Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Bratisl Lek Listy [journal]
- COX-2, p16 and Ki67 expression in DCIS, microinvasive and early invasive breast carcinoma with extensive intraductal component. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):445-451.
Background: Recent studies have showed a significant association between the combination of COX-2, p16 and Ki67 overexpression and incidence of subsequent invasive carcinoma in a subgroup of treated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and the indicated prognostic value of COX-2, p16 and Ki67 in early breast cancer. Based on the continual model of carcinogenesis and the mentioned results, we hypothesize, that if COX-2, p16 and Ki67 expression is prognostic for DCIS future behaviour, the expression level of the markers correlates also with different stages of breast carcinomas such as DCIS, microinvasive cancer and early invasive cancer with an extensive intraductal compound. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of COX-2, p16 and Ki67 in different stages of breast carcinoma such as pure DCIS, microinvasive cancer (T1mic) and invasive ductal carcinoma with an extensive intraductal component (IDC with EIC). The expression was assessed only in in situ component of the three subgroups (DCIS, T1mic, EIC) in order to show a possible correlation of COX-2, p16 and Ki67 with different stages of carcinogenesis. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study using immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the expression of the markers COX-2, p16 and Ki67 in in situ lesions within three subgroups of tumors with the rising extant of invasive compound: in pure DCIS, microinvasive carcinoma (T1mic) and invasive carcinoma with extensive in situ component (IDC with EIC). Additionally, we performed a correlation analysis between the tumor subgroups and patients history data (age, parity, age of menarche, family and personal cancer history, breast feeding lengths, contraception intake, chest irradiation) as well as some of the tumor characteristics (tumor grade, multicentricity, necrosis).Results: Distribution of p16 expression differed significantly among the three diagnoses. P16 score 1 was highest in the DCIS group whereas the lowest proportion was in IDC and p16 overexpression (score 2, 3) maintained this tendency (overexpression proportion in DCIS < T1mic < IDC), though this was not significant. The frequency of COX-2 and p16 overexpression (phenotype COX-2+p16+) was higher in EIC within invasive carcinoma in comparison to DCIS and T1mic and was rising gradually with the severity of the diagnosis (proportion in DCIS < T1mic < IDC). Conclusion: This is the first published study ever assessing the expression of COX-2, p16 and Ki67 markers in different breast tumors containing DCIS compound. Our results showed an increasing expression pattern of COX-2 and p16 with the rising severity of the diagnosis (expression was measured exclusively in in situ lesions within tumors containing different extant of invasiveness). The same relationship was showed for p16 marker alone. These data support different expression pattern of COX-2 and p16 markers in combination and p16 marker alone in "in situ lesions" according to the stage of carcinogenesis. This fact might be useful in the evaluation of further behaviour of early breast tumors (Tab. 3, Fig. 8, Ref. 29). Keywords: COX-2, p16, Ki67 expression, prognosis, biomarkers, early breast cancer.
- Revision operations after previous stapes surgery for persisting hearing loss. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):442-444.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the reasons of the recurrent or persisting hearing loss after previous stapes surgery indicated for otosclerosis.Background: Revision stapes surgery is a relatively safe surgical method. Recurrent or persisting conductive hearing loss is commonly caused by prosthesis dislocation and adhesions in the oval window. Hearing loss is directly proportional to the number of previous operations. Method: Retrospective analysis of 48 patients after revision stapes surgery was done over a period of 4 years (2005-2008). Improvement of the hearing and the reasons of a previous surgery failure were studied.Results: Results were compared to the other studies. The main reason of the failed surgery was adhesions and dislocation of the prosthesis. The mean postoperative air-bone gap was 12.0 dB. A mean postoperative air-bone gap closure within 10 dB occurred in 24 cases (55.8 %), between 11-20 dB occurred in 11 cases (25.6 %) and above 20 dB in 8 cases (18.6 %). The original prosthesis was replaced with a new one in 41 (95.3 %) cases. In 2 cases (4.7 %), previous prostheses were left in place and fixed by a ionomer glass cement to the long process of incus.Conclusion: Revision stapes surgery is a relatively safe surgical procedure allowing to improve hearing. The number of previous stapes surgery deteriorates hearing (p < 0.05) (Tab. 4, Ref. 20). Keywords: revision stapes surgery, otosclerosis.
