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Bratisl Lek Listy [journal]
- Neuron-specific enolase in the intestinal wall in Crohn´s disease. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):381-2.
The authors described the localization of neuron-specific enolase in the intestinal wall in Crohn´s disease. We have used samples obtained by biopsy from the colon lining of five people affected by Crohn's disease for our examination. We have processed samples using the formol paraffin technique. From paraffin blocks, we have prepared histological sections approximately 5 μm thick. For immunohistochemic examinations, we have revitalised the sections by acquiring the heat-induced epitope. We detected NSE by monoclonal mouse antibodies against human neuron-specific enolase, clone BBS/NC/VI-H14 (DakoCytomation, Denmark) (Fig. 4, Ref. 7). Keywords: morphology of intestinal innervation, Crohn´s disease, neuron-specific enolase.
- Idiopatic lobular necrotizing paniculitis. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):377-80.
42-year old patient was presented to our clinic with a fever lasting for seven months and a ten month history of subcutaneous nodules on all extremities and trunk. Further examination revealed anaemia, lymphocytopenia and elevation of inflammatory parameters and liver enzymes. Authors comment their difficulties in differential diagnostic process. The bone marrow biopsy and reappraisal of subcutaneous lesions confirmed idiopathic lobular panniculitis, known as Weber-Christian disease. A combined immunosuppressive therapy was followed by improvement of clinical state as well as laboratory parameters (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 11). Keywords: panniculitis, lymfadenopathy, hepatopathy.
- Homocysteine levels and bad obstetric outcome among female operating room personnel occupationally exposed to nitrous oxide. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):372-6.
It is known that nitrous oxide (N2O) inactivates vitamin B12 and causes hyperhomocysteinemia. The personnel working at the operating theatres are repeatedly exposed to N2O in the ambient air. This prompted us to investigate the biochemical indices of vitamin B12 metabolic status among female personnel working under various levels of N2O exposure. In this study, the homocysteine and folic acid levels were assessed and bad obstetric outcome was questioned. Sixty operating theatre female personnel were examined. Vitamin B12 and folic acid, total homocysteine level, anticardiolipin IgM, IgG, antiphospholipid IgM, IgG levels were measured in serum. A questionnaire inquiring about obstetric history was given. The serum concentration of folic acid was 10 ± 3.3 nmol liter-1. The vitamin B12 level was 332 ± 134 pmol liter-1, the serum concentration of homocysteine was 9.1 ± 2.4 nmol liter-1 and all were within normal ranges. There was no difference regarding homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 levels and the obstetric history between the subjects who had abortus history and the subjects who had not abortus history. Exposure to N2O in healthcare workers was not associated with alterations of homocysteine, folic acid status and bad obstetric outcome (Tab. 4, Ref. 18). Keywords: operating rooms, drug contamination, nitrous oxide, pregnancy outcome.
- Effects of aqueous soybean, mistletoe and red clover extracts on activities of adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase enzyme. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):367-71.
Soybean (Glycine max), mistletoe (Viscum album) and red clover (Trifolium pratence) have been argued to have anti-cancer effects. In the present study it was aimed to investigate possible effects of these plant extracts on the activities of DNA turn-over enzymes, namely adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) in cancerous and non-cancerous gastric and colon tissues. For this aim, 6 cancerous and 6 non-cancerous adjacent human gastric tissues, and 7 cancerous and 7 non-cancerous adjacent colon tissues were obtained by surgical operations. Our results suggest that aqueous soybean, mistletoe and red clover extracts may exhibit anti-tumoral activity by depleting hypoxanthine concentration in the cancer cells through XO activation, which may lead to lowered salvage pathway activity necessary for the cancer cells to proliferate in the cancerous colon tissue. Some foods like soybean, mistletoe and red clover may provide nutritional support to medical cancer therapy through inhibiting and/or activating key enzymes in cancer metabolism (Tab. 4, Ref. 33). Keywords: gastric cancer, colon cancer, soybean, mistletoe, red clover, adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase.
