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British Journal of Radiology [journal]
- Vascular anomalies: classification, imaging characteristics and implications for interventional radiology treatment approaches. [Journal Article]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Mar; 87(1035):20130392.
The term vascular anomaly represents a broad spectrum of vascular pathology, including proliferating vascular tumours and vascular malformations. While the treatment of most vascular anomalies is multifactorial, interventional radiology procedures, including embolic therapy, sclerotherapy and laser coagulation among others, are playing an increasingly important role in vascular anomaly management. This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of common vascular malformations, with emphasis on the technique, efficacy and complications of different interventional radiology procedures.
- A comparative MRI study for white matter hyperintensities detection: 2D-FLAIR, FSE PD 2D, 3D-FLAIR and FLAIR MIP. [Journal Article]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Mar; 87(1035):20130360.
Objective:The main objective of this study was to not only determine the most appropriate sequence for the analysis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI but also to confirm the advantage of three-dimensional (3D) acquisition, as it has been suggested in previous studies, and to test the convenience of using maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithms on 3D-fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images for a quicker evaluation of brain MR studies.
Methods:The number of WMH was compared in 40 patients and a control group of 10 volunteers using 4 different imaging modalities: two dimensional (2D)-FLAIR, 2D fast spin echo proton density (FSE PD), 3D-FLAIR and FLAIR MIP. Four experienced radiologists took part in the imaging analysis. All studies were performed on a 1.5-T whole-body MR unit.
Results:A statistically significant difference between the number of lesions detected on 3D acquisitions (FLAIR CUBE® or FLAIR MIP sequences) compared with those on 2D-FLAIR or 2D FSE PD was demonstrated. There is no significant difference between 3D-FLAIR and FLAIR MIP, therefore both of them can be used with similar results.
Conclusion:3D-FLAIR sequences should replace conventional 2D-FLAIR and/or FSE PD sequences in the MR acquisition protocol when WMH are suspected. MIP reformat algorithms are less time consuming, therefore these can also be used to simplify the detection. Advances in knowledge: 3D sequences are superior for WMH depiction. Moreover, MIP algorithms allow easier analyses with similar results.
- Differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules with acoustic radiation force impulse technique. [Journal Article]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Mar; 87(1035):20130263.
Objective:The aim of our study was to assess the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
Methods:182 patients who needed thyroid surgery were examined. All patients and 50 healthy volunteers underwent ARFI sonoelastography, which quantitatively analysed the elasticity and hardness of the nodule's centre and periphery.
Results:ARFI values showed a statistical significance between malignant nodules and benign nodules and common thyroid parenchyma, in both the centre and periphery of nodules (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between benign nodules and common thyroid parenchyma in either the nodule's centre or periphery (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the nodule's centre and periphery of the elastic parameters in both the benign and malignant nodules. There was a statistically significant difference among the two areas (the central group and the peripheral group) under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the optimal model was the peripheral group. For differentiation of malignant from benign nodules, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.3% and 96.2%, respectively, when 2.545 m s(-1) was chosen as a cut-off value in the peripheral group.
Conclusion:ARFI imaging may be helpful to differentiate benign nodules from malignant thyroid nodules. The selecting measurement position is important in ARFI imaging, and it has good diagnostic value in clinical applications. Advances in knowledge: This study shows the diagnostic contribution of ARFI imaging in thyroid lesions.
- Radiation-mediated formation of complex damage to DNA: a chemical aspect overview. [Journal Article]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Mar; 87(1035):20130715.
During the last three decades, a considerable amount of work has been undertaken to determine the nature, the mechanism of formation and the biological consequences of radiation-induced DNA lesions. Most of the information was obtained via the development of chemical approaches, including theoretical, analytical and organic synthesis methods. Since it is not possible to present all the results obtained in this review article, we will focus on recent data dealing with the formation of complex DNA lesions produced by a single oxidation event, as these lesions may play a significant role in cellular responses to ionizing radiation and also to other sources of oxidative stress. Through the description of specific results, the contribution of different chemical disciplines in the assessment of the structure, the identification of the mechanism of formation and the biological impacts in terms of repair and mutagenicity of these complex radiation-induced DNA lesions will be highlighted.
