Bratisl Lek Listy [journal]
- Orbital phlegmona from upper eyelid chalazion. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):299.
- Investigation of histopathological effects after intra-arterial sugammadex injection in an experimental animal model. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):295-8.
Intra-arterial injection of medications are related to mortality and morbidity. It was aimed to investigate the histopathological effects caused by two different intra-arterial doses of sugammadex, a new selective relaxant binding agent used to reverse the effects of steroidal systemic muscle relaxants used in surgeries carried out under general anesthesia.A total of 15 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. The control group was given 1 mL saline bolus into the central artery of the ear. The other two groups (Group Sgdx2 and group Sgdx16) were given 2 and 16 mg/kg sugammadex, respectively, intra-arterially.In control group, histopathological evaluation was in normal limits. The cross-sections belonging to Group Sgdx2 did not have any significant pathological change compared with control group (p > 0.05). Edema and single-cell necrosis were significantly higher in Group Sgdx16 when compared to control group (p < 0.05). In comparison to Group Sgdx2, single-cell necrosis was significantly higher in Group Sgdx16 (p < 0.05).Being broadly used in anesthesia, sugammadex should be administered with care because when given by intra-arterial route it may cause tissue damage and tissue loss and the patients' arteries should be carefully checked (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 21).
- Delineating the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic potentials of 4-methylimidazole against ethyl methanesulfonate toxicity in bone marrow cell of swiss albino mice. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):290-4.
4-Methylimidazole (4-MEI) is mostly used in beverages and coloring food, dark beers and common brands of cola drinks, which may contain more than 100 μg of this compound per 12-ounce serving. This study was aimed to investigate the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects of 4-MEI (100, 130 and 160 mg/kg) against ethyl methanesulfonate (240 mg/kg) using chromosome aberrations (CAs) and Mitotic index (MI) tests in bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino Mice at 12 h and 24 h treatment periods. So, the t-test was used for the statistical analysis.In this research, 4-MEI at all concentrations for 12 h treatment period reduced chromosomal aberrations and at 130 and 160 mg/kg concentrations for 24 h treatment period increased chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg/kg), but th ese reductions and increases were not significant. Also, intraperitoneal injection of 4-MEI at doses of 100, 130 and 160 mg/kg combined with EMS (240 mg/kg) showed that the mitotic index was decreased at 100 and 130 mg/kg for 12h and 130 mg/kg for 24 h treatment periods, when compared to positive sample (EMS), but did not show any statistically difference from the EMS treated group. It can be concluded that 4-MEI might not be antigenotoxic and protective effects in bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino Mice, because 4-MEI could not reduce the chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 36).
- The effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on streptozotocin-induced diabetic liver injury. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):276-82.
The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of oxidative stress in streptozotocin induced liver injury and the possible protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) using histological and biochemical parameters. 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: Group 1: Control animals, Group 2: Control animals given CAPE Group 3: STZ-induced diabetic animals (DM group), Group 4: STZ-induced diabetic rats given CAPE (DM+CAPE group). All the injections started on the same day of single-dose STZ injection and continued for 20 days. At the end of this period, livers were removed and processed for routine histological procedures. Biochemical parameters and morphological changes were examined. In DM group, blood glucose levels were significantly increased compared with the control group. Significant increases in tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total glutathione (GSH) activities were detected in DM group. Administration of CAPE significantly reduced these values. STZ-induced histopathological alterations including inflammatory cell infiltration around portal triad, congestion, loss of glycogen in the hepatocytes. Additionally, degenerative cellular alterations, such as numerous vacuolizations including myelinic figure formation, pyknotic nuclei with peripheral localization of heterochromatin condensation and mitochondrial elongation were observed in cytoplasm of hepatocytes. CAPE significantly reduced these histopathological changes. Our results indicate that CAPE should be considered in the prevention of oxidative stress in diabetic liver (Tab. 3, Fig. 4, Ref. 47).
- Construction of a Hep-2 cell line stably transfected with Livin shRNA. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):272-5.
The aim of this study was to construct a eukaryotic expression plasmid with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Livin in order to obtain a stably transfected Hep-2 cell line with a reduced expression of Livin.The shRNA targeting Livin mRNA was designed, and a shRNA plasmid and a negative control plasmid were constructed. After amplification in E. coli, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequence confirmation, the plasmids were transfected into Hep-2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The stably transfected cell line was screened using G418, and inhibition of Livin mRNA and protein levels were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively.pGenesil-Livin-shRNA eukaryotic expression plasmid was successfully constructed and identified by sequencing. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was observed in Hep-2 cells transfected with shRNA plasmids by fluorescence microscopy. The expression levels of Livin mRNA and protein decreased significantly in Hep-2 cells transfected with the shRNA recombinant plasmid. The mRNA level was reduced by 47.17 %, and the protein level was reduced by 34.25 %.The shRNA eukaryotic expression plasmid targeting Livin was successfully constructed, which could significantly inhibit the expression of Livin in laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells. This provides a basis for future research on the function of Livin in Hep-2 cells, and gene therapy for laryngeal cancer (Fig. 5, Ref. 10).
