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Cellular and molecular neurobiology [journal]
- Impaired Structural and Functional Development of Cerebellum Following Gestational Exposure of Deltamethrin in Rats: Role of Reelin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 May 17.
Reelin is an extracellular matrix molecule that is involved in the normal development of the cerebellar lamination, Bergmann glial fibres alignment, Purkinje cell monolayer arrangement and granule cell migration. In this study, we have examined the effects of maternal exposure of deltamethrin (DLT), a type II pyrethroid insecticide, on the structural and functional development of rat cerebellum during postnatal life. DLT (0.75 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide) was administered in timed pregnant rats during two different gestational time periods, i.e. gestational days of 7-10 and 11-14, respectively. In DLT exposed rats, a significant overexpression of reelin was observed in the cells of the external granule cell layer (EGL) and internal granule cell layer along with an ectopic expression of reelin in the EGL as well as in the migrating granule cells just below the EGL, revealing an arrest of granule cell migration in this zone. Mis-orientation and hypertrophy of the Bergmann glial fibres further hampered the journey of the granule cells to their final destination. Possibly reelin overexpression also caused misalignment of the Purkinje cells and inhibited the neurite growth leading to a significant decrease in the spine density, main dendritic length and width of the dendritic arbour. Thus, it is proposed that the DLT exerts its neurotoxic effects possibly via the intracellular accumulation and low release of reelin leading to an impaired granule cell and Purkinje cell migration, inhibition of neurite outgrowth and reduced spine density. Such impaired cerebellar development leads to motor coordination deficits.
- Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Different Clinical Phenotypes of Neuroinflammatory Acute Attacks. Conceptual Accession: From Fundamental to Clinic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 May 16.
Oxidative stress is revealed as the main contributor in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammation. Analyzing plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with different clinical phenotypes of neuroinflammation, defined as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and those defined as relapsing remitting multiples sclerosis (RRMS), we tested peripheral and CNS oxidative stress intensity in these neuroinflammatory acute attacks. All obtained values changes were assessed regarding clinical and radiological features of CNS inflammation. The obtained results revealed an increase in malondialdehyde levels in plasma and CSF in CIS and RRMS patients compared to control values (p < 0.05). The obtained values were most prevailed in both study group, CIS and RRMS, in patients with severe clinical presentation (p < 0.05). Measured activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase were higher in CIS and RRMS patients in plasma compared to control values (p < 0.05), parallel with an increased catalase activity and decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in CSF regarding values obtained in control group (p < 0.05). The positive correlations regarding clinical score were obtained for all tested biomarkers (p < 0.01). Although the positive correlations were observed in MDA levels in plasma and CSF, for both study patients, and their radiological findings (p < 0.01), and a negative correlation in plasma SOD activity and CIS patients' radiological findings (p < 0.01), no other similar correlations were obtained. These findings might be useful in providing the earliest antioxidative treatment in neuroinflammation aimed to preserve total and CNS antioxidative capacity parallel with delaying irreversible, later neurological disabilities.
- Nonspecific, Reversible Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels by CaMKII Inhibitor CK59. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 May 9.
Investigation of kinase-related processes often uses pharmacological inhibition to reveal pathways in which kinases are involved. However, one concern about using such kinase inhibitors is their potential lack of specificity. Here, we report that the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor CK59 inhibited multiple voltage-gated calcium channels, including the L-type channel during depolarization in a dose-dependent manner. The use of another CaMKII inhibitor, cell-permeable autocamtide-2 related inhibitory peptide II (Ant-AIP-II), failed to similarly decrease calcium current or entry in hippocampal cultures, as shown by ratiometric calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Notably, inhibition due to CK59 was reversible; washout of the drug brought calcium levels back to control values upon depolarization. Furthermore, the IC50 for CK59 was approximately 50 μM, which is only fivefold larger than the reported IC50 values for CaMKII inhibition. Similar nonspecific actions of other CaMKII inhibitors KN93 and KN62 have previously been reported. In the case of all three kinase inhibitors, the IC50 for calcium current inhibition falls near that of CaMKII inhibition. Our findings demonstrate that CK59 attenuates activity of voltage-gated calcium channels, and thus provide more evidence for caution when relying on pharmacological inhibition to examine kinase-dependent phenomena.
