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Bull Environ Contam Toxicol [journal]
- Degradation Dynamics of Emamectin Benzoate on Cabbage Under Subtropical Conditions of Punjab, India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 17.
Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) was applied to cabbage at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha(-1), during the head initiation stage. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method, for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, was developed. Average recoveries of emamectin benzoate ranged from 92 % to 96 % at different fortification levels (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg kg(-1)). The initial deposits, 0.11 and 0.21 mg kg(-1) of emamectin benzoate at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha(-1), dissipated below the determination limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in 3 and 5 days, respectively.
- Effects of Ammonia on Fertilization, Development, and Larval Survival in the Northern Pacific Asteroid, Asterias amurensis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 15.
For developing a complementary test organism to sea urchin during winter in Korea, sensitivities of sperm, embryo, and larvae of Asterias amurensis to un-ionized ammonia were evaluated. The EC50s (Mean ± SD, n = 3) for fertilization and development were 169 ± 62 and 70 ± 19 μg/L, respectively. The 48, 72, and 96-h LC50s for larval survival were 1,674 ± 583, 498 ± 221, and 336 ± 107 μg/L, respectively. The sensitivities of fertilization, development, and larval survival tests with A. amurensis are higher than or comparable to those of sea urchin and other taxonomic groups. Therefore, fertilization, development, and larval survival tests using A. amurensis are suitable for assessing pore water toxicity of marine sediments in Korea.
- Carbaryl-Induced Histopathologic Alterations on Testes of Levantine Frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 15.
The aim of the study was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/g. After 96 h, frogs were euthanized and dissected. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. In the low-dose group, shrinkage of some seminiferous tubules was observed. In the medium-dose group, an enlargement of interstitial spaces and germ cell necrosis were detected. In the high-dose group, prominent tubule deformation was determined. Germ cell necrosis in seminiferous tubules was frequently seen. In addition, congestion, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration and fibrosis were detected. According to these findings, it is clear that carbaryl affects male fertility in P. bedriagae.
- An Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, During Plowing Stages of a Paddy Cycle. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 12.
Livers and muscles of swamp eels (Monopterus albus) were analyzed for bioaccumulation of heavy metals during the plowing stage of a paddy cycle. Results showed heavy metals were bioaccumulated more highly in liver than muscle. Zinc (Zn) was the highest bioaccumulated metal in liver (98.5 ± 8.95 μg/g) and in muscle (48.8 ± 7.17 μg/g). The lowest bioaccumulated metals were cadmium (Cd) in liver (3.44 ± 2.42 μg/g) and copper (Cu) in muscle (0.65 ± 0.20 μg/g). In sediments, Zn was present at the highest mean concentration (52.7 ± 2.85 μg/g), while Cd had the lowest mean concentration (1.04 ± 0.24 μg/g). The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, Cd and nickel (Ni) in liver tissue was greater than the corresponding BSAF for muscle tissue. For the three plowing stages, metal concentrations were significantly correlated between liver and muscle tissues in all cases, and between sediment and either liver or muscle in most cases. Mean measured metal concentrations in muscle tissue were below the maximum permissible limits established by Malaysian and U.S. governmental agencies, and were therefore regarded as safe for human consumption.
- Potentiation Effect of Metolachlor on Toxicity of Organochlorine and Organophosphate Insecticides in Earthworm Eisenia andrei. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 12.
Acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities were determined in earthworms Eisenia andrei exposed to insecticides (endosulfan, temephos, malathion, pirimiphos-methyl) alone and in a binary combination with the herbicide metolachlor. Metolachlor individually was not acutely toxic, even at high concentrations applied; however, in the treated earthworms metolachlor enhanced the toxicity of endosulfan and temephos by significantly reducing the acetylcholinesterase activity. In binary combination with malathion and pirimiphos-methyl, metolachlor did not increase toxicity. The potentiation character of metolachlor is specific rather than general, and probably depends on the chemical structure of pesticides in the mixture.
- Contamination of Metals in Different Tissues of Rohu (Labeo rohita, Cyprinidae) Collected from the Indian River Ganga. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 11.
