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Cell Death Differ [journal]
- Genetic disruption of Abl nuclear import reduces renal apoptosis in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 10.
DNA damage activates nuclear Abl tyrosine kinase to stimulate intrinsic apoptosis in cancer cell lines and mouse embryonic stem cells. To examine the in vivo function of nuclear Abl in apoptosis, we generated Abl-μNLS (μ, mutated in nuclear localization signals) mice. We show here that cisplatin-induced apoptosis is defective in the renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) from the Abl(μ/μ) mice. When injected with cisplatin, we found similar levels of platinum in the Abl(+/+) and the Abl(μ/μ) kidneys, as well as similar initial inductions of p53 and PUMAα expression. However, the accumulation of p53 and PUMAα could not be sustained in the Abl(μ/μ) kidneys, leading to reductions in renal apoptosis and tubule damage. Co-treatment of cisplatin with the Abl kinase inhibitor, imatinib, reduced the accumulation of p53 and PUMAα in the Abl(+/+) but not in the Abl(μ/μ) kidneys. The residual apoptosis in the Abl(μ/μ) mice was not further reduced in the Abl(μ/μ); p53(-/-) double-mutant mice, suggesting that nuclear Abl and p53 are epistatic to each other in this apoptosis response. Although apoptosis and tubule damage were reduced, cisplatin-induced increases in phospho-Stat-1 and blood urea nitrogen were similar between the Abl(+/+) and the Abl(μ/μ) kidneys, indicating that RPTC apoptosis is not the only factor in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. These results provide in vivo evidence for the pro-apoptotic function of Abl, and show that its nuclear localization and tyrosine kinase activity are both required for the sustained expression of p53 and PUMAα in cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 10 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.42.
- Genetic deletion of caspase-2 accelerates MMTV/c-neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 3.
Despite being the most evolutionarily conserved of the mammalian caspases, little is understood about the cellular function of caspase-2 in normal tissues or what role caspase-2 may have in the progression of human disease. It has been reported that deletion of the caspase-2 gene (Casp2), accelerates Eμ-myc lymphomagenesis in mice, and thus caspase-2 may act as a tumor suppressor in hematological malignancies. Here, we sought to extend these findings to epithelial cancers by examining the potential role of caspase-2 as a tumor suppressor in the mouse mammary carcinogenesis model; MMTV/c-neu. The rate of tumor acquisition was significantly higher in multiparous Casp2(-/-)/MMTV mice compared with Casp2(+/+)/MMTV and Casp2(+/-)/MMTV mice. Cells from Casp2(-/-)/MMTV tumors were often multinucleated and displayed bizarre mitoses and karyomegaly, while cells from Casp2(+/+)/MMTV and Casp2(+/-)/MMTV tumors never displayed this phenotype. Tumors from Casp2(-/-)/MMTV animals had a significantly higher mitotic index than tumors from Casp2(+/+)/MMTV and Casp2(+/-)/MMTV animals. Cell cycle analysis of Casp2(-/-) E1A/Ras-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) also indicated a higher proliferative rate in the absence of caspase-2. In vitro assays further illustrated that MEF had increased genomic instability in the absence of caspase-2. This appears to be due to disruption of the p53 pathway because we observed a concomitant decrease in the induction of the p53 target genes, Pidd, p21 and Mdm2. Thus caspase-2 may function as a tumor suppressor, in part, through regulation of cell division and genomic stability.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 3 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.38.
- GAPDH binds to active Akt, leading to Bcl-xL increase and escape from caspase-independent cell death. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 3.
Increased glucose catabolism and resistance to cell death are hallmarks of cancers, but the link between them remains elusive. Remarkably, under conditions where caspases are inhibited, the process of cell death is delayed but rarely blocked, leading to the occurrence of caspase-independent cell death (CICD). Escape from CICD is particularly relevant in the context of cancer as apoptosis inhibition only is often not sufficient to allow oncogenic transformation. While most glycolytic enzymes are overexpressed in tumors, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is of particular interest as it can allow cells to recover from CICD. Here, we show that GAPDH, but no other glycolytic enzymes tested, when overexpressed could bind to active Akt and limit its dephosphorylation. Active Akt prevents FoxO nuclear localization, which precludes Bcl-6 expression and leads to Bcl-xL overexpression. The GAPDH-dependent Bcl-xL overexpression is able to protect a subset of mitochondria from permeabilization that are required for cellular survival from CICD. Thus, our work suggests that GAPDH overexpression could induce Bcl-xL overexpression and protect cells from CICD-induced chemotherapy through preservation of intact mitochondria that may facilitate tumor survival and chemotherapeutic resistance.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 3 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.32.
