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- Androgen therapy in women, beyond libido. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2013 May 6.
ABSTRACTObjective The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the potential role of testosterone therapy for women. Methods The author conducted a search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2013) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: 'testosterone' or 'androgen' combined with 'women', 'therapy' or 'treatment'. Results Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have consistently shown that transdermal testosterone therapy improves sexual desire, arousal, orgasm frequency and satisfaction in premenopausal and postmenopausal women presenting with sexual desire/arousal problems. No adverse metabolic effects have been observed in these studies. In postmenopausal women, testosterone therapy has also been associated with favorable effects on body composition, bone, cardiovascular function and cognitive performance. Conclusions Although androgens have many varied roles, the focus of testosterone therapy for women has been on improving sexual desire. Not only do testosterone effects on sexuality extend beyond libido, but testosterone has other key physiological actions. Issues that urgently need to be addressed include approval of a testosterone formulation that delivers a female dose such that physicians refrain from prescribing compounded testosterone or modifying doses of testosterone formulated for men and regulation of prescription of compounded androgens for women.
- Progesterone and related progestins: potential new health benefits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2013 May 6.
ABSTRACTProgesterone is a steroid hormone that is essential for the regulation of reproductive function. The main physiological roles of this hormone have been widely described. Progesterone and progestins have been approved for a number of indications including the treatment of irregular and anovulatory menstrual cycles and, when combined with estrogen, for contraception, and the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) regimens. Lack of understanding between the differences in categories of the progestins as well as with the physiological hormone has resulted in considerable controversy surrounding the use of progestins for HRT regimens. Newer evidence suggests that there are distinct differences between the molecules and there is no progestin class effect, with regard to benefits or side-effects. In addition to its role in reproduction, progesterone regulates a number of biologically distinct processes in other tissues, particularly in the nervous system and the vessels. Recently, it has been shown in animal experiments that progesterone and the progestin Nestorone(®) have positive effects on neuroregeneration and repair of brain damage, as well as myelin repair. The potential benefits of natural progesterone and its related derivatives warrant further investigation. It is hoped that a better understanding of the mechanism of action of progesterone and selected progestins will help in defining better therapies for men and women.
- Does mammographic density reflect the expression of breast cancer markers? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2013 Apr 25.
ABSTRACTMammographic density (MD) reflects variation in breast tissue composition as detected on mammogram. It is associated with a number of well-known breast cancer (BC) risk factors and itself is considered one of the strongest risk factor for BC. If the expression of several proteins and genes within the breast tissue influences MD in the same way as it influences BC risk, then MD might serve as an intermediate biomarker in future BC epidemiological studies. This has the potential to provide a quick mean for predicting the effect of breast microenvironment changes on BC risk without having to wait for an eventual BC development. In this review, the expression of several proteins and genes (growth factors, enzymes, proteoglycans and pro-inflammatory markers) within the breast tissue was shown to be associated with MD. These proteins and genes are suspected to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. Even though, more studies assessing differential proteins and genes expression in mammary epithelium and stroma and their association with MD among premenopausal and postmenopausal women are required. Identification of proteins and genes influencing MD may provide further insight on the molecular causes of BC.
- Type II diabetes mellitus and menopause: a multinational study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2013 Apr 25.
Background:Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM-II) causes metabolic changes that may cause early menopause and worsen the climacteric symptoms.
Objectives:Determine the risk factors for Type II Diabetes Mellitus and assess the impact of this disease at the age of menopause and the climacteric symptoms.
Methods:6,079 women aged between 40-59 years from 11 Latin American countries were requested to answer the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and Goldberg Anxiety-Depression Scale (GADS).
Results:The prevalence of diabetes was 6.7%. DM-II was associated with arterial hypertension OR:4.49 [3.47-5.31], the use of psychotropic drugs OR:1.54 [1.22-1.94], hormonal therapy OR:1.46 [1.11-1.92], ≥50 years of age OR:1.48 [1.17-1.86], overweight or obese OR:1.47 [1.15-1.89], waist circumference ≥88 cm OR:1.32 [1.06-1.65]. Factors associated with lower risk of DM-II were the use of hormonal contraceptives OR: 0.55 [0.35-0.87], alcohol OR:0.73 [0.54-0.98] and living in cities over 2,500 meters above sea level OR:0.70 [0.53-0.91] or with high temperatures OR:0.67 [0.51-0.88]. In turn, diabetes tripled the risk of menopause in women less than 45 years of age. Diabetes did not increase the risk of deterioration of the quality of life due to climacteric symptoms.
Conclusion:Menopause does not increase the risk of DM-II, and DM-II is associated with early menopause in women under 45 years of age.
- Is there a relationship between occupational activities and low back pain in obese, middle-aged women? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2013 May 15.
Background Although low back pain and obesity are major health issues for women, our understanding of the relationship between these conditions is limited. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between occupational activities and low back pain and disability in obese and non-obese, middle-aged females. Methods Eighty-nine obese and 56 non-obese participants were recruited for a community-based study of musculoskeletal health. Low back pain intensity and disability were examined using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire and participants were asked about their involvement in occupational activities. Results More manual activity and heavy lifting, bending or squatting were found to be associated with low back pain intensity in obese females (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.94; OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.24-7.37, respectively), but not in non-obese females (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.42-1.63; OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.25-2.6, respectively), after adjusting for age and recreational activity. Similarly, there were also relationships between performance of more manual activity and heavy lifting, bending or squatting and low back disability in the obese (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.07-2.63; OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.21-6.46, respectively), but not in the non-obese (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.36-2.13; OR 1.78, 95% CI 0.39-8.22, respectively). Conclusions Obese females who perform predominately manual activity or heavy lifting, bending or squatting at work have high levels of low back pain and disability, independent of their recreational activity. This was not the case for non-obese, female workers. Although longitudinal investigation is needed, these findings highlight the role of obesity in low back pain and disability for middle-aged females in occupational settings.