- Freund´s complete adjuvant effect on BALB/c mice: an insight into inflammation and oxidative stress after immunity challenge. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):268-71.
Freund´s complete adjuvant (FCA) is a mean used for improving immunization efficacy in experiments and veterinary medicine. Despite high efficacy, it is not used in human vaccination due to number of adverse effects. Arthritis can be an example of a typical adverse consequence. In this work, we decided to investigate the link between oxidative stress and inflammation in animals exposed to FCA. BALB/c mice received either saline or FCA in doses 10-50 µl and were euthanized from one to three days after infection. Interleukins (IL) IL-2, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined in plasma. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), malondialdehyde by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and caspase-3 were measured in livers, muscles and other organs. We determined significant effect of FCA on TBARS and GSH in the livers. Beside this, TBARS were altered in muscles as well. Inflammation was confirmed by increased level of TNF-α. Taking the results into account, we infer that the harmful effect of FCA is mediated not only by inflammation but also by oxidative. This should be considered when pathological consequences of FCA are scored (Fig. 4, Ref. 21).
- Interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta 1 gene polymorphisms in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):258-62.
The aim of this study is to identify the associations between interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) gene polymorphisms and individual susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a group of Iranian patients.Cytokine genes, including IL-10 and TGF-β1, are known to play important roles in the pathogenesis of JIA.Using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method, the frequency of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of IL-10 (positions -1082, -819, -592) and TGF-β1 (codon 10, codon 25) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in 55 patients with JIA as a case group and compared with 140 healthy unrelated controls.The G allele was significantly less frequent at TGF-β1 codon 25 in patients with JIA than in the controls (p < 0.01). The frequency of CT genotype at TGF-β1 codon 10 was found to be higher in healthy individuals in comparison with that in patients group (p = 0.04). We observed no differences in the frequency of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of IL-10 gene between the groups of patients and controls.Considering the low frequency of existence of TGF-β1 G allele at codon 25 as well as TGF-β1 CT genotype at codon 10 in patients with JIA, it seems that these cytokine gene polymorphisms could play role as the protective factors against JIA (Tab. 2, Ref. 42).
- Practices and thinking of laboratory detection in the aid to West Africa to fight against Ebola. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):254-7.
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has brought great disaster to the people's health in affected countries. China dispatched first group of public health experts and medical staff to Sierra Leone in September 2014 to fight Ebola.To systematically collect huge amount of primary data, and to make analysis, draw conclusions and lessons in terms of six aspects, respectively as training before departure, local disease information, track of epidemic situation, transformation of temporary laboratory, detection of Ebola virus samples as well as assessment through single blind test.1) Our team has launched preparatory works in advance before going to Sierra Leone. 2) Malaria is the country's severest infectious disease. 3) Observation centers were overcrowded with large number of suspected cases being inspected, implying high risk of nosocomial infection. 4) A BSL-II laboratory with 3 work areas and 2 buffer areas was built, achieving several major functions within 6 days. 5) Confirmed by South African Raqqa laboratory, our detection accuracy reached 100%. 6) At one week before return, the daily average sample amount of our team reached 66 cases and our detection capability was equivalent to that of USA.Successful experience from fighting against Ebola in Sierra Leone could be summarized as: 1) Optimized processes and scientific security measures are prerequisite to improving the detection ability. 2) The close collaboration between laboratory and observation center has created a new model of China's foreign aid. 3) Comprehensive information investigation and training lay a solid foundation for the successful completion of tasks (Tab. 1, Ref. 3).
- New data on harmful effects of trans-fatty acids. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):251-3.
Various margarines containing trans-fatty acids were marketed as being healthier because of the absence of cholesterol, suggesting to use margarine instead of butter. Fifteen years ago, research documented the grave health risk of trans-fats (T-fat). US FDA in 2015 finalized its decision that T-fat is not safe and set a three-year time limit for complete removal of T-fat from all foods. The greatest danger from T-fat lies in its capacity to distort the cell membranes. The primary health risk identified for T-fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary heart disease. T-fats have an adverse effect on the brain and nervous system. T-fat from the diet is incorporated into brain cell membranes and alter the ability of neurons to communicate. This can diminish mental performance. Relationship between T-fat intake and depression risk was observed. There is growing evidence for a possible role of T-fat in the development of Alzheimer´s disease and cognitive decline with age (Fig. 1, Ref. 23).
- The effect of hydrostatic pressure on staurosporine-induced neural differentiation in mouse bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2016; 117(5):283-9.
In this study, the role of hydrostatic pressure on staurosporine-induced neural differentiation in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were investigated. The cells were cultured in treatment medium containing 100 nM of staurosporine for 4 hours; then the cells were affected by hydrostatic pressure (0, 25,50, 100 mmHg). The percentage of cell viability by trypan blue staining and the percentage of cell death by Hoechst/PI differential staining were assessed. We obtained the total neurite length. Expression of β-tubulin III and GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) proteins were also analyzed by immunocytochemistry. The percentage of cell viability in treatments decreased relative to the increase in hydrostatic pressure and time (p Keywords: bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell, hydrostatic pressure, immunocytochemistry, neural differentiation, neurite length, cell differentiation.