- Investigation into the radiobiological consequences of pre-treatment verification imaging with megavoltage X-rays in radiotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Feb 26.:20130781.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment verification imaging with megavoltage X-rays on cancer and normal cell survival in vitro and to compare the findings with theoretically modelled data. Since the dose received from pre-treatment imaging can be significant, the incorporation of this dose at the planning stage of treatment has been suggested. Methods: The impact of imaging dose incorporation on cell survival was investigated by clonogenic assay of irradiated DU-145 prostate cancer, H460 non-small-cell lung cancer and AGO-1522b normal tissue fibroblast cells. Clinically relevant imaging-to-treatment times of 7.5 and 15 min were chosen for this study. The theoretical magnitude of the loss of radiobiological efficacy due to sublethal damage repair was investigated using the Lea-Catcheside dose protraction factor model. Results: For the cell lines investigated, the experimental data showed that imaging dose incorporation had no significant impact on cell survival. These findings were in close agreement with theoretical results. Conclusion: For the conditions investigated, the results suggest that allowance for the imaging dose at the planning stage of treatment should not adversely affect treatment efficacy. Advances in knowledge: There is a paucity of data in the literature on imaging effects in radiotherapy. This article presents a systematic study of imaging dose effects on cancer and normal cell survival, providing both theoretical and experimental evidence for clinically relevant imaging doses and imaging-to-treatment times. The data provide a firm foundation for further study into this highly relevant area of research.
- Walking on thin ice! Identifying methamphetamine "drug mules" on digital plain radiography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Feb 3.:20130472.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of identifying methamphetamine (MA) internal payloads in "drug mules" by plain abdominal digital radiography (DR). Methods: The study consisted of 35 individuals suspected of internal MA drug containers. A total of 59 supine digital radiographs were collected. An overall calculation regarding the diagnostic accuracy for all "drug mules" and a specific evaluation concerning the radiological appearance of drug packs as well as the rate of clearance and complications in correlation with the reader's experience were performed. The gold standard was the presence of secured drug packs in the faeces. Results: There were 16 true-positive "drug mules" identified. DR of all drug carriers for Group 1 (forensic imaging experienced readers, n = 2) exhibited a sensitivity of 100%, a mean specificity of 76.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 78.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% and a mean accuracy 87.2%. Group 2 (inexperienced readers, n = 3) showed a lower sensitivity (93.7%), a mean specificity of 86%, a PPV of 86.5%, an NPV of 94.1% and a mean accuracy of 89.5%. The interrater agreement within Group 1 was 0.72 and within Group 2 averaged to 0.79, indicating a fair to very good agreement. Conclusion: DR is a valuable screening tool in cases of MA body packers with huge internal payloads being associated with a high diagnostic insecurity. Diagnostic insecurity on plain films may be overcome by low-dose CT as a cross-sectional imaging modality and addressed by improved radiological education in reporting drug carriers on imaging. Advances in knowledge: Diagnostic signs (double-condom and halo signs) on digital plain radiography are specific in MA "drug mules", although DR is associated with high diagnostic insecurity and underreports the total internal payload.
- Radiological and practical aspects of body packing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Feb 3.:20130500.
Abstract Body packing represents the concealment of illegal substances in a person's body with the aim of smuggling. "Body packers" either swallow drug-filled packets or introduce drug-filled packets into their bodies rectally or vaginally with the purpose of concealing them. The three main smuggled drugs are cocaine, heroin and cannabis products. Body packing represents a serious risk of acute narcotic toxicity from drug exposure, intestinal obstruction owing to pellet impaction and bowel perforation with consequent abdominal sepsis. A suspected body packer is generally admitted to hospital to perform imaging investigations and confirm the presence of drugs in his/her body. Radiological imaging methods are essential to diagnose body packing and to detect potential complications. Increasing sophistication of traffickers and improvements in packaging add to the detection difficulty. Radiologists should be aware of the appearance of drug packets in a range of imaging modalities. This article informs physicians about the challenging aspects of body packing, its background and medicolegal issues, what imaging methods can be used and what criteria are necessary to perform a correct diagnosis.
- Multidetector CT imaging features of solid pseudopapillary tumours of the pancreas in male patients: distinctive imaging features with female patients. [Journal Article]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Mar; 87(1035):20130513.
Objective:To describe multidetector CT imaging features of solid pseudopapillary tumours (SPTs) in male patients and to compare these imaging features with those found in female patients.