- AIM2 and NLRP3 inflammasomes activate both apoptotic and pyroptotic death pathways via ASC. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 3.
Inflammasomes are protein complexes assembled upon recognition of infection or cell damage signals, and serve as platforms for clustering and activation of procaspase-1. Oligomerisation of initiating proteins such as AIM2 (absent in melanoma-2) and NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing-3) recruits procaspase-1 via the inflammasome adapter molecule ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD). Active caspase-1 is responsible for rapid lytic cell death termed pyroptosis. Here we show that AIM2 and NLRP3 inflammasomes activate caspase-8 and -1, leading to both apoptotic and pyroptotic cell death. The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by cytosolic DNA. The balance between pyroptosis and apoptosis depended upon the amount of DNA, with apoptosis seen at lower transfected DNA concentrations. Pyroptosis had a higher threshold for activation, and dominated at high DNA concentrations because it happens more rapidly. Gene knockdown showed caspase-8 to be the apical caspase in the AIM2- and NLRP3-dependent apoptotic pathways, with little or no requirement for caspase-9. Procaspase-8 localised to ASC inflammasome 'specks' in cells, and bound directly to the pyrin domain of ASC. Thus caspase-8 is an integral part of the inflammasome, and this extends the relevance of the inflammasome to cell types that do not express caspase-1.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 3 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.37.
- Foxc2 induces Wnt4 and Bmp4 expression during muscle regeneration and osteogenesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 3.
Proliferation and fusion of myoblasts is a well-orchestrated process occurring during muscle development and regeneration. Although myoblasts are known to originate from muscle satellite cells, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate their commitment toward differentiation are poorly understood. Here, we present a novel role for the transcription factor Forkhead box protein C2 (Foxc2) in regulating proliferation and preventing premature differentiation of activated muscle satellite cells. We demonstrate that Foxc2 expression is upregulated early in activated mouse muscle satellite cells and then diminishes during myogenesis. In undifferentiated C2C12 myoblasts, downregulation of endogenous Foxc2 expression leads to a decrease in proliferation, whereas forced expression of FOXC2 sustains proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. We also show that FOXC2 induces Wnt signaling by direct interaction with the Wnt4 (wingless-type MMTV integration site family member-4) promoter region. The resulting elevated expression of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp4) and RhoA-GTP proteins inhibits the proper myoblast alignment and fusion required for myotube formation. Interestingly, continuous forced expression of FOXC2 alters the commitment of C2C12 myoblasts toward osteogenic differentiation, which is consistent with FOXC2 expression observed in patients with myositis ossificans, an abnormal bone growth within muscle tissue. In summary, our results suggest that (a) Foxc2 regulates the proliferation of multipotent muscle satellite cells; (b) downregulation of Foxc2 is critical for myogenesis to progress; and (c) sustained Foxc2 expression in myoblast cells suppresses myogenesis and alters their lineage commitment toward osteogenesis by inducing the Wnt4 and Bmp4 signaling pathways.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 3 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.34.
- ZNF313 is a novel cell cycle activator with an E3 ligase activity inhibiting cellular senescence by destabilizing p21(WAF1.) [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 May 3.
ZNF313 encoding a zinc-binding protein is located at chromosome 20q13.13, which exhibits a frequent genomic amplification in multiple human cancers. However, the biological function of ZNF313 remains largely undefined. Here we report that ZNF313 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that has a critical role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation and senescence. In this study, ZNF313 is initially identified as a XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1)-interacting protein, which upregulates the stability and proapoptotic effect of XAF1. Intriguingly, we found that ZNF313 activates cell cycle progression and suppresses cellular senescence through the RING domain-mediated degradation of p21(WAF1). ZNF313 ubiquitinates p21(WAF1) and also destabilizes p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2), three members of the CDK-interacting protein (CIP)/kinase inhibitor protein (KIP) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, whereas it does not affect the stability of the inhibitor of CDK (INK4) family members, such as p16(INK4A) and p15(INK4B). ZNF313 expression is tightly controlled during the cell cycle and its elevation at the late G1 phase is crucial for the G1-to-S phase transition. ZNF313 is induced by mitogenic growth factors and its blockade profoundly delays cell cycle progression and accelerates p21(WAF1)-mediated senescence. Both replicative and stress-induced senescence are accompanied with ZNF313 reduction. ZNF313 is downregulated during cellular differentiation process in vitro and in vivo, while it is commonly upregulated in many types of cancer cells. ZNF313 shows both the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization in epithelial cells of normal tissues, but exhibits an intense cytoplasmic distribution in carcinoma cells of tumor tissues. Collectively, ZNF313 is a novel E3 ligase for p21(WAF1), whose alteration might be implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancers.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 3 May 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.33.
