Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Cancer Microenviron [journal]
- Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Regulation of ERK Phosphorylation by Androgen-Induced Tumor Suppressor U19/EAF2 in the Mouse Prostate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2013 Feb 26.
U19/EAF2 is regulated by androgens in the prostate and capable of regulating transcriptional elongation of RNA Pol II via interaction with the ELL family proteins. Inactivation of U19/EAF2 induces tumorigenesis in multiple organs; however the mechanism of U19/EAF2 tumor suppression remains unclear. To elucidate potential mechanisms of U19/EAF2 action, we performed cDNA microarray analysis and identified 164 mRNA transcripts regulated by U19/EAF2 in the mouse ventral prostate. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that U19/EAF2 knockout activates the RAS-BRAF-ERK signaling pathway, which is known to play important roles in carcinogenesis. qPCR verified increased expression of BRAF mRNA, and immunostaining and Western blot analysis demonstrated increased expression of p-ERK at the protein level suggested U19/EAF2 knockout activates this important pathway. These findings indicate that loss of EAF2 up-regulates transcription of RAS cascade genes including Grb2, PI3K, and BRAF, leading to elevated p-ERK levels, which may represent a major functional role of U19/EAF2 in the prostate. Furthermore, these observations suggest that U19/EAF2 is a key player in crosstalk between androgen receptor and the RAS-BRAF-ERK signaling pathway.
- Role of Stromal-Epithelial Interaction in the Formation and Development of Cancer Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2013 Feb 22.
Identification of gene expression mechanisms began with works on embryonic induction. The same mechanism of cell-cell interactions also contributes to the process of oncogenesis. Damage to epithelial cells' genetic apparatus turns them into precancerous stem cells that are not yet capable of tumor growth. They can be transformed into cancer stem cells and undergo further progression as a result of epigenetic effects of apocrine secretion by surrounding activated stromal cells (mostly myofibroblasts). These factors may activate the damaged genetic information. On the contrary, the level of malignancy can be decreased by adding culture medium from non-activated stromal cells. One must not exclude the possibility that in a number of cases genetically altered bone marrow may migrate to damaged or inflamed tissues and become there a source of stromal cells, as well as of parenchymal stem cells in a damaged organ, where they may give rise to changed epithelial (precancerous) stem cells or to activated stromal cells, thus leading to malignant tumor growth. Cancer treatment should also affect activated stromal cells. It may prevent emergence and progression of cancerous stem cells.
- Paracrine Activation of Chemokine Receptor CCR9 Enhances The Invasiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2013 Feb 1.
Chemokine receptors mediate cancer progression and metastasis. We have previously examined chemokine receptor CCR9 expression in pancreatic cancer. Here, our objective was to evaluate pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) as a source of CCL25, the CCR9 ligand, and as an activator of CCL25-CCR9 signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. CCL25 and CCR9 expression levels in human pancreatic cancer tissues and normal human pancreas were assessed by immunohistochemsitry. In vitro secretion of CCL25 in PSCs and PANC-1 cells was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pancreatic cancer cell invasion was measured using a modified Boyden chamber assay with CCL25, PSC secreted proteins, and PANC-1 secreted proteins as the chemoattractant. There was immunostaining for CCR9 expression in human pancreatic tumor tissues, but not in normal pancreatic tissue. CCL25 expression was absent in the normal pancreatic tissue sample, but was observed in cancer cells and in the stromal cells surrounding the tumor. In vitro, both PANC-1 cells and PSCs secreted CCL25. In an invasion assay, exposure to CCL25, PSC- and PANC-1-conditioned media significantly increased the invasiveness of PANC-1 cells. Inclusion of a CCR9-neutralizing antibody in the invasion assay blocked the increase in invading cells elicited by the chemoattractants. Our studies show that pancreatic cancer invasiveness is enhanced by autocrine and paracrine stimulation of CCR9. PSCs in the tumor microenvironment appear to contribute to paracrine activation of CCR9. Investigations into CCR9 as a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer must consider cancer cell autocrine signaling and also paracrine signaling from interactions in the tumor microenvironment.