- Circulating MicroRNAs: A Novel Class of Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosing and Prognosing Central Nervous System Diseases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Apr 30.
As a class of important endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in many physiological and pathological processes. It is believed that miRNAs contribute to the development, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of the neurons, and their dysregulation has been linked to a series of diseases. MiRNAs exist in the tissues and as circulating miRNAs in several body fluids, including plasma or serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and saliva. There are significant differences between the circulating miRNA expression profiles of healthy individuals and those of patients. Consequently, circulating miRNAs are likely to become a novel class of noninvasive and sensitive biomarkers. Although little is known about the origin and functions of circulating miRNAs at present, their roles in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of diseases make them attractive markers, particularly for tumors and cardiovascular diseases. Until now, however, there have been limited data regarding the roles of circulating miRNAs in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. This review focuses on the characteristics of circulating miRNAs and their values as potential biomarkers in CNS diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.
- Xanthotoxol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Apr 26.
We previously found that xanthotoxol, one of the major active ingredients in Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, exerts protective effects in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by alleviating brain edema, inhibiting the neutrophil infiltration, and decreasing the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin. The present study was designed to further determine the possible mechanisms of action of neuroprotective properties of xanthotoxol after cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model in male Sprague-Dawley rats was induced by 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24-h reperfusion. Xanthotoxol (5 and 10 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally at 1 and 12 h after the onset of ischemia. At 24 h after reperfusion, we assessed the effect of xanthotoxol on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-8, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the p65 subunit of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the cortex after ischemic insult. The results showed that xanthotoxol treatment significantly attenuated BBB disruption, reduced the IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8 and NO level, and attenuated the iNOS activity compared with vehicle-treated animals. Further, xanthotoxol treatment also significantly prevented the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in the protein expression of iNOS, COX-2, and the nuclear NF-κB p65. These results, taken together with those of our previous study, suggest that the neuroprotection may be attributed to the ability of xanthotoxol to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and thereby inhibit the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia.
- Betaine Protects Against Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Apr 20.
Rotenone is an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and has been widely studied to elucidate the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of betaine on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Betaine inhibited rotenone-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, with cell viability increasing from 50 % with rotenone treatment alone to 71 % with rotenone plus 100-μM betaine treatment. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated cell death in the rotenone-treated cells to be over 50 %; the number of live cells increased with betaine pretreatment. Betaine pretreatment of PC12 cells attenuated rotenone-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, including nuclear fragmentation, ATP depletion, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3/7 activation, and reactive oxygen species production. Western blots demonstrated activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and their increased expression levels in rotenone-treated cells; betaine decreased caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression levels and suppressed their activation. Together, these results suggest that betaine may serve as a neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
- Comparison of Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in the Spinal Cord Between Young Adult and Aged Beagle Dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Apr 20.
Aging is an inevitable process that occurs in the whole body system accompanying with many functional and morphological changes. Inflammation is known as one of age-related factors, and inflammatory changes could enhance mortality risk. In this study, we compared immunoreactivities of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2 (a pro-inflammatory cytokine), its receptor (IL-2R), IL-4 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine), and its receptor (IL-4R) in the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of young adult (2-3 years old) and aged (10-12 years old) beagle dogs using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. IL-2 and IL-2R-immunoreactive nerve cells were found throughout the gray matter of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord of young adult and aged dogs. In the spinal cord neurons of the aged dog, immunoreactivity and protein levels were apparently increased compared with those in the young adult dog. Change patterns of IL-4- and IL-4R-immunoreactive cells and their protein levels were also similar to those in IL-2 and IL-2R; however, IL-4 and IL-4R immunoreactivity in the periphery of the neuronal cytoplasm in the aged dog was much stronger than that in the young adult dog. These results indicate that the increase of inflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the aged spinal cord might be related to maintaining a balance of inflammatory reaction in the spinal cord during normal aging.
- The Distribution of TRPV1 and TRPV2 in the Rat Pharynx. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Apr 14.