- Iron and its relation to glycoconjugates in human globus pallidus. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):362-6.
Iron and eosinophilic, argyrophilic spheroid structures of glycoconjugates are observed in the pallido-nigral system of human and nonhuman primates. In the present study, we map the localization and distribution of ferritin and hemosiderin and their relation to neutral and acidic (sulphated and carboxylated) glycoconjugates in human globus pallidus. We investigated tissues of human globus pallidus without any motor abnormalities and psychiatric symptoms. Acidic (Alcian blue, AB pH 2.5) and neutral glycoconjugates (PAS reaction) showed spheroid deposits with the size of 5-15 µm. Staining reaction utilizing AB (pH 1.0) displays sulphated fibers and highly sulphated (AB pH 0.5) glycoconjugates round deposits. AF/AB pH 2.5 for separating sulphated from carboxylated glycoconjugates revealed the presence of both sulphated and carboxylated glycoconjugates. Perls' and Turnbull's positive reaction showed the presence of Fe(III) and Fe(II) (hemosiderin) and Ag-NOR reaction showed ferric phosphate (ferritin) deposits. Scanning electron microscope with microanalysis revealed the iron in glycoconjugates globular deposits. We suppose the presence of glycoconjugates in the samples is the result of elimination and inactivation of iron as inductor of reactive oxygen species. They can be a useful neuroprotective agent in CNS degradation (Tab. 2, Fig. 7, Ref. 44). Keywords: iron, brain, glycoconjugates, neuroprotective effect.
- The olive leaf extract attenuates bacterial translocation and liver damage in obstructive jaundice. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):357-61.
Objectives:The olive leaf extract (OLext) is known to possess many biological properties including a powerful antioxidant. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of postoperative nutrition with OLext and glutamine on bacterial translocation (BT) and liver damage in obstructive jaundice. Materials and methods: Totally, 50 rats were randomly divided into the five groups of 10 each. The common bile duct was ligated in all animals, excepting in the group 1. Postoperative nutrition was given to all groups for ten days. The rats in the Group 1 and 2 were fed a normal diet, Group 3 rats were fed an additional glutamine (1 g/kg/day), and Group 4 and 5 rats were fed an additional OLext (1 ml of 1/2 diluted and pure form/kg/day). Biochemical, microbiological and liver histopathological changes were evaluated.
Results:BT in the Groups 3, 4, and 5 was significantly lower than in the Group 2. The values of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and alkalen phosphatase (ALP) in blood were increased in obstructive jaundice, but the levels of these tests were statistically lower in glutamine and OLext groups when compared to the Group 2. Histopathological changes were observed low in the liver in OLext and glutamine groups.
Conclusions:The present data has demonstrated that the supplementation of olive leaf extract and glutamine reduce the incidence of BT and liver damage in obstructive jaundiced rats (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 23). Keywords: olive leaf extract, obstructive jaundice, bacterial translocation, liver damage.
- Hepatocyte apoptotic index and p53 expression in obstructive jaundice rats. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):352-6.
Objective:Obstructive jaundice is a serious disease. It can detoriate critical functions in the liver. Material and method: A total of 20 male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly allocated into two groups consisting of ten in each as follows: Group I (Control) was subjected to a sham operation isolating the bile duct. Group II(Study) was subjected to acute cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation with 4/0 silk suture from two different places and full fold cut between ligatures. On the 7th day, group II rats were re-operated for liver sampling and sacrification-aimed histological analysis through the old incision with anaesthesia. Hepatic tissues were histologically and immunohistochemically processed. The number of apoptotic and p53(+) cells were measured.
Results:On the 7th day, the averages of direct and indirect bilirubin values in Group II rats were found to be 6.99 and11.70 mg/dl, respectively. They were observed to be statistically significant. In the immunohistochemical evaluation p53 expression in hepatocytes was assessed, p53-positive hepatocytes were determined to exist quite widely in the tissue samples taken from the livers of rats in the study group. Nevertheless, no cells exhibiting p53 expression were found in the tissue samples of the control group.