- Comparison of iPTH values in serum and plasma samples depending on the time and temperature in patients with chronic kidney disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):439-441.
Renal osteodystrophy is a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with abnormal values of biochemical parameters related to bone and mineral metabolism. Assessing renal osteodystrophy subtypes is especially important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision. Management of these disorders includes monitoring of homeostasis of calcium, phosphorus and parathormone (PTH). PTH is a significant regulator of mineral balance and it´s level is used as a surrogate biomarker for the type of underlying renal osteodystrophy. Worldwide, nephrologists rely on KDIGO - Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) to maintain PTH levels within defined narrow range of optimal values for each stage of CKD and adjust such PTH - lowering treatments as active vitamin D sterols or calcimimetics accordingly. PTH is rapidly degraded in vivo, with half life of 5 minutes and it is also unstable in blood samples. Values can differ significantly when samples are not collected in a standard way and when recommended conditions for transport and sample processing are not followed. It is also important to standardize pre-analytic conditions that may influence the variability in PTH results. The goal of the present study was to compare iPTH stability in serum and plasma samples and evaluate possible pre-analytic errors in sample collection, effect of temperature during transportat and storing prior to analysis (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 5). Keywords: parathormone, chronic kidney disease, pre-analytic errors.
- Properties of biological and biochemical effects of the Iranian saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):434-438.
The venom of Echis carinatus is rich in proteins and peptides effective on the hemostatic system. This venom is contains metalloproteinase which convert prothrombin to meizothrombin. The prothrombin activator which leads to the formation of small blood clots inside the blood vessels throughout the body. To understand the mechanism of the effects of Iranian Echis carinatus venom, the effects of E. carinatus on human and Wistar rat plasma, plasma proteins (prothrombin and fibrinogen) and blood coagulation were studied. Proteolytic activity of the crude venom on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen times were studied. In the present study the PT test for human plasma was reduced from 13.4 s (±0.59) to 8.6 s (±0.64) when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentration of venom was 1 mg/ml) and for rat plasma PT was reduced from 14.5 s (±0.47) to 8 s (±0.49). Some possible biological and biochemical effects of IEc crude venom were investigated. The blood coagulation in human and in rat were investigated in vivo and in-vitro. In this paper, we show that the procoagulant action of Echis carinatus venom is due in part to a protein component that activates prothrombin and the procoagulant activity on human and rat plasma was evaluated (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 31). Keywords: biochemical effects, Iranian Echis carinatus, procoagulant activity.
- Paeoniflorin inhibited the tumor invasion and metastasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):427-433.
Objective: Evidence suggests that paeoniflorin may be involved in anticancer activities. Here, we have investigated the effects of paeoniflorin and correlative mechanisms on anti-invasion and anti-metastasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Materials and methods: In the current study, we have applied 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to determine the proliferative effect of HepG2 and Bel-7402, two human hepatoma cell lines, and we have established a boyden chamber assay, a wound healing assay and cell adhesion assay to detect and quantify the invasion, metastasis and adhesion of both HepG2 and Bel-7402. In addition, we have analyzed the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinas (MMP)-9, E-cadherin (E-cad) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in both cell lines through western blot analysis. Results: Paeoniflorin (6. 25-200 µM) had inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 and Bel-7402 cell lines, and reduced significantly invasion, metastasis and adhesion of HCC cell lines. In addition, paeoniflorin decreased the expression of MMP-9 and ERK in HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells, and increased expression of E-cad in both cell lines. Conclusions: Paeoniflorin is effective anti-metastatic and anti-invasive agent for suppressing HCC invasion and metastasis (Fig. 5, Ref. 30). Keywords: paeoniflorin, hepatocellular carcinoma, anti-invasion, anti-metastasis.