Immunohistochemistry for two nociceptive transducers, the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V members 1 (TRPV1) and 2 (TRPV2), was performed on the pharynx and its adjacent regions. TRPV1-immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in nerve fibers beneath and within the epithelium and/or taste bud-like structure. In the pharynx, these nerve fibers were abundant in the naso-oral part and at the border region of naso-oral and laryngeal parts. They were also numerous on the laryngeal side of the epiglottis and in the soft palate. TRPV2-IR was expressed by dendritic cells in the pharynx and epiglottis, as well as in the root of the tongue and soft palate. These cells were located in the epithelium and lamina propria. TRPV2-immunoreactive (IR) dendritic cells were numerous in the naso-oral part of the pharynx, epiglottis, and tongue. Abundance of TRPV2-IR dendritic processes usually obscured the presence of TRPV2-IR nerve fibers in these portions. However, some TRPV2-IR nerve fibers could be observed in the epithelium of the soft palate. Retrograde tracing method also revealed that sensory neurons which innervate the pharynx or soft palate were abundant in the jugular-petrosal ganglion complex and relatively rare in the nodose ganglion. In the jugular-petrosal ganglion complex, TRPV1- and TRPV2-IR were expressed by one-third of pharyngeal and soft palate neurons. TRPV2-IR was also detected in 11.5 % pharyngeal and 30.9 % soft palate neurons in the complex. Coexpression of TRPV1 and CGRP was frequent among pharyngeal and soft palate neurons. The present study suggests that TRPV1- and TRPV2-IR jugular-petrosal neurons may be associated with the regulation of the swallowing reflex.
- Olfactory Ensheathing Cell-Conditioned Medium Protects Astrocytes Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide Stress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Apr 14.
The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of olfactory ensheathing cell conditioned medium (OECCM) on damaged astrocytes after exposure to H2O2 in vitro. OECCM was used to treat astrocytes after injury, which was induced by exposure to 500 μmol/L H2O2 for 20 min. The cell morphology was then observed under a light microscope, cell viability assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell ultrastructure observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and apoptosis assessed by Annexin V staining followed by cytometry and Western blot. H2O2 induced severe damage to astrocytes as evidenced by decreased cell number, pathological changes in cell morphology, and significantly elevated cell apoptosis. Cells incubated with OECCM displayed significantly improved cell viability and decreased cell apoptotic rate. Under TEM, H2O2-treated cells showed partially broken plasma membranes, swollen rough endoplasmic reticula, visible vacuoles, and swollen or deformed mitochondria with ruptured cristae. Incubation with OECCM significantly ameliorated these pathological changes in astrocytes. These results suggest that OECCM may protect astrocytes from oxidative damage by promoting cell survival while reducing apoptosis of the damaged cells.
- Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs on Antioxidant and Oxidant Molecular Pathways: Focus on Trace Elements. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cell Mol Neurobiol 2013 Apr 14.
Current reports on trace elements, oxidative stress, and the effect of antiepileptic drugs are poor and controversial. We aimed to review effects of most common used antiepileptics on antioxidant, trace element, calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx, and oxidant systems in human and experimental animal models. Observations of lower blood or tissue antioxidant levels in epileptic patients and animals compared to controls in recent publications may commonly support the proposed crucial role of antioxidants in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Effects of old and new antiepileptics on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in epilepsy are controversial. The old antiepileptic drugs like valproic acid, phenytoin, and carbamazepine induced ROS overproduction, while new epileptic drugs (e.g., topiramate and zonisamide) induced scavenger effects on over production of ROS in human and animals. Antioxidant trace element levels such as selenium, copper, and zinc were generally low in the blood of epileptic patients, indicating trace element deficiencies in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Recent papers indicate that selenium with/without topiramate administration in human and animals decreased seizure levels, although antioxidant values were increased. Recent studies also reported that sustained depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, enhanced ROS production and Ca(2+) influx may be modulated by topiramate. In conclusion, there is a large number of recent studies about the role of antioxidants or neuroprotectants in clinical and experimental models of epilepsy. New antiepileptic drugs are more prone to restore antioxidant redox systems in brain and neurons.