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Bratisl Lek Listy [journal]
- Risk factors in diabetic nephropathy progression at present. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):517-21.
Diabetic nephropathy is becoming an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as a consequence of increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The glomeruli of patients with diabetes are characterized by glomerular hypertrophy, widening of the glomerular basement membrane, mesangial expansion, podocytopenia leading to nodular (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) glomerulosclerosis. Many studies have reported the initiation and progression of incipient nephropathy in type 1 diabetes patients, but only limited data are available in type 2 diabetes patients. The information on the risk factors and conversion rate of normal renal function to proteinuria in type 2 diabetes patients is sparse. In this report, we review risk factors of diabetic nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetes patients (Ref. 50).diabetic nephropathy, nephropathy progression, diabetic patients, risk factors.
- Reccurent bleeding from Meckel´s diverticulum - surgeon´s challenge. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):514-6.
The authors of this paper want to share their experience with diagnostic and therapeutic problems in case of chronic small intestinal bleeding from Meckel's diverticulum, which ended with acute episode of massive gastrointestinal bleeding requiring emergent surgery.Despite the progress achieved in diagnosing the sources of gastrointestinal bleeding, the diagnosis of small intestinal bleeding is very frequently beyond the ability of making it right, and thus emergent surgery is often the only possibility of saving the patient's life on the one hand, and allowing stating the correct diagnosis on the other (Fig. 1, Ref. 6).Meckel diverticulum, bleeding, endoscopy, management, diagnosis, surgery, emerge.
- Comparison of the effects of lidocaine and fentanyl in epidural anesthesia in dogs. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):508-13.
The study included 12 clinically healthy, adult male dogs of various breeds, admitted to our clinic for castration. After general anesthesia with sevoflurane, we administered epidural fentanyl (1 mcg/kg) to fentanyl group, while lidocaine group was given Lidocaine (3 mg/kg) through epidural administration. When hemodynamic parameters were stabilized, first measurements were recorded at minutes 0, 15, 30, 60 in both groups, which included Heart Rate (HR), body temperature, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), glucose (GLC), and hemoglobin (HB) measurements. In addition, serum samples were obtained from arterial blood at the same measurement times, and pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, %O2 Saturation, BE levels were measured. For hematological analysis, WBC, RBC, HCT, THR counts were performed. For serum biochemical analysis, venous blood samples were collected at minutes 0 and 60 and CK, TP, UREA, ALT, AST, ALB, GGT, CRE, CK-MB parameters were assessed using auto-analyzer. Moreover, cortisol levels were measured in the samples collected at minutes 0, 30, and 60.Mean arterial blood pressure values measured at minutes 15, 30 and 60 were found significantly lower in the fentanyl group (p<0.01). In conclusion, we suggest that epidural anesthesia with lidocaine and fentanyl can provide an effective and safe option in high-risk groups (Tab. 5, Fig. 1, Ref. 24).epidural, dogs, lidocaine, fentanyl.
- Exendin-4 effects on islet volume and number in the mouse pancreas. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):502-7.
The aim of this study was to evaluate Exendin-4 (EX-4) effect on islet volume and number in the mouse pancreas.Thirty-two healthy adult male NMRI mice were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. EX-4 was injected intraperitoneally (i. p.) at the doses of 0.25 (E1 group), 0.5 (E2 group), and 1 μg/kg (E3 group), twice a day for seven consecutive days. One day after the final injection, the mice were sacrificed, and pancreas from each animal was dissected out, weighed, and fixed in 10 % formalin for measurement of pancreas, and islet volume and islet number by stereological assessments. There was a significant increase in the weight of pancreases in E3 groups. Islet and pancreas volumes in E1 and E2 groups were not changed compared to control group. E3 group showed a significant increase in islet and pancreas volume (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the total number of islets in three experimental groups. The results revealed that EX-4 increased pancreas and islet volume in non-diabetic mice. The increased total islet mass is probably caused by islet hypertrophy without the formation of additional islets (Fig. 5, Ref. 35).exendin-4, pancreas, islet hypertrophy, stereology, mice.
- Lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues in experimental hypothyroidism: the role of zinc. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):498-501.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation and zinc deficiency on the lipid peroxidation in the testis and kidney tissues of rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism. The experimental Groups were formed as follows: 1 - Control; 2 - Sham-Hypothyroidism; 3 - Hypothyroidism (intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg/day PTU for 4 weeks); 4 - Hypothyroidism + 3 mg/kg/day zinc supplementation (4 weeks); 5 - Hypothyroidism + zinc deficiency (4 weeks). The examination of the study results revealed that hypothyroidism in testis and kidney tissues increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels (p<0.001). Zinc supplementation in addition to hypothyroidism, however, reduced the increased MDA amount and elevated GSH levels (p<0.001). Zinc deficiency together with hypothyroidism, on the other hand, was found to produce the opposite results (p<0.001). The results of the study indicated that experimental hypothyroidism caused lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues. Zinc deficiency together with hypothyroidism made lipid peroxidation more evident, while zinc supplementation significantly inhibited the increased oxidative stress by activating the antioxidant system (Tab. 1, Ref. 24).hypothyroidism, kidney, testes, MDA, GSH, zinc.
- Effect of dexmedetomidine on erythrocyte deformability during ischaemia-reperfusion injury of heart in diabetic rats. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):494-7.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on erythrocyte deformability during IR heart injury in diabetic rats.Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were included in the study after streptozocin (55 mg/kg) treatment for four weeks. In the Group C and DC (sham-control group), the coronary artery was not occluded or reperfused in the control rats. In the Group DIR, a branch of the left coronary artery was occluded for 30 minutes followed by two hours of reperfusion to produce IR. In the Group DIRD, a branch of the left coronary artery was occluded for 30 minutes followed by two hours of reperfusion to produce IR, and dexmedetomidine was administrated via 100 µg/kg IP route 30 minutes before ligating the left coronary artery. Deformability measurements were performed in erythrocyte suspensions containing Htc 5 % in a PBS buffer.The deformability index was significantly increased in diabetic rats; however, it was similar in the Group DC and DIRD. It was significantly increased in the Group DIR when compared to the Group C, DIRD and DC. The relative resistance was increased in IR models.Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in rats having diabetes and IR injury. This injury might lead to further problems in microcirculation. It was shown that dexmedetomidine might be useful in enhancing the adverse effects of this type of injury (Fig. 1, Ref. 39).erythrocyte deformability, myocardial ischemia reperfusion, experimental diabetes, dexmedetomidine, rat.
- Recent data on obesity research: β-aminoisobutyric acid. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):492-3.
The world-wide epidemic of obesity is now affecting up to a third of the adult population. Research attempting to contribute to management of this health scourge has been recently refocused on the essential role of physical activity. Muscle activity induces a dramatic increase in transcription of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). This protein is a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Very recently, in 2014 it was revealed that the mediator of this metabolic process is a low molecular myokine, the beta- aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA). This compound with a simple molecular structure has a key metabolic role: it converts the cells of white adipose tissue into brown fat. The brown adipocytes contain a protein thermogenin. This substance turns off the energy stores, among others the adenosine triphosphate (ATP), thereby accelerating the breakdown of lipids into heat, water and CO2. We may be at the threshold of new and effective management of obesity. The world eagerly expects to see how the BAIBA will compare with other recently reported agents to fight the overweight (Fig. 2, Ref. 6).obesity, prevalence, exercise, proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), brown adipocytes, fat degradation.
- The mechanism of COX-2 regulating HERG channel in gastric cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):487-91.