- Genetic background and tumour susceptibility in mouse models. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 Apr 26.
- The c-Jun kinase signaling cascade promotes glial engulfment activity through activation of draper and phagocytic function. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 Apr 26.
After neuronal injury or death glial cells become reactive, exhibiting dramatic changes in morphology and patterns of gene expression and ultimately engulfing neuronal debris. Rapid clearance of degenerating neuronal material is thought to be crucial for suppression of inflammation and promotion of functional recovery. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila c-Jun N-terminal kinase (dJNK) signaling is a critical in vivo mediator of glial engulfment activity. In response to axotomy, we find glial dJNK signals through a cascade involving the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases Slipper and Tak1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4, and ultimately the Drosophila activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex composed of Jra and Kayak to initiate glial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. Interestingly, loss of dJNK also blocked injury-induced upregulation of Draper levels in glia, and glial-specific overexpression of Draper was sufficient to rescue engulfment defects associated with loss of dJNK signaling. This work identifies that the dJNK pathway is a novel mediator of glial engulfment activity and a primary role for the glial Slipper/Tak1MKK4dJNKdAP-1 signaling cascade appears to be activation of draper expression after axon injury.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 26 April 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.30.
- Rescue of platinum-damaged oocytes from programmed cell death through inactivation of the p53 family signaling network. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 Apr 19.
Non-proliferating oocytes within avascular regions of the ovary are exquisitely susceptible to chemotherapy. Early menopause and sterility are unintended consequences of chemotherapy, and efforts to understand the oocyte apoptotic pathway may provide new targets for mitigating this outcome. Recently, the c-Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib) has become the focus of research as a fertoprotective drug against cisplatin. However, the mechanism by which imatinib protects oocytes is not fully understood, and reports of the drug's efficacy have been contradictory. Using in vitro culture and subrenal grafting of mouse ovaries, we demonstrated that imatinib inhibits the cisplatin-induced apoptosis of oocytes within primordial follicles. We found that, before apoptosis, cisplatin induces c-Abl and TAp73 expression in the oocyte. Oocytes undergoing apoptosis showed downregulation of TAp63 and upregulation of Bax. While imatinib was unable to block cisplatin-induced DNA damage and damage response, such as the upregulation of p53, imatinib inhibited the cisplatin-induced nuclear accumulation of c-Abl/TAp73 and the subsequent downregulation of TAp63 and upregulation of Bax, thereby abrogating oocyte cell death. Surprisingly, the conditional deletion of Trp63, but not ΔNp63, in oocytes inhibited apoptosis, as well as the accumulation of c-Abl and TAp73 caused by cisplatin. These data suggest that TAp63 is the master regulator of cisplatin-induced oocyte death. The expression kinetics of TAp63, c-Abl and TAp73 suggest that cisplatin activates TAp63-dependent expression of c-Abl and TAp73 and, in turn, the activation of TAp73 by c-Abl-induced BAX expression. Our findings indicate that imatinib protects oocytes from cisplatin-induced cell death by inhibiting c-Abl kinase, which would otherwise activate TAp73-BAX-mediated apoptosis. Thus, imatinib and other c-Abl kinase inhibitors provide an intriguing new way to halt cisplatin-induced oocyte death in early follicles and perhaps conserve the endocrine function of the ovary against chemotherapy.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 19 April 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.31.
- Molecular mechanisms of natural killer cell activation in response to cellular stress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Death Differ 2013 Apr 12.
Protection against cellular stress from various sources, such as nutritional, physical, pathogenic, or oncogenic, results in the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic cellular protection mechanisms that collectively limit the damage these insults inflict on the host. The major extrinsic protection mechanism against cellular stress is the immune system. Indeed, it has been well described that cells that are stressed due to association with viral infection or early malignant transformation can be directly sensed by the immune system, particularly natural killer (NK) cells. Although the ability of NK cells to directly recognize and respond to stressed cells is well appreciated, the mechanisms and the breadth of cell-intrinsic responses that are intimately linked with their activation are only beginning to be uncovered. This review will provide a brief introduction to NK cells and the relevant receptors and ligands involved in direct responses to cellular stress. This will be followed by an in-depth discussion surrounding the various intrinsic responses to stress that can naturally engage NK cells, and how therapeutic agents may induce specific activation of NK cells and other innate immune cells by activating cellular responses to stress.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 12 April 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.26.