Brain Res Mol Brain Res [journal]
- Adenoviral interneuronal transportation after retrograde gene transfer in mice. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):151-5.
Although retrograde gene transfer from infected muscles to neurons by viral vectors has been known for years, it is still unknown whether interneuronal gene transportation of viral vectors occurs after retrograde gene transfer. To determine this, we injected adenoviral vectors carrying eGFP gene with or without a neural tracer into the right gastrocnemius muscles of mice. After 7 days, some spinal motor neurons were detected with green fluorescence but without the signal of neural tracer. In addition, nerves with green fluorescence could be noted in the right lumbosacral paraspinal muscles of viral-injected mice. The green fluorescence in the right lumbosacral paraspinal muscles might have resulted from retrograde gene transportation from the viral-injected gastrocnemius muscles to the spinal neurons, followed by interneuronal transfer and anterograde expression of eGFP in the axons belonging to neurons innervating the paraspinal muscles. This phenomenon of interneuronal transportation raises the possibility that we could treat motoneuron diseases by injection of viral vectors containing therapeutic genes into a few muscles resulting in widespread beneficial effects.
- IGF-I protects cortical neurons against ceramide-induced apoptosis via activation of the PI-3K/Akt and ERK pathways; is this protection independent of CREB and Bcl-2? [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):97-106.
Current understanding of IGF-I-mediated neuroprotection implies the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K), which leads to the activation of Akt/Protein Kinase B. In non-neuronal cells, Akt phosphorylates and activates the transcription factor CREB, implicated in the transcription of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene. This paper further analyses the anti-apoptotic IGF-I action in neurons. We show that IGF-I protects cortical neurons against ceramide-induced apoptosis. Ceramide decreases Akt phosphorylation during apoptotic process whereas a simultaneous treatment with IGF-I increases Akt phosphorylation. Analysis of the signal transduction pathways revealed that IGF-I induces CREB phosphorylation via PI-3K and ERK, whereas simultaneous ceramide and IGF-I treatment decreases CREB phosphorylation. Although an overexpression of Bcl-2 protects cortical neurons against ceramide-induced apoptosis, our data indicate that the Bcl-2 protein level is not modulated during IGF-I, ceramide and/or LY294002 treatment. In consequence, we demonstrated that IGF protects neurons against ceramide-induced apoptosis and that IGF-I protection involves the PI-3K/Akt and ERK pathways; this protection may be independent of CREB and Bcl-2.
- Scutellariae radix extracts suppress ethanol-induced caspase-11 expression and cell death in N(2)a cells. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):139-45.
Scutellariae radix is a Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to treat disease conditions accompanying inflammation and oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined the effect of Scutellariae radix extracts during acute ethanol exposure in N(2)a neuroblastoma. The Scutellariae radix extracts effectively inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis and caspase-3/-7 activation. Ethanol induced the expression of caspase-11 that has been known as a dual regulator of pathological apoptosis and inflammatory response. The ethanol-induced caspase-11 expression was suppressed by pretreatment of the Scutellariae radix extracts. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-3/-7 and apoptosis were significantly inhibited in caspase-11-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts following ethanol treatment. These results suggest that caspase-11 has a regulatory role in ethanol-induced apoptosis, and the suppression of caspase-11 may be a mechanism by which Scutellariae radix exerts its cytoprotective effect.
- Two estrogen replacement therapies differentially regulate expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the hippocampus and cortex of ovariectomized rat. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):107-14.
As estrogens have been implicated in altered cognitive function associated with menopause, the purpose of the present study was to determine the regulatory effects of different estrogen preparations on the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes in the hippocampus and cortex of ovariectomized rats. The expression of estrogen receptor mRNA and protein was determined with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Two estrogen reagents, Premarin and Progynova, were used in the present study. Premarin, a conjugated equine estrogen, down-regulated ER alpha expression in the hippocampus and cortex of ovariectomized rats and had no effect on levels of ER beta expression in the same two regions. However, Progynova (valerate estradiol) was shown to up-regulate ER beta expression in the hippocampus and cortex and had no effect on the levels of ER alpha expression. Our present data suggest that different estrogen reagents used in estrogen replacement therapy could have different regulatory effects on the expression of estrogen receptor subtypes, which might, at least in part, explain why clinically, different estrogen preparations have distinct estrogenic effects on target organs.
