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Circulation research [journal]
- Novel Long Non-Coding RNAs Are Regulated by Angiotensin II in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Res 2013 May 22.
Rationale:Misregulation of angiotensin II (Ang II) actions can lead to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Evaluating transcriptomic responses to Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is important to understand the gene networks regulated by Ang II which might uncover previously unidentified mechanisms and new therapeutic targets.
Objective:To identify all transcripts, including novel protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs, differentially expressed in response to Ang II in rat VSMCs using transcriptome and epigenome profiling.
Methods and Results:De novo assembly of transcripts from RNA-seq revealed novel protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The majority of the genomic loci of these novel transcripts are enriched for histone H3 lysine-4-trimethylation and histone H3 lysine-36-trimethylation, two chromatin modifications found at actively transcribed regions, providing further evidence that these are bonafide transcripts. Analysis of transcript abundance identified all protein-coding and lncRNAs regulated by Ang II. We further discovered that one Ang II-regulated lncRNA functions as the host transcript for miR-221 and miR-222, two miRNAs implicated in cell proliferation. Additionally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Lnc-Ang362 reduced proliferation of VSMCs.
Conclusions:These data provide novel insights into the epigenomic and transcriptomic effects of Ang II in VSMCs. They provide the first identification of Ang II-regulated lncRNAs, which suggests functional roles for these lncRNAs in mediating cellular responses to Ang II. Furthermore, we identify one Ang II-regulated lncRNA that is responsible for the production of two miRNAs implicated in VSMC proliferation. These newly identified non-coding transcripts could be exploited as novel therapeutic targets for Ang II-associated cardiovascular diseases.
- PHD2 Silencing Enhances the Survival and Paracrine Function of Transplanted Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Infarcted Myocardium. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Res 2013 May 21.
Rationale:Transplantation of stem cells into damaged hearts has had modest success as a treatment for ischemic heart disease. One of the limitations is the poor stem cell survival in the diseased microenvironment. Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) is a cellular oxygen sensor that regulates two key transcription factors involved in cell survival and inflammation, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB).
Objective:We studied if and how PHD2 silencing in human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) enhances their cardioprotective effects after transplantation into infarcted hearts.
Methods and Results:ADSCs were transduced with lentiviral shPHD2 to silence PHD2. ADSCs with or without shPHD2 were transplanted after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. ADSCs reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, fibrosis and infarct size and improved cardiac function. shPHD2-ADSCs exerted significantly more protection. PHD2 silencing induced greater ADSCs survival, which was abolished by shHIF-1α Conditioned medium (CM) from shPHD2-ADSCs decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were significantly higher in the CM of shPHD2-ADSCs versus ADSCs, and depletion of IGF-1 attenuated the cardioprotective effects of shPHD2-ADSCs-CM. NF-κB activation was induced by shPHD2 to induce IGF-1 secretion via binding to IGF-1 gene promoter.
Conclusions:PHD2 silencing promotes ADSCs survival in MI hearts and enhances their paracrine function to protect cardiomyocytes. The pro-survival effect of shPHD2 on ADSCs is HIF-1α dependent and the enhanced paracrine function of shPHD2-ADSCs is associated with NF-κB-mediated IGF-1 up-regulation. PHD2 silencing in stem cells may be a novel strategy for enhancing the effectiveness of stem cell therapy after MI.
- Effects of HDL Elevation with CETP Inhibition on Insulin Secretion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Res 2013 May 15.
Rationale:High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol elevation via cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition represents a novel therapy for atherosclerosis, which may also have relevance for type 2 diabetes.
Objective:The current study assessed the effects of a CETP inhibitor (CETPi) on postprandial insulin, ex vivo insulin secretion and cholesterol efflux from pancreatic β-cells.
Methods and Results:Healthy participants received a daily dose of CETPi (n=10) or placebo (n=15) for 14 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Insulin secretion and cholesterol efflux from MIN6N8 β-cells was determined following incubation with treated plasma. CETP inhibition increased plasma HDL cholesterol, apoAI and postprandial insulin. MIN6N8 β-cells incubated with plasma from CETPi-treated individuals (vs placebo) exhibited an increase in both glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and cholesterol efflux over the 14 day treatment period.
Conclusions:CETP inhibition increased postprandial insulin and promoted ex vivo β-cell GSIS, potentially via enhanced β-cell cholesterol efflux.
- Abnormal Propagation of Calcium Waves and Ultrastructural Remodeling in Recessive Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Res 2013 May 14.
Rationale:The recessive form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is caused by mutations in the cardiac calsequestrin gene (CASQ2): this variant of CPVT is less well characterized than the autosomal dominant form caused by mutations in the RyR2 gene.
Objective:We characterized intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, electrophysiological properties and the ultrastructural features of the Ca(2+) release units (CRUs) in the homozygous R33Q knock-in mouse model.
Methods and Results:We studied isolated R33Q and wild-type (WT) ventricular myocytes and observed properties not previously identified in a CPVT model. As compared to WT cells, R33Q myocytes: 1) show spontaneous Ca(2+) waves unable to propagate as cell-wide waves; 2) show smaller Ca(2+) sparks with shortened coupling intervals suggesting a reduced refractoriness of Ca(2+) release events; 3) have a reduction of the area of membrane contact and the of junctions between jSR and T-tubules (couplons) and of jSR volume; 4) have a propensity to develop phase 2-4 afterdepolarizations that can elicit triggered beats 5) Viral gene transfer with WT CASQ2 is able to normalize structural abnormalities and restore cell-wide calcium wave propagation.
Conclusions:Our data show that homozygous CASQ2-R33Q myocytes develop spontaneous Ca(2+) release events with a broad range of intervals coupled to preceding beats leading to the formation of early and delayed afterdepolarizations. They also display a major disruption of the CRU architecture that leads to fragmentation of spontaneous Ca(2+) waves. We propose that these two substrates in R33Q myocytes synergize to provide a new arrhythmogenic mechanism for CPVT.