To elucidate the signal transduction pathway, by which cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) regulates human erg-related gene (HERG) current in gastric cancer cells.The HERG mRNA, protein and current in gastric cancer cells transfected with or without COX-2 antisense vector were measured by RT-PCR, Western blot and patch-clamp, respectively. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration in gastric cancer cells transfected with or without COX-2 antisense vector was measured by ELISA.Transfection with COX-2 antisense vector did not alter the expression of HERG mRNA and protein, but it diminished the amplitude of HERG current in gastric cancer cells (p < 0.05). The cAMP concentration in gastric cancer cells transfected with COX-2 antisense vector was lower than that in parental gastric cancer cells (p < 0.05). COX-2 inhibitor and PGE2 had influence on the HERG current in gastric cancer cells. COX-2 inhibitor reduced the amplitude of HERG current in gastric cancer cells and PGE2 enhanced the amplitude. However, in gastric cancer cells transfected with HERG mutant deleting cAMP-binding domain, both COX-2 inhibitor and PGE2 did not show significant effects on HERG current. cAMP agonist enhanced the amplitude of HERG current and cAMP antagonist reduced the amplitude in gastric cancer cells. Both agonist and antagonist of cAMP had no significant effect on HERG current in gastric cancer cells transfected with HERG mutant deleting cAMP binding domain. PKA inhibitor did not influence the HERG current whether in parental gastric cancer cells or in gastric cancer cells transfected with HERG mutant.gastric cancer, COX-2, HERG, potassium channel, PGE2.
- In vitro effect of moxifloxacin and rifampicin on biofilm formation by clinical MRSA isolates. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):483-6.
In this study, it was aimed to investigate in vitro activity of moxifloxacin and rifampicin on biofilm formation by clinical MRSA isolates.Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains could be the causative agent in chronical and medical device associated infections by biofilm formation.Moxifloxacin and rifampicin MIC values of 98 MRSA clinical isolates were determined by microdilution method. Biofilm formation of all isolates was determined in 96-well microplates by using spectrophotometric method. Effects of MIC and sub-inhibitory concentrations (1/2 and 1/4 MIC) of antibiotics on biofilm formation were examined in 46 strong biofilm producer strains.Biofilm production decreased in 37 and 44 isolates at all studied concentrations of moxifloxacin and rifampicin, respectively. Biofilm production increased in six isolates with moxifloxacin and in two isolates with rifampicin. Coclusion: Biofilm inhibitory effect of rifampicin was found to be stronger than moxifloxacin in the examined strains. The studied antimicrobials also induced biofilm formation in some strains. RESULTS of this study may help to evaluate the effects of these antibiotics on biofilm formation of clinical MRSA strains and to control the antibiotic resistance in clinical settings (Tab. 2, Ref. 25).biofilm, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, moxifloxacin, rifampicin.
- IL-6 gene promoter polymorphisms: genetic susceptibility to recurrent pregnancy loss. [Journal Article]
- Bratisl Lek Listy 2014; 115(8):479-82.
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as three or more pregnancy losses before 20 weeks. RPL is a multifactorial condition with several etiologic factors including genetic abnormalities of the parents, anatomical, endocrinological, hematologic and immunologic abnormalities, infections, nutritional and environmental factors. The causes of pregnancy loss in about half of the women with RPL even after extensive investigations remain unknown. We analyzed IL-6 -174 G/C, -572 G/C, -597 G/A, -1363 G/T, -2954 G/C promoter region polymorphisms in 113 RPL patients and 113 healthy subjects by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The -174G/C genotypic and -174C allelic frequency and the -2954G/C genotypic and -2954C allelic frequency of IL-6 was higher in RPL patients than healthy controls and a significant association was found between RPL and -174G/C, -2954G/C polymorphisms (p < 0.0001, OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.15-0.51, p < 0.034, OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.01-1.12 respectively). We found remarkably similar frequencies in RPL patients compared to controls for IL-6 -572G/C,-597G/A and -1363G/T genotypes/alleles and no association was observed between RPL and these polymorphisms. Our study supported that IL-6 -174G/C and -2954G/C polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of RPL in Turkish patients (Tab. 3, Ref. 24).IL-6, polymorphism, genetic susceptibility, recurrent pregnancy loss.