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Chem Biol Interact [journal]
- Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in lung cancer in Wistar rats using NNK as an inducer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 18.
Lung cancer is one of the commonest cancers detected worldwide with a high mortality rate. The responsible factors affecting survival include delayed prognosis, and lack of effective treatments. To help improve the disease management, there is a need for better screening and development of specific markers that help in the early diagnosis. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins in cancer cells in comparison to their normal counterparts using proteome profiling revealed identification of new biomarkers as therapeutic targets. Therefore, an animal model for lung cancer was developed and monitored by histopathological evaluation. Lung tissue proteins were isolated, solubilized and resolved on 2D gel electrophoresis using broad pH range IPG strips (pH 3-10). Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed 66 proteins to be differentially expressed in cancer tissue as compared to normal. The study identified and characterized three of these proteins, namely peroxiredoxin-6, β-actin and collagen α-1 (VI) as potentially prospective biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer.
- Disulfiram and its Emerging Role as an Adjunctive Anti- Neoplastic Agent. [LETTER]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 17.
- Organaophosphate poisoning in the developed world - a single centre experience from here to the millennium. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 16.
Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, both in resource-poor settings and in well-developed countries. Despite numerous publications dealing with this particular poison, detailed clinical data on more severe overdoses with these agents are relatively sparsely reported. A retrospective study was consequently conducted on 33 patients with OP poisoning admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) to provide additional data on clinical features. We included moderate to severe poisonings between 2000-2012 who required admission to ICU. Patients ingested dimethyl-OPs in 19 cases, diethyl-OPs in 8 cases and otherwise classified OPs in 6 cases. Death (5/33) occurred rather late and only one of these fatalities died during on-going cholinergic crisis. Of the survivors (28/33), 71% recovered fully while 29% showed predominantly neurological disabilities before being transferred to neurologic rehabilitation. Aspiration pneumonia predominated in 27/33 patients and one patient died in refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The intermediate syndrome occurred twice and cardiopulmonary resuscitation had to be performed in 6/33 patients. Fatalities showed a higher Poison-severity-score, APACHE-II-score and SOFA-score on admission compared with survivors and they showed significantly longer QTc-time in the ECG, lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, a lower pH and a lower base excess on admission. Patients with diethyl-OPs required intubation significantly earlier and showed lower and more sustained inhibited activity of the plasma-cholinesterase on admission compared with patients ingesting dimethyl-OPs. Treatment with atropine and obidoxime was comparable between these groups and severity of poisoning, outcome, hemodynamics on admission, duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the ICU did not significantly differ between the involved group of dimethyl- and diethyl-OPs. We conclude that the fatality rate in our patient cohort treated in a well-staffed and equipped ICU of a developed country is quite similarly high compared with the rate observed in developing countries. Patients died rather late when severe cholinergic crisis had mostly been overcome and death was therefore related to non-poison specific complications.
- Molecular Flexibility and the Electrostatic Moments of Curcumin and its Derivatives in the Active Site of p300: A Theoretical Charge Density Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 14.
A molecular docking analysis and quantum chemical calculation coupled with the charge density analysis have been carried out to understand the conformational change, charge density distribution and the electrostatic properties of HAT inhibitors curcumin and its derivatives (cinnamoyl compounds) in the active site of p300. The nearest neighbours, the shortest intermolecular contacts between the inhibitors and receptor p300 and their binding energies were calculated from molecular docking analysis. A high level quantum chemical calculations were performed using Density functional theory (DFT-B3LYP) with the basis set 6-311G∗∗ combined with the theory of Atoms in molecules (AIM) for the inhibitors in gas phase and in the active site of p300. It is observed that, when the molecules present in the active site of p300, relatively, their geometrical, bond topological and the electrostatic properties are significantly altered. The comparative study on the geometrical and electrostatic properties of these three inhibitors in gas phase and amino acid environment gives an insight on the molecular flexibility and the exact modification of electrostatic interaction of the inhibitor in the active site of p300. These fine details at electronic level allow to understand the exact drug-receptor interaction.
- The activation sequence of cellular protein handling systems after proteasomal inhibition in dopaminergic cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 14.