Methods:The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We included the CT images of 72 patients (M:F = 12:60; mean age, 35.0 years) diagnosed with SPT by histology. CT images were reviewed on the following: location of the tumour, maximal diameter, shape, margin and the fraction of the tumour composition. Statistical differences in CT imaging features were analysed.
Results:Male patients with SPTs were significantly older than female patients (42.4 years vs 33.4 years, p = 0.0408) and the mean size of the SPTs in male patients was larger (6.3 cm vs 4.6 cm, p = 0.0413) than that of SPTs in female patients. Lobulated shape of the SPTs was most frequent in male patients, whereas oval shape was most frequent in female patients (p = 0.0133). SPTs in male patients tended to have a solid component (p = 0.0434). Progressive enhancement in the solid portion of the tumour was seen in 9 (81.8%) of 11 SPTs in male patients and in 30 (79.0%) of 38 SPTs in female patients on multiphasic CT.
Conclusion:The imaging features of SPTs in male patients usually appeared as a somewhat large-sized solid mass with a lobulated margin and progressive enhancement. These imaging features may help to differentiate SPTs from other pancreatic tumours for their proper management. Advances in knowledge: SPTs in male patients appear as somewhat large-sized solid masses with lobulated margins, and this form occurs more frequently in older male patients than in female patients.
- Bilateral hypertrophic olivary nucleus degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging in children with Leigh and Leigh-like syndrome. [Journal Article]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Feb; 87(1034):20130478.
Bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration on brain MRI has been reported in a few metabolic, genetic and neurodegenerative disorders, including mitochondrial disorders. In this report, we sought to analyse whether bilateral symmetrical inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy is specifically associated with mitochondrial disorders in children.This retrospective study included 125 children (mean age, 7.6 ± 5 years; male:female, 2.6:1) diagnosed with various metabolic and genetic disorders during 2005-2012. The routine MRI sequences (T1 weighted, T2 weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences) were analysed for the presence of bilateral symmetrical olivary hypertrophy and central tegmental tract or dentate nuclei signal changes. The other imaging findings and the final diagnoses were noted.The cohort included patients with Leigh and Leigh-like syndrome (n = 25), other mitochondrial diseases (n = 25), Wilson disease (n = 40), Type 1 glutaric aciduria (n = 14), maple syrup urine disease (n = 13), giant axonal neuropathy (n = 5) and L-2 hydroxy glutaric aciduria (n = 3). Bilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy was noted in 10 patients, all of whom belonged to the Leigh and Leigh-like syndrome group. Conclusion: Bilateral hypertrophic olivary degeneration on MRI is relatively often, but not routinely, seen in children with Leigh and Leigh-like syndrome. Early detection of this finding by radiologists and physicians may facilitate targeted metabolic testing in these children. Advances in knowledge: This article highlights the occurrence of bilateral hypertrophic olivary nucleus degeneration on MRI in children with Leigh and Leigh-like syndrome, compared with other metabolic disorders.
- Assessment of coincidence and defect sizes in Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions after anterior shoulder dislocation: a radiological study. [Journal Article]
- Br J Radiol 2014 Feb; 87(1034):20130673.
Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions are often associated with anterior shoulder dislocation. The MRI technique is sensitive in diagnosing both injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions with MRI to determine the correlation in occurrence and defect sizes of these lesions.Between 2006 and 2013, 446 patients were diagnosed with an anterior shoulder dislocation and 105 of these patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. All patients were examined using MRI. Bankart lesions were classified as cartilaginous or bony lesions. Hill-Sachs lesions were graded I-III using a modified Calandra classification.The co-occurrence of injuries was high [odds ratio (OR) = 11.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.60-36.52; p < 0.001]. Patients older than 29 years more often presented with a bilateral injury (OR = 16.29; 95% CI = 2.71-97.73; p = 0.002). A correlation between a Bankart lesion and the grade of a Hill-Sachs lesion was found (ρ = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.49; p < 0.001). Bankart lesions co-occurred more often with large Hill-Sachs lesions (O = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.02-1.52; p = 0.033).If either lesion is diagnosed, the patient is 11 times more likely to have suffered the associated injury. The size of a Hill-Sachs lesion determines the co-occurrence of cartilaginous or bony Bankart lesions. Age plays a role in determining the type of Bankart lesion as well as the co-occurrence of Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to demonstrate the use of high-quality MRI in a reasonably large sample of patients, a positive correlation of Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions in anterior shoulder dislocations and an association between the defect sizes.