- Inhibition of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Enhances Effects of Simvastatin on Prostate Cancer Cells in Co-Culture with Bone. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2013 Jan 22.
Prostate cancer (PC) bone metastases show weak responses to conventional therapies. Bone matrix is rich in growth factors, with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) being one of the most abundant. IGF-1 acts as a survival factor for tumor cells and we speculate that bone-derived IGF-1 counteracts effects of therapies aimed to target bone metastases and, consequently, that therapeutic effects could be enhanced if given in combination with IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors. Simvastatin inhibits the mevalonate pathway and has been found to induce apoptosis of PC cells. The aims of this study were to confirm stimulating effects of bone-derived IGF-1 on PC cells and to test if IGF-1R inhibition enhances growth inhibitory effects of simvastatin on PC cells in a bone microenvironment. The PC-3 and 22Rv1 tumor cell lines showed significantly induced cell growth when co-cultured with neonatal mouse calvarial bones. The tumor cell IGF-1R was activated by calvariae-conditioned media and neutralization of bone-derived IGF-1 abolished the calvarium-induced PC-3 cell growth. Treatment of PC-3 and 22Rv1 cells with simvastatin, or the IGF-1R inhibitor NVP-AEW541, reduced tumor cell numbers and viability, and induced apoptosis. Combined simvastatin and NVP-AEW541 treatment resulted in enhanced growth inhibitory effects compared to either drug given alone. Effects of simvastatin involved down-regulation of IGF-1R in PC-3 and of constitutively active androgen receptor variants in 22Rv1 cells. In conclusion, we suggest that IGF-1 inhibition may be a way to strengthen effects of apoptosis-inducing therapies on PC bone metastases; a possibility that needs to be further tested in pre-clinical models.
- Pilot study on "pericytic mimicry" and potential embryonic/stem cell properties of angiotropic melanoma cells interacting with the abluminal vascular surface. [Journal Article]
- Cancer Microenviron 2013 Apr; 6(1):19-29.
The interaction of tumor cells with the tumor vasculature is mainly studied for its role in tumor angiogenesis and intravascular metastasis of circulating tumor cells. In addition, a specific interaction of tumor cells with the abluminal surfaces of vessels, or angiotropism, may promote the migration of angiotropic tumor cells along the abluminal vascular surfaces in a pericytic location. This process has been termed extravascular migratory metastasis. The abluminal vascular surface may also provide a vascular niche inducing or sustaining stemness to angiotropic tumor cells. This pilot study investigated if angiotropic melanoma cells might represent a subset population with pericytic and embryonic or stem cell properties. Through microarray analysis, we showed that the interaction between melanoma cells and the abluminal surface of endothelial cells triggers significant differential expression of several genes. The most significantly differentially expressed genes have demonstrated properties linked to cancer cell migration (CCL2, ICAM1 and IL6), cancer progression (CCL2, ICAM1, SELE, TRAF1, IL6, SERPINB2 and CXCL6), epithelial to mesenchymal transition (CCL2 and IL6), embryonic/stem cell properties (CCL2, PDGFB, EVX1 and CFDP1) and pericytic recruitment (PDGFB). In addition, bioinformatics-based analysis of the differentially expressed genes has shown that the most significantly enriched functional groups included development, cell movement, cancer, and embryonic development. Finally, the investigation of pericyte/mesenchymal stem cells markers via immunostaining of human melanoma samples revealed expression of PDGFRB, NG2 and CD146 by angiotropic melanoma cells. Taken together, these preliminary data are supportive of the "pericytic mimicry" by angiotropic melanoma cells, and suggest that the interaction between melanoma cells and the abluminal vascular surface induce differential expression of genes linked to cancer migration and embryonic/stem cell properties.
- Effector CD4 and CD8 T Cells and Their Role in the Tumor Microenvironment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2012 Dec 16.