Dysfunction of protein handling has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to the formation of protein aggregates and proteinopathies in such diseases. While proteasomal inhibition could trigger an array of downstream protein handling changes including up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), induction of molecular chaperones, activation of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and aggresome formation, little is known of the relationship of proteasomal inhibition to the sequence of activation of these diverse protein handling systems. In this study we utilized the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 and examined the activity of several major protein handling systems in the immortalized dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell line. In the early phase (up to 6 hours after proteasomal inhibition), MG132 induced time-dependent proteasomal inhibition which resulted in stimulation of the UPR, increased autophagic flux and stimulated heat shock protein response as determined by increased levels of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153, turnover of autophagy related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of Hsp70 respectively. After prolonged proteasomal inhibition induced by MG132, we observed the formation of vimentin-caged aggresome-like inclusion bodies. A recovery study after MG132-induced proteasomal inhibition indicated that the autophagy-lysosomal pathway participated in the clearance of aggresomes. Our data characterizes the relationship between proteasome inhibition and activation of other protein handling systems. These data also indicated that the induction of alternate protein handling systems and their temporal relationships may be important factors that determine the extent of accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells as a result of proteasome inhibition.
- Use of the Cultex® Radial Flow System as an in vitro exposure method to assess acute pulmonary toxicity of fine dusts and nanoparticles with special focus on the intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 11.
Exposure of the respiratory tract to airborne particles (including metal-dusts and nano-particles) is considered as a serious health hazard. For a wide range of substances basic knowledge about the toxic properties and the underlying pathomechanisms is lacking or even completely missing. Legislation demands the toxicological characterization of all chemicals placed on the market until 2018 (REACH). As toxicological in vivo data are rare with regard to acute lung toxicity or exhibit distinct limitations (e.g. inter-species differences) and legislation claims the reduction of animal experiments in general ("3R" principle), profound in vitro models have to be established and characterized to meet these requirements. In this paper we characterize a recently introduced advanced in vitro exposure system (Cultex® RFS) showing a great similarity to the physiological in vivo exposure situation for the assessment of acute pulmonary toxicity of airborne materials. Using the Cultex® RFS, human lung epithelial cells (A549 cells) were exposed to different concentrations of airborne metal dusts (nano- and microscale particles) at the air-liquid-interface (ALI). Cell viability (WST-1 assay) as a parameter of toxicity was assessed 24h after exposure with special focus on the intra- and inter-laboratory (three independent laboratories) reproducibility. Our results show the general applicability of the Cultex® RFS with regard to the requirements of the ECVAM (European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods) principles on test validity underlining its robustness and stability. Intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility can be considered as sufficient if predefined quality criteria are respected. Special attention must be paid to the pure air controls that turned out to be a critical parameter for a rational interpretation of the results. Our results are encouraging and future work is planned to improve the inter-laboratory reproducibility, to consolidate the results so far and to develop a valid prediction model.
- Alterations in hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acids in non-obese type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 9.
Elevated plasma homocysteine has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic liver disease, which are major complications of diabetes. Hence, hepatic homocysteine metabolism has become a major focus of diabetes research. However, little information is available regarding plasma homocysteine levels in non-obese diabetic animals. Therefore, we investigated the hepatic metabolism of sulfur-amino acids in non-obese type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. The experiments were performed using 9-week-old Goto-Kakizaki rats and age-matched Wistar rats. The major finding of this study is that homocysteine levels in the liver and plasma are maintained by a balance between the up-regulation of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase and the inhibition of cystathionine β-synthase in non-obese type-2 diabetic rats. Hepatic levels of cysteine and its metabolites, such as hypotaurine, taurine, and glutathione, were increased despite inhibition of the transsulfuration of homocysteine to cysteine. The elevated hepatic taurine and glutathione levels may be attributed to the up-regulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression and increased cysteine availability for glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase activity in Goto-Kakizaki rats was associated with a decrease in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine, which serves as an allosteric activator of cystathionine β-synthase. The non-obese type-2 diabetic condition results in profound changes in hepatic sulfur-amino acid metabolism and raises the possibility that sulfur-amino acid metabolism may be regulated by obesity- as well as diabetes-associated factors. Further study to elucidate the pathological significance of sulfur-amino acid metabolism in chronic liver disease in type-2 diabetic animals is underway in this laboratory.
- Topographical study of O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase repair activity and N7-methylguanine levels in resected lung tissue. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 9.
