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Chem Pharm Bull [journal]
- Effects of Mixing Procedure Itself on the Structure, Viscosity, and Spreadability of White Petrolatum and Salicylic Acid Ointment and the Skin Permeation of Salicylic Acid. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014 Nov 15.
White petrolatum is a mixture of solid and liquid hydrocarbons and its structure can be affected by shear stress. Thus, it might also induce changes in its rheological properties. In this study, we used polarization microscopy to investigate how different mixing methods affect the structure of white petrolatum. We used two different mixing methods, mixing using a rotation/revolution mixer and mixing using an ointment slab and an ointment spatula. The extent of the fragmentation and dispersal of the solid portion of white petrolatum depended on the mixing conditions. Next, we examined the changes in the structure of a salicylic acid ointment, in which white petrolatum was used as a base, induced by mixing and found that the salicylic acid solids within the ointment were also dispersed. In addition, to these structural changes, the viscosity and thixotropic behavior of both test substances also decreased in a mixing condition-dependent manner. The reductions in these parameters were most marked after mixing with a rotation/revolution mixer, and similar results were obtained for spreadability. We also investigated the effects of mixing procedure on the skin accumulation and permeation of salicylic acid. They were increased by approximately three-fold after mixing. Little difference in skin accumulation or permeation was detected between the two mixing methods. These findings indicate that mixing procedures themselves affect the utility and physiological effects of white petrolatum-based ointments. Therefore, these effects should be considered when mixing is required for the clinical use of petrolatum-based ointments.
- Specific Labeling of Streptavidin for Better Understanding of Ligand Modification in Modular Method for Affinity Labeling (MoAL). [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1146-50.
We studied the specific labeling of streptavidin using the modular method for affinity labeling (MoAL) that we developed based on a catalytic amide-forming reaction using 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine (CDMT) and a tertiary amine catalyst. The primary structures of avidin and streptavidin are significantly different from each other, and streptavidin does not possess an acidic amino acid equivalent to Asp108 of avidin, which is the target acidic amino acid that was labeled using MoAL. However, using biotinylated modular ligand catalysts (MLC) originally designed for labeling avidin, the labeling of streptavidin was found to successfully proceed at Glu51, which is located in a different region. The present study indicates that MoAL is readily applicable to protein labeling without a precise design for MLC. The most important factor for the design of MLC is to ensure that the linker is of sufficient length to connect the ligands to a catalytic site.
- Isolation and Characterization of New Onionins A2 and A3 from Allium cepa, and of Onionins A1, A2, and A3 from Allium fistulosum. [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1141-5.
In this study, the new stable sulfur-containing compounds onionins A2 (1) and A3 (2) were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of Allium cepa L. and identified as the stereoisomers of onionin A1 discovered in our previous study. Their chemical structures, 3,4-dimethyl-5-(1E-propenyl)-tetrahydrothiophene-2-sulfenic acid-S-oxides, were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, 1 and 2 together with onionin A1 were successfully isolated from the leaves of the Welsh onion, Allium fistulosum L. The onion-extracted fractions showed good potential to inhibit the polarization of M2 activated macrophages, indicating their possible ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation.
- Bioactive Lignan Constituents from the Twigs of Lindera glauca. [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1136-40.
A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract from the twigs of Lindera glauca (SIEB. et ZUCC.) BLUME resulted in the isolation and identification of six lignans (1-6) including three new lignan derivatives, named linderuca A (1), B (2), and C (3). The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including two dimensional NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates (1-6) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on human tumor cell lines. Compounds 1-5 showed antiproliferative activities against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines with IC50 values of 7.79-29.42 µM. Based on the understanding that inflammation is a crucial cause of tumor progression, we also investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates (1-6) in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV-2 cell line by measuring nitric oxide (NO) levels. The new lignans (1-3) significantly inhibited NO production with IC50 values of 12.10, 9.48, and 9.87 µM, respectively, without cytotoxicity.
- Spectroscopic investigation for the interaction of mycophenolate mofetil with ferrous ions. [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1131-5.
The interaction of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) in the solid state, in water, and in polar organic solvents was investigated using (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, IR, and UV-visible (Vis) spectroscopies. A red-purple colored substance was formed after grinding solid MMF and FeSO4·7H2O in a mortar. The IR spectrum of taken as a KBr tablet of the colored substance showed a new absorption band at 1651 cm(-1). Although the color disappeared when the sample was dissolved in water, it persisted in organic solvents such as MeOH or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The UV-Vis spectrum of a 0.25 mM MeOH solution of MMF showed a new absorption maximum at 507 nm in the presence of Fe(2+) ions, while an aqueous solution of the same mixture showed no significant change from the MMF solution. All the signals in the (13)C-NMR spectrum in DMSO-d6 solution were unambiguously assigned. Upon the addition of 0.5 eq. of Fe(2+) ions, all the carbon signals except those of the 2-morpholinoethyl group almost disappeared, which clearly indicated that the Fe(2+) ions were located far away from the 2-morpholinoethyl groups in the MMF molecules. On the basis of these results, we have concluded that the MMF-Fe(2+) complex is actually formed in the solid state as well as in polar organic solvents such as MeOH or DMSO.
