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Childs Nerv Syst [journal]
- Accidental head trauma during care activities in the first year of life: a neurosurgical comparative study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 Jun; 29(6):973-978.
OBJECTIVES:This study aims to describe clinical-epidemiological data regarding accidental fall injuries occurring during homecare activities among children up to 1 year of age and to compare their outcomes according to the type of trauma.
METHODS:We searched four different hospital databases on head injuries from 1999 to 2009. Patients recorded under the descriptors "accidental fall" and "home-related" in the subtext were selected. Patients were classified into two groups: those who flipped over and fell from a changing table (n = 253) and those who fell from the bed sustaining a direct impact from the floor (n = 483).
RESULTS:There was no difference between both groups with respect to age, gender, and Glasgow Coma Scale score. However, children who suffered injuries after an accidental fall from the changing table were more likely to require surgery (26/483 vs. 57/253, p < 0.0001), had a mean longer length of stay (LOS, 4 vs. 1 day), and a higher incidence of depressed skull fractures (12/483 vs. 24/253, p < 0.0001). Children with a direct impact from the floor after falling off the bed were expected to suffer from simple linear skull fractures, while those who flipped over the changing table were more likely to present facial, soft tissue, or skeletal injuries.
CONCLUSIONS:Children who flipped over a changing table during their homecare activities were more likely to require surgery, showed a higher morbidity, and showed a longer LOS than those who fell down from the bed. These results probably reflect the different impact energy according to each injury mechanism.
- Long-term tumor-free survival case of congenital embryonal tumor with various pathological components. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 Jun; 29(6):921-926.
PURPOSE:Treatment strategy of malignant congenital brain tumor is controversial. We report a congenital embryonal tumor case with various pathological components.
METHODS:A normally delivered male infant had an enlarged head circumference at 1 month after birth. The abnormality of the right side of the head was also noted during the routine 4-month health check. The head circumference was 45.1 cm (+2.25, SD); neurological status, however, was normal, with a pediatric GCS of 9 and body weight of 6,370 g (-0.85, SD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed right brain tumor whose size was 99 × 91 × 86 mm. The tumor was enhanced homogeneously with central necrosis, and the margin of the tumor was well circumscribed.
RESULTS:We performed a subtotal removal of the tumor. The pathological diagnosis was meningioma (MIB-1 index was 2 %). The residual tumor gradually shrank, and we performed monthly MRI follow-up. The tumor abruptly recurred 7 months after the operation. The level of patient consciousness deteriorated, and emergency removal surgery was performed. The histological examination showed various types of embryonal components without meningioma-like parts. The pathological diagnosis was an embryonal tumor. The MIB-1 index was 48 %. One month after the second operation, dissemination of the tumor occurred at the right temporal lobe, cerebellum, and in subcutaneous tissue. Chemotherapy (vincristine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide) was initiated following radiation therapy (3 Gy/day, 8×). Adjuvant therapies were effective, and no tumor recurrence was detected during 34 months follow-up.
CONCLUSION:Treatment strategies for malignant indefinite diagnosed tumor need to be discussed.
- Imaging the course of a hypoplastic cerebellum in a spina bifida newborn. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 19.
INTRODUCTION:We report about a spina bifida patient with myelomeningocele at the lumbar level L5, extensive Chiari malformation type II with vermal herniation reaching to C6 with downward pontine shift, and a severe hypoplastic cerebellum. Chromosomal diagnostic tests showed no abnormalities.
CASE REPORT:The infant experienced severe central apneas successfully treated with oxygen therapy and caffeine medication; functional motor level was established at L5 with sparse anal sphincter function.
DISCUSSION:After surgical intervention (myelomeningocele repair and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement), these abnormalities significantly improved on radiological imaging; the preoperative hypoplastic, almost undetectable, cerebellum developed to a fair sized cerebellum. Apneas disappeared over time and the patient showed further developmental improvement. Herein, we illustrate and discuss the changes of the cerebellar volume before and after neurosurgical intervention.
- Giant intrasacral meningocele: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 19.
A peculiar case of intrasacral meningocele and spinal cord tethering is reported. Contents of the intrasacral meningocele and importance of CSF flow analyses with MRI are discussed. Demonstration of CSF flow from the thecal sac to meningocele in the CSF flow MR imaging may be helpful for determining the possibility of meningocele growth. In this report, we have presented the determination of CSF flow as a new surgical indication in this type of cases.
- Multiple cerebral abscesses in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 18.
Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome is characterised by palmoplantar keratoderma, periodontitis and pyogenic infections. We describe the first case of brain abscess in a child with this syndrome. We highlight the importance of recognising any associated diagnosis, however rare or apparently irrelevant, in an acutely and critically ill child.
- Vagal nerve stimulation in children under 12 years old with medically intractable epilepsy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 17.
OBJECTIVE:This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) in children less than 12 years old operated on at the University Hospital Wales.
METHOD:Retrospective review of patients undergoing VNS insertion, over a 3-year period, was undertaken. All children had a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Sixteen patients were identified via the paediatric epilepsy surgery database. A case note review and telephone evaluation was conducted. Seizure frequency using the McHugh classification was the primary outcome measure, with anti-epileptic drug (AED) use as a secondary outcome measure.