BACKGROUND:Tobacco specific nitrosamines such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are genotoxic alkylating agents found within cigarette smoke that induce lung adenocarcinomas in animal models. In humans, adenocarcinomas originate most frequently in the lung periphery. The aim of this study was to determine whether peripheral lung has increased susceptibility to the genotoxic effects of alkylating agents by comparing DNA alkylation damage (N7-methylguanine: N7-meG) and repair (O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase: MGMT) in peripheral relative to central lung tissue.
METHODS:Macroscopically normal lung tissue, resected from patients undergoing surgery for lung cancer, was sampled at equidistant points from central to peripheral lung along a bronchus. N7-meG levels were determined using an immunoslotblot technique and MGMT activity with a [32P]-labelled oligodeoxynucleotide cleavage assay.
RESULTS:A total of 20 subjects were recruited, 12 males and 8 females with a mean age of 68.7±5.8years. There were 14 former and 6 current smokers with a mean smoking exposure of 34.0±18.3packyears. N7-meG (mean 0.75±0.57/10(6)dG, n=65 samples from 14 patients) and MGMT repair (geometric mean 9.57±1.62fmol/μg DNA, n=79 samples from 16 patients) were detected in all samples assayed. MGMT activity increased towards the lung periphery (r=0.28, p=0.023; n=16) with a highly significant association in current (r=0.53, p=0.008; n=6) but not former smokers (r=0.13; p=0.41; n=10). No correlation was seen with N7-meG levels and lung position (r=-0.18; p=0.21; n=14). N7-meG levels were higher in current compared to former smokers reaching significance in two lung positions including peripheral lung (p=0.047).
CONCLUSIONS:The findings in this study do not support the hypothesis that peripheral tissue is more susceptible to the genotoxic effects of alkylating agents than central lung tissue. In addition exposure to cigarette smoke reduced the level of MGMT in central bronchial tissue possibly through increased alkylating agent exposure.
- Evaluation of antioxidant efficacy of vanadium-3-hydroxyflavone complex in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 7.
Since 1985, when Heyliger et al., first demonstrated that oral administration of sodium orthovanadate (0.8mg/ml) to STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in normoglycemia, numerous extensive studies have been reported on the antidiabetic actions of vanadium. The acceptance of vanadium compounds as promising therapeutic antidiabetic drugs has been slowed due to the concern for chronic toxicity associated with vanadium accumulation. In order to circumvent the toxic effects of vanadium, a combinational approach wherein a novel V3HF complex was synthesized, characterized and its toxic as well as antidiabetic potential were evaluated in STZ diabetic rats. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress primarily contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of both primary as well as secondary complications of diabetes. It is possible to reduce the risks caused by excessive generation of free radicals by either enhancing the body's natural antioxidant defenses or by supplementing with proven antioxidants. The present study was aimed to study the role of V3HF complex on hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress in STZ-diabetic rats and the results indicate that the complex improves pancreatic beta cell function. Histological and ultrastructural studies also evidenced that the complex protect the beta cells from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.
- Potent toxins in Arctic environments - Presence of saxitoxins and an unusual microcystin variant in Arctic freshwater ecosystems. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Biol Interact 2013 May 3.
Cyanobacteria are the predominant phototrophs in freshwater ecosystems of the polar regions where they commonly form extensive benthic mats. Despite their major biological role in these ecosystems, little attention has been paid to their physiology and biochemistry. An important feature of cyanobacteria from the temperate and tropical regions is the production of a large variety of toxic secondary metabolites. In Antarctica, and more recently in the Arctic, the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin and nodularin (Antarctic only) have been detected in freshwater microbial mats. To date other cyanobacterial toxins have not been reported from these locations. Five Arctic cyanobacterial communities were screened for saxitoxin, another common cyanobacterial toxin, and microcystins using immunological, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Saxitoxin was detected for the first time in cyanobacteria from the Arctic. In addition, an unusual microcystin variant was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gene expression analyses confirmed the analytical findings, whereby parts of the sxt and mcy operon involved in saxitoxin and microcystin synthesis, were detected and sequenced in one and five of the Arctic cyanobacterial samples, respectively. The detection of these compounds in the cryosphere improves the understanding of the biogeography and distribution of toxic cyanobacteria globally. The sequences of sxt and mcy genes provided from this habitat for the first time may help to clarify the evolutionary origin of toxin production in cyanobacteria.