T cells in tumors-the so-called tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have been studied intensively over the past years. Compelling evidence point to a clinical relevance for high numbers of T cells at the tumor site with CD8 memory T cells as a key denominator for overall survival (OS) in patients with colo-rectal cancer (CRC), and also for others solid cancers. These data goes hand in hand with studies of clonality of TIL showing the T cells among TIL are expanded clonally, and also that tumor specific T cells of CD4 as well as CD8 type are enriched at the tumor site. The tumor microenvironment is hostile to T cell function e.g., due to expression of enzymes that depletes the amino acids tryptophan and arginine, high concentration of tumor secreted lactate, and presence innate cells or regulatory T cells both with suppressive activity. Analyses of the specificity of TILs in melanoma demonstrate that quite few known antigens are in fact recognized by these cultures underscoring patient unique and/or mutated antigens may represent important target for recognition.
- Tumor Microenvironment and Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2012 Dec 16.
Tumor progression has been demonstrated to be supported by chronic inflammatory conditions developed in the tumor microenvironment and characterized by the long-term secretion of various inflammatory soluble factors (including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins etc.) and strong leukocyte infiltration. Among leukocytes infiltrating tumors, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent one of the most important players mediating immunosuppression. These cells may not only strongly inhibit an anti-tumor immune reactions mediated by T cells but also directly stimulate tumorigenesis, tumor growth and metastasis by enhancing neoangiogenesis and creating a suitable environment for the metastatic formation. This review provides an overview of interactions between MDSCs and tumor cells leading to MDSC generation, activation and migration to the tumor site, where they can strongly enhance tumor progression. Better understanding of the MDSC-tumor interplay is critical for the development of new strategies of tumor immunotherapy.
- Shaping of NK Cell Responses by the Tumor Microenvironment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2012 Dec 16.
Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and are potent cytolytic and cytokine-producing effector cells in response to tumor targets. NK cell based anti-tumor immunotherapy was so far mainly successful in patients with different types of leukemia. For instance, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients displayed a prolonged survival if transplanted with haploidentical stem cells giving rise to NK cells with a mismatch in inhibitory killer immunoglobulin receptors (KIRs) and recipients' HLA class I. Although promising results have been achieved with hematological tumors, solid tumors are in most cases poorly controlled by NK cells. Therapeutic protocols that aimed at improving NK cell responses in patients with solid malignancies succeeded in increasing NK cell numbers and functional responses of NK cells isolated from the patients' peripheral blood. However, in the majority of cases tumor progression and overall survival of patients were not significantly improved. There is increasing evidence that tumor-associated NK cells become gradually impaired during tumor progression compared to NK cells from peripheral blood and healthy tissues. Future protocols of NK cell based immunotherapy should integrate three important aspects to improve NK cell anti-tumor activity: facilitating NK cell migration to the tumor site, enhancing their infiltration into the tumor tissue and ensuring subsequent efficient activation in the tumor. This review summarizes the current knowledge of tumor-infiltrating NK cells and the influence of the tumor microenvironment on their phenotype and function.
- Monocytes and Macrophages in Cancer: Development and Functions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2012 Nov 24.
Monocytes and tumor-associated macrophages are part of the myeloid family, a group of hematopoietic derived cells. Monocytes are direct precursors of hematopoietic stem cell-derived macrophages. After their recruitment into the tumor tissue, they can differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages, a very heterogeneous cell population in terms of phenotype and pro-tumor function, supporting tumor initiation, local progression and distant metastasis. Therefore, targeting monocytes and macrophages is a promising immunotherapeutic approach. This review will focus on the development of monocytes as macrophage precursors, the functions of tumor-associated macrophages and the possibility of interfering with tumor development and progression by targeting these myeloid cells.
- The Immune Microenvironment of Human Tumors: General Significance and Clinical Impact. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Microenviron 2012 Oct 30.
Human cancers grow in a microenvironment of stromal, inflammatory and immunocompetent cells which is variable from tumor to tumor. The characterization of the immune contexture, i.e. the type, density and functional orientation of immunocompetent cells, the presence or absence of tertiary lymphoid structures is a major prognostic factor for patients survival and represent a guide and a target for innovative cancer therapies.