- Endothelial Shc Regulates Arteriogenesis Through Dual Control of Arterial Specification and Inflammation via the Notch and NF-κB Pathways. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Res 2013 May 9.
Rationale:Arteriogenesis, the shear stress-driven remodeling of collateral arteries, is critical in restoring blood flow to ischemic tissue following a vascular occlusion. Our previous work has shown that the adaptor protein Shc mediates endothelial responses to shear stress in vitro.
Objective:To examine the role of the adaptor protein Shc in arteriogenesis and endothelial-dependent responses to shear stress in vivo.
Methods and Results:Conditional knockout mice in which Shc is deleted from endothelial cells were subjected to femoral artery ligation. Hindlimb perfusion recovery was attenuated in Shc conditional knockout mice compared to littermate controls. Reduced perfusion was associated with blunted collateral remodeling and reduced capillary density. Bone marrow transplantation experiments revealed that endothelial Shc is required for perfusion recovery as loss of Shc in bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells had no effect on recovery. Mechanistically, Shc deficiency resulted in impaired activation of the NF-κB-dependent inflammatory pathway and reduced CD45(+) cell infiltration. Unexpectedly, Shc was required for arterial specification of the remodeling arteriole by mediating upregulation of the arterial endothelial cell marker ephrinB2 and activation of the Notch pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that Shc was required for shear stress-induced activation of the Notch pathway and downstream arterial specification through a mechanism that involves upregulation of Notch ligands Delta-like 1 and Delta-like 4.
Conclusions:Shc mediates activation of two key signaling pathways that are critical for inflammation and arterial specification; collectively, these pathways contribute to arteriogenesis and recovery of blood perfusion.
- Reduced Sodium Channel Function Unmasks Residual Embryonic Slow Conduction in the Adult Right Ventricular Outflow Tract. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Res 2013 May 9.
Rationale:In patients with Brugada syndrome, arrhythmias typically originate in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The RVOT develops from the slowly conducting embryonic outflow tract.
Objective:We hypothesize that this embryonic phenotype is maintained in the fetal and adult RVOT and leads to conduction slowing, especially after sodium current reduction.
Methods and Results:We determined expression patterns in the embryonic myocardium, and performed activation mapping in fetal and adult hearts, including hearts from adult mice heterozygous for a mutation associated with Brugada syndrome (Scn5a(1798insD/+)). The embryonic RVOT was characterized by expression of Tbx2, a repressor of differentiation, and absence of expression of both Hey2, a ventricular transcription factor, and Gja1, encoding the principal gap-junction subunit for ventricular fast conduction. Also, conduction velocity was lower in the RVOT than in the right ventricular free wall. Later in development, Gja1 and Scn5a expression remained lower in the subepicardial myocardium of the RVOT than in RV myocardium. Nevertheless, conduction velocity in the adult RVOT was similar to that of the right ventricular free wall. However, in hearts of Scn5a(1798insD/+) mice and in normal hearts treated with ajmaline, conduction was slower in the RVOT than in the right ventricular wall.
Conclusions:The slowly conducting embryonic phenotype is maintained in the fetal and adult RVOT, and is unmasked when cardiac sodium channel function is reduced.
- Circulation research thematic synopsis: atherosclerosis. [Journal Article]
- Circ Res 2013 May 10; 112(10):e118-47.
- Of mice and men: the quest to determine a circadian basis for myocardial protection in ischemia/reperfusion injury. [Journal Article]
- Circ Res 2013 May 10; 112(10):e115-7.
- Questing for Circadian Dependence in ST-Segment-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Multicentric and Multiethnic Study. [Journal Article]
- Circ Res 2013 May 10; 112(10):e110-4.
Rationale:Four monocentric studies reported that circadian rhythms can affect left ventricular infarct size after ST-segment-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Objective:To further validate the circadian dependence of infarct size after STEMI in a multicentric and multiethnic population.
Methods and Results:We analyzed a prospective cohort of subjects with first STEMI from the First Acute Myocardial Infarction study that enrolled 1099 patients (ischemic time <6 hours) in Italy, Scotland, and China. We confirmed a circadian variation of STEMI incidence with an increased morning incidence (from 6:00 am till noon). We investigated the presence of circadian dependence of infarct size plotting the peak creatine kinase against time onset of ischemia. In addition, we studied the patients from the 3 countries separately, including 624 Italians; all patients were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. We adopted several levels of analysis with different inclusion criteria consistent with previous studies. In all the analyses, we did not find a clear-cut circadian dependence of infarct size after STEMI.
Conclusions:Although the circadian dependence of infarct size supported by previous studies poses an intriguing hypothesis, we were unable to converge toward their conclusions in a multicentric and multiethnic setting. Parameters that vary as a function of latitude could potentially obscure the circadian variations observed in monocentric studies. We believe that, to assess whether circadian rhythms can affect the infarct size, future study design should not only include larger samples but also aim to untangle the molecular time-dynamic mechanisms underlying such a relation.
- Transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell and vascular development. [Journal Article]
- Circ Res 2013 May 10; 112(10):1380-400.
The establishment and maintenance of the vascular system is critical for embryonic development and postnatal life. Defects in endothelial cell development and vessel formation and function lead to embryonic lethality and are important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Here, we review the underlying molecular mechanisms of endothelial cell differentiation, plasticity, and the development of the vasculature. This review focuses on the interplay among transcription factors and signaling molecules that specify the differentiation of vascular endothelial cells. We also discuss recent progress on reprogramming of somatic cells toward distinct endothelial cell lineages and its promise in regenerative vascular medicine.