- Molecular regulation of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins by clobazam during epileptogenesis in Fe(+++)-induced epileptic rats. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):91-6.
To assess the molecular effects of the antiepileptic drug clobazam (CLB, 1,5-benzodiazepine), a benzodiazepine effective in the management of epilepsy, we performed a series of experiments using rats with chronic, spontaneous recurrent seizures induced by amygdalar injection of FeCl(3). Experimental animals were treated for 14 days with CLB. We then measured the expression of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins and evaluated the changes that occurred in these proteins using both experimental and control animals. CLB treatment was associated with an increase in the production of GLT-1 in the contra-lateral hippocampus of animals receiving amygdalar FeCl(3) and CLB treatment. CLB treatment up-regulated the GABA transporter GAT3 in the contra-lateral hippocampus of animals with chronic, recurrent seizures. In contrast, CLB had no effect on the expression of EAAC1 and GAT1 in the hippocampus or the cortex in control animal groups. Chronic epileptogenesis may be associated with down-regulation of the production of glial excitatory amino acid transporters, GLAST and GLT-1, proteins that cause increase in the basal extracellular concentrations of glutamate. Elevated GABA transporter expression results in increased reverse transport of GABA to the extracellular space during periods of excitation. In addition to allosteric activation of GABA(A) receptors, this study suggests that CLB might exhibit its antiepileptic action by increasing GLT-1 expression and GAT3 in the hippocampus of rats with chronic seizures.
- Partial cloning of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) cDNA and regional distribution of nNOS mRNA in the central nervous system of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):123-33.
A constitutive NOS complementary DNA (cDNA) was partially cloned by RT-PCR from the brain of a teleost, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), using degenerate primers against conserved regions of NOS. The predicted 206-long amino acid sequence showed a high degree of identity with other vertebrate neuronal NOS (nNOS) protein sequences. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed that Nile tilapia NOS clustered with other known nNOS. Using the coupled reaction of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Southern blotting, the basal tissue expression pattern of the cloned nNOS gene was investigated in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and in the heart and skeletal muscle tissue. As revealed, expression of nNOS transcripts was detected in all the CNS regions examined, whereas nNOS gene was not expressed in the heart and skeletal muscle. The distribution pattern of nNOS gene expression showed the highest expression levels in the forebrain followed by the optic tectum, the brainstem and the spinal cord, whereas scarce expression was detected in the cerebellum. Cellular expression of nNOS mRNA was analyzed in the CNS by means of in situ hybridization. According to the RT-PCR results, most nNOS mRNA expressing neurons are localized in the telencephalon and diencephalon, whereas in the mesencephalic optic tectum, the brainstem and the spinal cord, nNOS mRNA expressing neurons are relatively more scattered. A very low hybridization signal was detected in the cerebellar cortex. These results suggest that NO is involved in numerous brain functions in teleosts.
- Tolloid-like 1 is negatively regulated by stress and glucocorticoids. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):81-90.