- The protective effects of dexmedetomidine on liver injury- -induced myocardial ischemia reperfusion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):422-426.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine (100 µg/kg-ip) on liver injury-induced myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in rats.Materials and methods: Twenty-four Wistar Albino rats were separated into four groups. There were four experimental groups (Group C (Control; n = 6), Group IR (ischemia-reperfusion, n = 6), Group D (Dexmedetomidine; n = 6) that underwent left thoracotomy and received ip dexmedetomidine without IR administered via 100 µg/kg ip route 30 minutes before ligating the left coronary artery, and Group IR-D (IR-Dexmedetomidine; n = 6). A small plastic snare was threaded through the ligature and placed in contact with the heart. To produce IR, a branch of the left coronary artery was occluded for 30 min followed by two hours of reperfusion. However, after the above procedure, the coronary artery was not occluded or reperfused in the control rats. At the end of the study, liver tissue was obtained for histochemical and immunohistochemical determination.Some part of tissue samples were stained with Masson-trichrome for the evaluation of ultrastructural changes and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was evaluated in other part of samples for immunohistochemical examination.Results: Histopathological changes were detected in Group IR when compared with Group C. iNOS expression was found to be increased and stronger particularly in the vascular wall, perisinusoidal space and hepatocytes around vena centralis in this group compared to the control group. Perivascular oedema was detected to be decreased in Group IR-D compared to Group IR. It was also observed that the impairment in the radial arrangement of hepatocytes significantly recovered in Group IR-D. The immunoreactivity was found to be significantly decreased in the assessment of iNOS expression in the same group when compared with Group IR. Conclusion: Administration of dexmedetomidine ameliorates liver injury induced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (Fig. 8, Ref. 33). Keywords: dexmedetomidine, myocardial ischemia reperfusion, remote organ, liver injury, i-NOS, rat.
- Effects of exercise preconditioning on intestinal ischemia- -reperfusion injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):416-421.
Background: To investigate the effects of exercise preconditioning on oxidative injury in the intestinal tissue of rats.Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups as sham (n = 10), ischemia-reperfusion (n = 10), exercise (n = 10), exercise plus ischemia-reperfusion (n = 10), ischemic preconditioning (n = 10), and ischemic preconditioning plus ischemia-reperfusion groups (n = 10). Tissue levels of malondialdehyde and activities of myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were measured. Intestinal tissue histopathology was also evaluated by light microscopy.Results: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). Myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activity significantly decreased in ischemia-reperfusion group compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity in the ischemic preconditioning and ischemic preconditioning plus ischemia-reperfusion groups were significantly higher compared to the ischemia-reperfusion and exercise groups (p < 0.05). Histopathologically, intestinal injury significantly attenuated in the exercise plus ischemia-reperfusion group compared to the ischemia-reperfusion group.Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that exercise training seems to have a protective role against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 35). Keywords: intestinal ischemia-reperfusion, exercise preconditioning, oxidative status.
- The antioxidant effect of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea in rat colitis model induced by acetic acid. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):411-415.
Background: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon, and reactive oxidative metabolites (ROMs) play an important role in its pathogenesis. Alternative therapies such as herbal remedies are increasingly being used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis for better clinical outcome of ulcerative colitis and less adverse effects. Echinacea has many features including antioxidant and wound-healing properties. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Echinacea spp. on experimental colitis model induced by acetic acid in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Acute colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of acetic acid. Rats were divided into four groups, namely control, Echinacea-administered, Echinacea-administered-colitis and colitis. Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant status were assayed in tissue samples. Histopathological evaluation was also performed.Results: Macroscopic and microscopic scores were significantly higher in colitis group compared to control, Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p < 0.001). There was no significant differences in respect of macroscopic and microscopic scores between control, Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p > 0.3, p > 0.22). Malondialdehyde levels were elevated in colitis group compared to other groups (p < 0.001). Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in Echinacea group compared with other groups and also significantly higher in Echinacea-colitis group compared with colitis group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Echinacea may possibly have some therapeutic usefulness in the management of ulcerative colitis (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 35). Keywords: Echinacea spp., ulcerative colitis, reactive oxygen metabolites.