- Correlates of urinary incontinence during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause: observations from the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2013 Apr 7.
Background Urinary incontinence (UI) becomes more prevalent as women age, but little is known about UI in midlife, including stress incontinence (SUI) and urge incontinence (UUI) and their relationship to reproductive aging, reproductive history, health-related factors, and personal and social factors associated with midlife. Objectives To determine the influence of age and reproductive aging factors (menopausal transition stages, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrone glucoronide), reproductive history (number of live births), health-related factors (perceived health, body mass index (BMI), exercise, diabetes) and personal and social factors (race/ethnicity, education) on the experience of UI among midlife women during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause. Methods A subset of the Seattle Midlife Women's Health Study participants (n = 298 with up to 2249 observations) provided data during the late reproductive, early and late menopausal transition stages and early postmenopause, including menstrual calendars, annual health questionnaire and provided health diaries since 1990. Generalized estimating equation analysis was used to test models accounting for SUI and UUI that included age as a measure of time with predictors. Results Stress urinary incontinence was associated significantly with individual predictors of: worse perceived health (odds ratio (OR) 0.89, p = 0.025), history of ≥ three live births (OR 3.00, p = 0.002), being in the early menopausal transition stage (OR 1.53, p = 0.06), having less formal education (OR 0.33, p = 0.02), and being White/not Black (OR 0.32, p = 0.04). The most parsimonious model for SUI included: worse perceived health, ≥ three live births, and being White. Urge incontinence was associated significantly with individual predictors of: increasing age (OR 1.06, p = 0.001), worse perceived health (OR 0.78, p < 0.001), BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (OR 2.96, p = 0.001), history of ≥ three live births (OR 2.81, p = 0.01), and lower FSH levels (OR 0.59, p = 0.08). The most parsimonious model for UUI included: being older, having worse perceived health, and having a high BMI. Conclusions SUI risk was a function of reproductive history, poor health, and being White. UUI risk was a function of aging, having worse health, and higher BMI. Further exploration of UI during the menopausal transition is needed to articulate a lifespan view of UI and its typology.
- One-year randomized study of the endometrial safety and bleeding pattern of 0.25 mg drospirenone/0.5 mg 17β-estradiol in postmenopausal women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2013 May 11.
Objectives To investigate the long-term endometrial safety and bleeding pattern of the 0.25 mg drospirenone/0.5 mg 17β-estradiol (DRSP/E2) dose combination compared with 0.5 mg norethisterone acetate (NETA)/1.0 mg E2, in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 662 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years with an indication for hormone therapy verified by the investigator were randomized to participate in this 1-year, double-blind, active comparator-controlled study. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of women with an endometrial biopsy assessment of 'hyperplasia or worse' at any time during or after 13 cycles of treatment. Results No evaluable women in the DRSP/E2 or NETA/E2 groups had an endometrial biopsy result of 'hyperplasia or worse'. The incidence of amenorrhea was higher in the DRSP/E2 group than the NETA/E2 group during months 1-3 (69.0% vs. 56.0%), with comparable amenorrhea rates of approximately 80% during months 10-12. Improvements in menopausal symptoms (exploratory efficacy variables) were similar in the two groups, while there were fewer women with treatment-related adverse events (18.4% vs. 25.6%) or adverse events leading to discontinuation of study drug (8.4% vs. 15.1%) in the DRSP/E2 group than the NETA/E2 group. There were no treatment-related thromboembolic or cardiovascular events in the DRSP/E2 group vs. two events in the NETA/E2 group. Conclusions The low-dose, 0.25 mg DRSP/0.5 mg E2 dose combination met the criteria for endometrial safety and demonstrated a favorable risk/benefit profile in this 1-year, double-blind, randomized study of postmenopausal women.
- Hot flushes still occur in a population of 85-year-old Swedish women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Climacteric 2012 Nov 8.
Objectives Hot flushes and night sweats often cause discomfort and may negatively affect sleep and quality of life. Studies have shown that menopausal symptoms, like hot flushes, may persist for up to 20 years after the menopausal transition, but there are no published studies regarding the occurrence of hot flushes among women older than 80 years. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hot flushes in 85-year-old women. Methods All 85-year old women living in Linköping municipality in 2007 (n = 415) received a postal questionnaire. The majority, 74% (n = 307), answered the questionnaire and 47% (n = 194) agreed to visit the Department of Geriatric Medicine; during this visit questions regarding hot flushes and use of hormone therapy were asked. Results About 16% (n = 29) of the women experienced hot flushes during the day and/or during the night and 6.5% (n = 12) of the women were currently using hormone therapy. Almost 10% (n = 17) of all responding women were very to moderately distressed by their hot flushes. Conclusion Our results confirm and extend previous knowledge based on studies of younger postmenopausal women in showing that menopausal symptoms still occur in elderly women. We found that, while the prevalence of menopausal symptoms decreases with age, these symptoms are still experienced by some 85-year-old women.
- Climacteric commentaries. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Climacteric 2013 Apr; 16(2):293-302.