RESULTS:There were 10 males and 6 females. The mean time with epilepsy prior to surgery was 5.7 years and the mean age at the time of surgery was 7.6 years. Overall, nine (56 %) children experienced a reduction in their seizure frequency of 50 % or more. Of these, four (25 %) had a reduction of more than 80 %. Seven children (44 %) had no reduction in their seizure frequency, although two of these patients reported benefit regarding seizure control and post-ictal recovery. The VNS system was removed in two patients due to infection and no benefit, respectively. Half of the cohort (50 %) reduced the number of anti-epileptic drugs post-surgery, and there was an overall mean reduction of AED of 0.5.
CONCLUSION:This study suggests that VNS is a safe and effective adjuvant therapy in children under 12 years old, with over half reporting significant benefit. Further studies are needed to enable preoperative selection of patients in order to maximise the potential benefit.
- Histologic grade and extent of resection are associated with survival in pediatric spinal cord ependymomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 16.
PURPOSE:Prognostic factors affecting outcomes in pediatric spinal cord ependymomas are limited. We sought to investigate potential associations between extent of resection and histologic grade on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
METHODS:A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify pediatric patients who underwent surgical resection for spinal cord ependymomas. Only manuscripts with clearly defined age, tumor grade, extent of resection, and clinical follow-up were included.
RESULTS:A total of 80 patients were identified with a histologic distribution as follows: 36 % myxopapillary (grade I), 54 % classical (grade II), and 10 % anaplastic (grade III). There was no association between tumor grade and PFS. The only factor associated with improved PFS was gross total resection (GTR), which remained significant in a multivariate model (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.248, p = 0.022). Moreover, older age (HR = 0.818, p = 0.026), GTR (HR = 0.042, p = 0.013), and anaplastic grade (HR = 19.847, p = 0.008) demonstrated a significant association with OS in a multivariate model.
CONCLUSIONS:Among pediatric patients with spinal cord ependymomas, PFS did not differ across histologic grades but was prolonged among patients who underwent GTR. Age, extent of resection, and tumor grade were all significantly associated with survival.
- Changes in third ventricular size in pediatric patients undergoing endoscopic third ventriculostomy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 16.
PURPOSE:Optimal methods of evaluating radiographic data following endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) are not yet known. This study analyzes imaging parameters, including third ventricular width and cross-sectional area (CSA), in pediatric ETV patients.
METHODS:Hydrocephalic pediatric patients treated by ETV at the senior authors' institution from 2004 to 2011 were stratified clinically (successful versus unsuccessful outcome) and retrospectively reviewed. Measured from pre- and post-operative imaging studies, third ventricular parameters included maximal width and mid-sagittal CSA, while lateral ventricular parameters included the ratio of greatest frontal horn width to co-linear skull internal diameter and the frontal-occipital horn ratio.
RESULTS:Ten successful ETV patients (mean age 10.6 years; range 11 months to 19.8 years) obtained imaging at least 2.75 months following surgery, while four unsuccessful ETV patients (mean age 9.8 years; range 4 months to 17.3 years) underwent imaging before repeat intervention. Third ventricular width showed an average decline of 0.32 cm and 17.4 % in the successful ETV cohort, but average increases of 0.35 cm and 21.0 % in the ETV failure group. Successful ETV patients exhibited mean decreases of 1.85 cm(2) and 19.7 % in third ventricular mid-sagittal CSA, while unsuccessful ETV patients showed mean increases of 1.17 cm(2) and 17.3 % per patient. These differences were statistically significant. Measures of lateral ventricular size showed similar trends, but with lower magnitude.
CONCLUSIONS:Third ventricular imaging parameters (width and mid-sagittal CSA) exhibited more pronounced responses to ETV than lateral ventricular measurements in pediatric hydrocephalic patients.
- Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) is a potential prognostic marker and a therapeutic target in medulloblastoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 16.
INTRODUCTION:Neuroectodermal tumors in general demonstrate high and dense expression of the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2). It controls proliferation of both normal and neoplastic cells. sst2 has thus been suggested as a therapeutic target and prognostic marker for certain malignancies.
METHODS:To assess global expression patterns of sst 2 mRNA, we evaluated normal (n = 353) and tumor tissues (n = 340) derived from previously published gene expression profiling studies. These analyses demonstrated specific upregulation of sst 2 mRNA in medulloblastoma (p < 0.001). sst2 protein was investigated by immunohistochemistry in two independent cohorts.
RESULTS:Correlation of sst2 protein expression with clinicopathological variables revealed significantly higher levels in medulloblastoma (p < 0.05) compared with CNS-PNET, ependymoma, or pilocytic astrocytoma. The non-SHH medulloblastoma subgroup tumors showed particularly high expression of sst2, when compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Furthermore, we detected a significant survival benefit in children with tumors exhibiting high sst2 expression (p = 0.02) in this screening set. A similar trend was observed in a validation cohort including 240 independent medulloblastoma samples.
CONCLUSION:sst2 is highly expressed in medulloblastoma and deserves further evaluation in the setting of prospective trials, given its potential utility as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target.
- Assessment of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children with vitamin B12 deficiency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2013 May 16.