In the present paper, accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) was determined in different tissues (skin, muscles, liver, gills, kidney and brain) of rohu (Labeo rohita) collected from the River Ganga in Varanasi, India. Concentrations of Cu (except gills), Fe and Cr (except brain for Cr) in most of the tissues were above the permissible safe limits for human consumption suggested by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO 1983). Concentrations of all metals were higher in River Ganga fish than those from the University fish farm. With the exception of Zn in skin, muscle and brain tissue, the studied metals were bioaccumulated in all tissues. The total metal accumulation or metal pollution index was highest in liver (20.8 ± 0.50) followed by kidney (16.8 ± 0.44), gills (15.2 ± 0.15), muscles (12.1 ± 0.08), skin (10.5 ± 0.53) and brain (7.0 ± 0.02).
- Acute Toxicity of Heavy Metals to Tetrahymena in an In Vitro Experiment and Envelope Damage Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 10.
The toxicity of Cr(3+), Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) to Tetrahymena growth metabolism was studied by microcalorimetry at 28°C, and the growth constant (k), peak time (T) and generation times (T G) were calculated. The metal ion concentrations that resulted in 50 % inhibition (IC 50) of population growth were obtained through the dynamic parameters. The results indicated that the order of toxicity was Cd(2+) > Cr(3+) > Cu(2+). Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry results suggested that the metal ions affected the permeability of the cell membrane. Observations of the Cd-exposed organisms by scanning electron microscopy revealed damage to the cell membrane in the form of an altered surface appearance. The cells suffered serious damage after sufficient acting time. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that amide groups and PO2 (-) of the phospholipid phospho-diester, both located in the hydrophobic end of the outer layer of the cell membrane, were most readily affected.
- Heavy Metal Concentrations in Surficial and Core Sediments from Izmir Bay: An Assessment of Contamination and Comparison Against Sediment Quality Benchmarks. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 8.
The levels of heavy metals were determined in surface and core sediments from the Izmir Bay in 2009. The highest concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were found in the inner bay due to industrial activities. In contrast, maximum levels of Mn, Co, Fe and Al were observed in the outer bay, due to geochemical structure. Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cr and Co levels in the upper layer of core sediments were higher than the mean background values of bottom sediments. The enrichment of Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and As in the bay seems to be driven by anthropogenic sources. It was found that the sediments in Izmir Inner Bay were generally polluted heavily with Cu, As, Ni, Cr, Pb and moderately with Zn according to the numerical Sediment quality guidelines of the USEPA.
- Cnesterodon decemmaculatus Juveniles as Test Organisms in Toxicity Assessment: Cadmium Case. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 May 1.
The poeciliid Cnesterodon decemmaculatus is one of the native species of southern South America recently recommended for use as a test species in biomonitoring. Therefore, it is important to characterize its responses to stress conditions caused by pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the toxicity of the reference toxicant cadmium (Cd) and to evaluate the lethality response of juveniles of C. decemmaculatus exposed to an environmental sample with a high degree of pollution (Luján River, Buenos Aires, Argentina). The LC50 values at 24 and 96 h were 6.00 and 2.27 mg Cd/L, respectively. The uptake of Cd was significantly greater in the first 24 h in relation to the total time of exposure in the bioassay. The toxicity of the water was in agreement with the level of contamination. A Cd contaminant pulse exerted an important additive effect on the toxicity of the environmental sample. The results provide information regarding the sensitivity of a native species to be used as a test organism in environmental monitoring.
- QSAR Modeling of Toxicity of Acyclic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds on Scenedesmus Quadricauda Using 2D and 3D Descriptors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2013 Apr 30.
Optimized calculation of typical acyclic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) was performed at B3LYP/6-311G** level using density functional theory (DFT) method. A two- dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) model was established with the obtained structure parameters as theoretical descriptors. And then three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were built using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods respectively. The 2D and 3D QSAR models exhibit optimum stability and predictive ability, revealing that steric and electronic effects influence the toxicity of acyclic QACs to Scenedesmus Quadricauda mostly.