Conclusion:Apoptosis is a closed box and it might make it possible to stop the many disesase processes or accelerate the healing. If the principal effective mechanism in the liver under a certain stress factor is apoptosis, it is definite that it will make a difference in the treatment approach. Consequently, we can say that both apoptotic index and p53 expression increase in the rats' liver with biliary obstruction (Fig. 4, Ref. 51). Keywords: apoptosis, p53, biliary obstruction.
- Combined usage of estrogen and melatonin restores bladder contractility and reduces kidney and bladder damage in ovariectomized and pinealectomized rat. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):345-51.
Objective:The incidence of urinary bladder disturbances and renal structural changes and functional decline are found to increase with age.
Methods:We investigated the effect of melatonin treatment in addition to estrogen replacement therapy in pinealectomized (Px) and ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. 56 female Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, each containing eight animals: Sham, (Ovx), (Px), Px+Ovx, Px+Ovx receiving estrogen (Px+Ovx+E), Px+Ovx receiving melatonin (Px+Ovx+M) and Px+Ovx estrogen and melatonin supplemented (Px+Ovx+EM) group (EM group). We evaluated reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The mean collagen fiber (CF)/smooth muscle (SM) ratio in the bladder wall and structure of the kidney were examined histolologically. We aleso recorded response of the bladder contractility to acetylcholine (Ach).
Results:Px and Ovx groups showed statistically significant reductions of antioxidant defenses, impaired Ach-evoked contraction, histological changes compared with the control group. Also, these changes were prominent in Px+Ovx group compared with all other groups. Both estrogen and melatonin reversed these changes however best restoration was observed in the EM group.
Conclusions:Px performed in addition to Ovx led to a distinct increase in oxidative damage in bladder and renal tissue and deteriorate of the detrussor function. Either estradiol or melatonin replacement alone or in combination prevents significant alterations of tissue histology and bladder contractility following Ovx and Px. Thus, combination treatment appears to be the best method to restore both contractility and histomorphology of bladder and kidney tissues after Ovx and Px (Tab. 3, Fig. 4, Ref. 44). Keywords: pinealectomy, ovariectomy, estrogen, melatonin, bladder, kidney.
- In vitro motility changes in Roux limb after Roux-en-Y reconstructio. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):340-4.
Background:The aim of this study is to compare the motility of Roux limb with that of normal segment. Materials and methods: Rats were divided into 3 equal groups as control, Roux-en-Y (Group A) and Roux-en-Y with vagotomy (Group B). Only midline incision and manipulations were applied in control group. Following distal gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y reconstruction was applied in Group A, while vagotomy Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy was applied in Group B. Rats were sacrificed 1 month later by cervical dislocations under anesthesia. The obtained jejunal segments were cut into four equal parts. The bath was 37 °C warm while 95 % O2 and 5 % CO2 gases were supplied in 10 ml bicarbonate Krebs' solution.
Results:KCl responses were similar in all three groups. Acetylcholine contraction responses in the vagotomy and non-vagotomy Roux-en-Y groups was higher than in those in control group significantly (p < 0.05). This response in vagotomy Roux-en-Y group was also higher than that in non-vagotomy group (p < 0.05). The induced electrical field stimulation contraction response in the vagotomy + Roux-en-Y group was lower than those in control group and non-vagotomy group (p < 0.05).
Conclusions:These results show that muscarinic receptor density and/or function may increase after vagotomy and non-vagotomy group operation, and vagotomy may contribute to this increase. The decrease in electrical signal response in vagotomy Roux-en-Y group may depend on the decrease in acetylcholine oscillation from the cholinergic nerve ending (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 25). Keywords: Roux-en-Y, Roux stasis syndrome, acetylcholine, electrical field stimulation, jejunum, motility.
- Soluble guanylyl cyclase activators increase the expression of tolerance to morphine analgesic effect. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(6):334-9.