-type enzyme.
- Enhanced chondrogenesis with upregulation of PKR using a novel hydrostatic pressure bioreactor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Oct 28.:1-3.
In this study, we developed a novel bioreactor to load hydrostatic pressure to promote chondrogenesis of prechondrogenic ATDC5 cells in as little as 3 days. Furthermore, we showed that loading hydrostatic pressure induced the upregulation of PKR, which is known to participate in mechanotransduction in various models.
- Mechanisms of the tRNA wobble cytidine modification essential for AUA codon decoding in prokaryotes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Oct 28.:1-7.
Bacteria and archaea have 2-lysylcytidine (L or lysidine) and 2-agmatinylcytidine (agm(2)C or agmatidine), respectively, at the first (wobble) position of the anticodon of the AUA codon-specific tRNA(Ile). These lysine- or agmatine-conjugated cytidine derivatives are crucial for the precise decoding of the genetic code. L is synthesized by tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthetase (TilS), which uses l-lysine and ATP as substrates. Agm(2)C formation is catalyzed by tRNA(Ile)-agm(2)C synthetase (TiaS), which uses agmatine and ATP for the reaction. Despite the fact that TilS and TiaS synthesize structurally similar cytidine derivatives, these enzymes belong to non-related protein families. Therefore, these enzymes modify the wobble cytidine by distinct catalytic mechanisms, in which TilS activates the C2 carbon of the wobble cytidine by adenylation, while TiaS activates it by phosphorylation. In contrast, TilS and TiaS share similar tRNA recognition mechanisms, in which the enzymes recognize the tRNA acceptor stem to discriminate tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Met).