- The effects of iloprost on lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):405-410.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of iloprost (I) on lung injury as a remote organ following skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model. Materials and methods: Twenty-four Wistar Albino rats were randomized into four groups (n = 6). Laparotomy was performed in all groups under general anesthesia. Only laparotomy was applied in Group S (Sham). Ischemia reperfusion group (Group I/R) underwent ischemia and reperfusion performed by clamping and declamping of the infrarenal abdominal aorta for 120 minutes. Group iloprost (Group I) received intravenous infusion of iloprost 0.5 ng/kg/min, without ischemia and reperfusion. Group I/R/I received intravenous infusion of iloprost 0.5 ng/kg/min immediately after 2 hours of ischemia. At the end of the study, lung tissue was obtained for determining total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels, histochemical and immunohistochemical determination.Results: Diffuse lymphocyte infiltration was detected in immunohistochemical examination of lung tissue in Group I/R. The connective tissue around bronchi, bronchioles and vessel walls was found to be increased. Although minimal local lymphocyte infiltration was detected in some fields in Group I/R/I, the overall tissue was found to be similar to Group S. iNOS expression was significantly higher in Group I/R, when compared with Group S and significantly lower in Group I/R/I compared to Group I/R.TOS levels were significantly higher in Group I/R, when compared with groups S and I (p = 0.028, p = 0.016, respectively) and significantly lower in group I/R/I, when compared with Group I/R (p = 0.048). TAS levels were significantly higher in Group I/R, when compared with groups S, I (p = 0.014, p = 0.027, respectively) and significantly lower in Group I/R/I, when compared with Group I/R (p = 0.032). Conclusion: These results indicate that administration of iloprost may have protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury (Fig. 8, Tab. 1, Ref. 30) Keywords: ischemia-reperfusion, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, iloprost, iNOS, lung tissue, rat.
- Investigation of the effects of propofol and vitamin C administration on erythrocyte deformability in rats with streptozotocin-induced. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(7):400-404.
Purpose: In the current study we aim to investigate the effects of vitamin C and profol on red blood cell deformability in diabetic rats Materials and methods: Twenty- eight Wistar Albino rats were included in the study after streptozocin (60 mg/kg) treatment for 4 weeks of observation for diabetes presence. Twenty-eight rats were allocated to 4 groups. In group DP (n = 7) 150 mg.kg-1 of propofol was injected intraperitoneally. In group DP-vit C (n = 7) rats 100 mg/kg of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid, Redoxon® 1000 mg/5 mL - Roche) were applied one hour before administrating 150 mg.kg-1 of propofol, while rats in control group (n = 7), and diabetic control group (n = 7) received intraperitoneally physiological saline. Deformability measurements were achieved by using erythrocyte suspensions with hematocrit level of 5 % in PBS buffer. Results: Erythrocyte deformability was significantly higher in diabetic control group than in control and vitamin C plus propofol groups (p = 0.00, p = 0.025, respectively). Erythrocyte deformability indexes were found similar in control group and vitamin C plus propofol group (p = 0.949). Relative resistance was increased in diabetic rat model. Conclusions: Erythrocyte deformability was damaged in rats with diabetes. This injury might lead to further problems in microcirculation. Application of propofol did not alter red cell deformability in diabetic rats. Vitamin C supplementation seems to reverse those negative effects and variations in erythrocyte deformability (Fig. 2, Ref. 57). Keywords: erythrocyte deformability, propofol experimental diabet, vitamin C, rat.