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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem [journal]
- Degradation of benzotrifluoride via the dioxygenase pathway in Rhodococcus sp. 065240. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 21.:1-9.
We previously isolated Rhodococcus sp. 065240, which catalyzes the defluorination of benzotrifluoride (BTF). In order to investigate the mechanism of this degradation of BTF, we performed proteomic analysis of cells grown with or without BTF. Three proteins, which resemble dioxygenase pathway enzymes responsible for isopropylbenzene degradation from Rhodococcus erythropolis BD2, were induced by BTF. Genomic PCR and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the Rhodococcus sp. 065240 carries the gene cluster, btf, which is highly homologous to the ipb gene cluster from R. erythropolis BD2. A mutant strain, which could not catalyze BTF defluorination, was isolated from 065240 strain by UV mutagenesis. The mutant strain had one mutation in the btfT gene, which encodes a response regulator of the two component system. The defluorinating ability of the mutant strain was recovered by complementation of btfT. These results suggest that the btf gene cluster is responsible for degradation of BTF.
- Effects of clbR overexpression on enzyme production in Aspergillus aculeatus vary depending on the cellulosic biomass-degrading enzyme species. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 20.:1-8.
ClbR is a Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional activator that controls the expression of cellulase-related genes in response to Avicel and cellobiose in Aspergillus aculeatus. A clbR-overexpressing strain (clbR-OE) that expresses the clbR gene at levels sevenfold higher than the control strain sustainably produced xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities during 10-day cultivation of A. aculeatus, enabling synchronization of xylanolytic and cellulolytic activities at a maximum level. However, clbR overexpression did not simultaneously increase levels of all xylanolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed markedly increased production of FIa-xylanase in clbR-OE, whereas expression of FIII-avicelase and FII-carboxymethyl cellulase was unaffected and expression of hydrocellulase was lower in clbR-OE than in the control. Northern blot analysis confirmed that these effects of clbR overexpression on enzyme production were mediated at the transcriptional level. These data suggest that ClbR participates in diverse signaling pathways to control the expression of cellulosic biomass-degrading enzymes in A. aculeatus.
- Both HMG boxes in Hmo1 are essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 20.:1-10.
Hmo1, a member of the high mobility group B family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, associates with the promoters of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Here, to identify factors involved in the binding of Hmo1 to its targets and the mechanism of Hmo1-dependent transcriptional initiation, we developed a novel reporter system using the promoter of the RPG RPS5. A genetic screen did not identify any factors that influence Hmo1 binding, but did identify a number of mutations in Hmo1 that impair its DNA binding activity in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Hmo1 binds to its target promoters autonomously without any aid of additional factors. Furthermore, characterization of Hmo1 mutants showed that the box A domain plays a pivotal role in DNA binding and may be required for the recognition of structural properties of target promoters that occur in native chromatin.
- Multicopy integration and expression of heterologous genes in the oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 20.:1-4.
The oleaginous yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi, is an excellent lipid producer with great industrial potential. However, methods for molecular breeding have not been established for L. starkeyi. We describe the development of a system for targeted rDNA integration of multiple copies of a gene into L. starkeyi genome by spheroplast-polyethylene glycol transformation.
- Increased dipicolinic acid production with an enhanced spoVF operon in Bacillus subtilis and medium optimization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 17.:1-7.
Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is a multi-functional agent for cosmetics, antimicrobial products, detergents, and functional polymers. The aim of this study was to design a new method for producing DPA from renewable material. The Bacillus subtilis spoVF operon encodes enzymes for DPA synthase and the part of lysine biosynthetic pathway. However, DPA is only synthesized in the sporulation phase, so the productivity of DPA is low level. Here, we report that DPA synthase was expressed in vegetative cells, and DPA was produced in the culture medium by replacement of the spoVFA promoter with other highly expressed promoter in B. subtilis vegetative cells, such as spoVG promoter. DPA levels were increased in the culture medium of genetically modified strains. DPA productivity was significantly improved up to 29.14 g/L in 72 h culture by improving the medium composition using a two-step optimization technique with the Taguchi methodology.
- Characterization and expression analyses of two plastidic enolase genes in rice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 17.:1-8.
To verify the presence of enolase related to the chloroplastic glycolysis in rice, database search was carried out and identified seven putative enolase genes in the rice genome. Among them, OsEno1 and OsEno3 encode long proteins with N-terminal extensions. GFP protein fusions of these N-terminal extensions were both targeted to plastids of onion epidermal cell. Promoter::GUS analysis showed that OsEno3 was highly expressed in young developing leaves, but its expression was drastically decreased during leaf development and greening. On the other hand, the expression of OsEno1 was low and detected in limited portions such as leaf sheath at the tiller base. Recombinant OsEno1 protein showed enolase activity with a pH optimum at pH 8.0, whereas OsEno3 did not exhibit detectable activity. Although it remains obscure if OsEno3 encodes a functional enolase in vivo, our results demonstrate that the entire glycolytic pathway does not operate in rice chloroplasts.
- Effect of near-infrared irradiation on photoconversion of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein of Chenopodium album. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 17.:1-4.
We investigated the effects of near-infrared irradiation on the photoconversion of Chenopodium album water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (CaWSCP) in the presence of sodium hydrosulfite and found a further photoconversion from CP742 to CP763, a novel form of CaWSCP. Interestingly, one-third of the absorption peak at 668 nm was recovered in CP763, but re-irradiation under oxidative conditions eliminated the photo convertibility of CaWSCP.
- Aroma compounds in Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) screened by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 12.:1-4.
Thirty-nine key aroma compounds were newly identified or tentatively identified in the aroma concentrate of Japanese sweet rice wine (Mirin) by an aroma extract dilution analysis technique based on the 68 detected peaks. Among them, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol were detected with the highest FD factors in this study.
- Mutagenicity and tumor-promoting effects of Tiglium seed extract via PKC and MAPK signaling pathways. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 12.:1-10.
Tiglium seed is a seed of mature Croton Tiglium Linne containing croton oils, which have been traditionally used as laxative or purgative. As it contains phorbol derivatives, we investigated the mutagenicity and tumor-promoting activity of Tiglium seed. Tiglium seed extract produced the mutagenic responses in five Salmonella typhimurium strains in Ames assay, whereas it did not alter the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations or micronuclei, indicating that it exerted the mutagenic potential, not clastogenicity. Accompanied with phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), Tiglium seed extract inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) associated with tumor-promoting potential. Importantly, these effects were blocked by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) inhibitors, suggesting that Tiglium seed-induced GJIC inhibition was regulated by phosphorylation of Cx43 via PKC and MAPKs signaling. In conclusion, Tiglium seed has mutagenicity, possibly linking to tumor-promoting potential through the dysfunction of GJIC.
- Development of formulae for estimating amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, and resistant starch content based on the iodine absorption curve of rice starch. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2014 Nov 11.:1-13.
Not only amylose but also amylopectin greatly affects the gelatinization properties of rice starch and the quality of cooked rice grains. We here characterized the starches of 32 rice cultivars and evaluated the relationship between their iodine absorption curve, apparent amylose content (AAC), pasting property, resistant starch (RS) content, and chain length distribution of amylopectin. We found that the iodine absorption curve differed among the various sample rice cultivars. Using the wavelength at which absorbance becomes maximum on iodine staining of starch (λmax), we propose a novel index, "new λmax" (AAC/(λmax of sample rice starches-λmax of glutinous rice starch)). We developed the novel estimation formulae for AAC, RS contents, and amylopectin fractions with the use of λmax and "new λmax." These formulae would lead to the improved method for estimating starch properties using an easy and rapid iodine colorimetric method.