- Study of complex formation of carbamazepine with thiourea. [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1125-30.
The aim of this study, we evaluated a complex between thiourea (TU) and carbamazepine (CBZ) of a poorly soluble drug by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and the solubility test. PXRD of TU/CBZ=2/1, 1/1, and 1/2 prepared by solvent evaporation (EVP) revealed characteristic diffraction peaks at 2θ=6.7°, 8.8°, 13.5°, and 20.4°, therefore molecular interaction between TU and CBZ presumably occurred. Results of the FT-IR spectroscopy, asymmetric and symmetric NH stretching vibration of TU were shifted to high region by TU/CBZ=2/1, 1/1, and 1/2 EVP. TU/CBZ=2/1 and 1/1 EVP had absorption derived from TU. It was considered that complex were formed by TU/CBZ=1/2. X-Ray crystallography of TU and CBZ revealed a crystal structure with one TU molecule arranged near two CBZ molecules. Molecules of the same type overlap in this layer. When doing a solubility test by using CBZ and samples of EVP, physical mixture and crystals in TU/CBZ=1/2 to confirm the solubility in water of TU/CBZ complex, there is no difference with the CBZ. It considered that the structure of a complex differs from the tunnel structure of inclusion complexes that has been previously reported contribute to result it.
- Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Alkaloids in Uncaria Species by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS. [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1100-9.
An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) method has been optimized and established for the rapid analysis of the alkaloids in 22 samples originating from five Uncaria (U.) species. The accurate mass measurement of all the protonated molecules and subsequent fragment ions offers higher quality structural information for the interpretation of fragmentation pathways of the various groups of alkaloids. A total of 19 oxindole alkaloids, 16 indole alkaloids and 1 flavone were identified by co-chromatography of the sample extract with authentic standards, comparison of the retention time, characteristic molecular ions and fragment ions, or were tentatively identified by MS/MS determination. Moreover, the method was validated for the simultaneous quantification of the 24 components within 10.5 min. The potential chemical markers were identified for classification of the U. species samples by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The results demonstrate the similarity and differences in alkaloids among the five U. species, which is helpful for the standardization and quality control of the medical materials of the U. Ramulus Cum Unics (URCU). Furthermore, with multivariate statistical analysis, the determined markers are more definite and useful for chemotaxonomy of the U. genus.
- A rapid new approach for the quality evaluation of the folk medicine dianbaizhu based on chemometrics. [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1083-91.
Dianbaizhu, a folk medicine from Gaultheria leucocarpa BLUME var. yunnanensis (FRANCH.) T. Z. HSU & R. C. FANG (Ericaceae) used as an antirheumatic, has multiple plant origins and officinal parts. A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for the simultaneous determination of the characteristic ingredient methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2) [O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→6)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and seven bioactive constituents in eight Gaultheria species. This chromatographic method is precise, accurate, and stable. Kruskal-Wallis analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and factor analysis were used to analyze the content of reference compounds in different Gaultheria species and officinal parts. The analyses showed significant differences (p<0.05) in Gaultheria species but few differences (p>0.05) in their medicinal parts. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis appeared to the best among the Gaultheria species tested for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Taken together, the results show that this simultaneous quantiﬁcation of multiple active constituents using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics can be reliably applied to evaluate the quality of Dianbaizhu.
- Practical Method for Preparing Nanosuspension Formulations for Toxicology Studies in the Discovery Stage: Formulation Optimization and in Vitro/in Vivo Evaluation of Nanosized Poorly Water-Soluble Compounds. [Journal Article]
- Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2014; 62(11):1073-82.
The present study aimed to develop a practical method for preparing nanosuspension formulations of poorly water-soluble compounds for enhancing oral absorption in toxicology studies in the discovery stage. To obtain a suitable nanosuspension formulation for the intended purpose, formulations were optimized with a focus on the following characteristics: i) containing a high drug concentration, ii) consisting of commonly used excipient types in proper quantities for toxicology studies, iii) having long-term stability, and iv) having versatility for use with diverse compounds. Test compounds were milled with various excipients by wet media milling methods using a mixer mill (10 mg/batch) and a rotation/revolution mixer (0.5 g/batch). As a result, 100 mg/mL nanosuspensions of all 11 test compounds could be prepared with an optimized dispersing agent, 0.5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (3 cP)-0.5% Tween 80. Notably, it was found that the molecular weight of HPMC influenced not only particle size but also the stability of nanosuspensions and they were stable for 4 weeks at 5°C. The nanosuspensions increased in vitro dissolution rates and provided 3.9 and 3.0 times higher Cmax and 4.4 and 1.6 times higher area under the concentration-time curve from 0-24 h (AUC0-24 h) in rats (oral dose of 300 mg/kg) for cilostazol and danazol, respectively. In conclusion, applying a wet media milling method with the combination of HPMC of a small molecular weight and Tween 80 as a dispersing agent, nanosuspensions can be practically prepared and conveniently utilized for enhancing the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble compounds in toxicology studies in the discovery stage.