Glucocorticoids affect a variety of tissues to enable the organism to adapt to the stress. Hippocampal neurons contain glucocorticoid receptors and respond to elevated glucocorticoid levels by down-regulating the HPA axis. Chronically, however, stress is deleterious to hippocampal neurons. Chronically elevated levels of glucocorticoids result in a decrease in the number of dendritic spines, reduced axonal growth and synaptogenesis, and decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Tolloid-like 1 (Tll-1) is a metalloprotease that potentiates the activity of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Neurogenesis in the hippocampus of both developing and adult mammals requires BMPs. In this study, we demonstrate that Tll-1 expression is increased in mice that have increased neurogenesis. The Tll-1 promoter contains glucocorticoid response elements which are capable of binding to purified glucocorticoid receptor. Glucocorticoids decrease Tll-1 expression in vitro. Finally, prenatal stress leads to a decrease in Tll-1 mRNA expression in the hippocampus of adult female mice that is not observed in adult male mice indicating that Tll-1 expression is differentially regulated in males and females. The results of this study indicate that Tll-1 is responsive to glucocorticoids and this mechanism might influence neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
- Cocaine induction of ERK proteins in dorsal striatum of Fischer rats. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):134-8.
Cocaine is an addictive psychostimulant that induces fos and opioid gene expression by activating the dopamine receptors and the PKA pathways in dopamine D1 and a glutamate NMDA-dependent mechanisms in the striatum. In this study, we show that a single cocaine administration induces ERK phosphorylation in the caudate/putamen of Fischer rats. This increase in Phospho-ERK is diminished by pre-administration of SCH23390, or MK801 but not with pre-administration of eticlopride. Furthermore, this single cocaine administration does not alter the levels of phospho-CREB protein or CREB-DNA bindings in the caudate/putamen protein extracts but does increase phospho-Elk-1 protein levels in the same extracts.
- Different expression role among glutamate transporters in rat retinal glial cells under various culture conditions. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 7; 142(1):1-8.
Using cultured rat retinal glial cells, the changes in the expression of glutamate transporters (GLTs) under such conditions as the degree of confluence of the cells, hypoxia, glutamate loading, and potassium loading, were assessed. After the retinal glial cells were isolated from 3-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats, GLAST, GLT-1, and EAAC1 mRNA expression was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and their protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining. Changes in the expression of the GLTs at 6 h after passage and at confluence, during culture in 5% oxygen, during glutamate loading and during potassium loading were assessed using real-time PCR. Although the GLAST mRNA expression was increased during glutamate and potassium loading, no changes in the expression were observed during hypoxia and at confluence. By contrast, the GLT-1 mRNA expression was increased during hypoxia and at confluence, but not during glutamate and potassium loading, and the EAAC1 mRNA expression was not changed only during glutamate loading. The expression of EAAC1 in the cultured retinal glial cells was confirmed. The expression of the GLTs varied according to the environment and the type of load suggests that the involvement of the GLTs in retinal physiology and pathology varies depending on the subtype.
- Genes required for fructose metabolism are expressed in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Dec 14; 142(2):115-22.
Since 1967, fructose has become the primary commercial sweetener in the food industry. Large amounts of fructose can be toxic and have been correlated with atherosclerosis, malabsorption, hyperuricemia, lactic acidosis, and cataracts. To understand the deleterious and critical role(s) fructose plays in normal metabolism, it is essential to know how and where fructose is metabolized. The fructose transporter, GLUT5, and the specialized enzymes ketohexokinase, aldolase, and triokinase comprise the well-defined fructose-specific metabolic pathway found in liver, kidney, and small intestine. It is estimated that 50-70% of ingested fructose is metabolized in these tissues; where and how the remaining 30-50% is metabolized is not well defined. Prediction of tissues capable of metabolizing fructose via this pathway was done using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Unigene and a gene-specific virtual northern blot (VNB) algorithm. Unigene and VNB combined correctly predicted the expression of the genes required for fructose metabolism in liver, kidney, and small intestine. Both methods indicated brain, breast, lymphocytes, muscle, placenta, and stomach additionally express this set of genes. Expression of the genes for GLUT5 (glut5) and ketohexokinase (khk) in neurons was validated by immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization, respectively. Using stringent controls, clear expression of glut5 and khk was localized to Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Cerebellum was used to oxidize fructose to carbon dioxide. Together, these data suggest that these neurons in the brain are able to utilize fructose as a carbon source.