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Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation [journal]
- Notice of retraction. [Journal Article]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jan 1; 57(2):213.
- Association of erythrocyte deformability with red blood cell distribution width in metabolic diseases and thalassemia trait. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jul 25.
Increased red blood distribution width (RDW) in anemia is related to disturbances in the cellular surface/volume ratio, usually accompanied by morphological alterations, while it has been shown in inflammatory diseases that the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines disturbing erythropoiesis increases RDW. Recently it has been reported that higher RDW is related with decreased erythrocyte deformability, and that it could be related with the association of RDW and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In order to analyze the influence of morphological alterations and proinflammatory status on the relationship between RDW and erythrocyte deformability, we analyzed erythrocyte deformability along with RDW and other hematological and biochemical parameters in 36 α-thalassemia, 20 β-thalassemia, 20 δβ-thalassemia trait carriers, 61 metabolic syndrome patients and 76 morbidly obese patients. RDW correlated inversely with erythrocyte deformability in minor β-thalassemia (r = -0.530, p < 0.05), and directly in both metabolic syndrome and morbidly obese patients (ρ = 0.270, p < 0.05 and ρ = 0.258, p < 0.05, respectively). Minor β-thalassemia is often accompanied by more marked cell-shaped perturbations than other thalassemia traits. This could be the reason for this negative association only in this setting. Higher anisocytosis seems to be associated with greater morphologic alterations (shape/volume), which reduce erythrocyte deformability. The proinflammatory profile in metabolic patients can be related to the positive association of RDW with erythrocyte deformability found in these patients. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanisms underlying this association.
- Hemorheological parameters and their correlations in OXYS rats: A new model of hyperviscosity syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jul 25.
Rheohaemapheresis aims to normalize major rheological parameters and is used to treat patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While effective, this approach is invasive and requires specially trained personnel. Therefore, the search for novel effective compounds with hemorheological properties that can be taken orally to treat AMD is justified. The use of a robust rodent model of AMD with high blood viscosity is crucial to test the efficacy of potential hemorheological drugs to treat this disease. The objective of this study was to investigate whether OXYS rats, generally used as an animal model of AMD, have hyperviscosity syndrome. The results of this study show that blood viscosity in OXYS rats at low (3-10 s-1) and high (45-300 s-1) shear rates were 14-20% and 7-10% higher than in Wistar rats, while hematocrit and plasma viscosity were not different. Red blood cells (RBCs) in OXYS rats were more prone to aggregation as shown by 39% shorter half-time than in Wistar rats. RBCs were also more rigid in OXYS than in Wistar rats as shown by 21-33% lower index of elongation at the shear stress of 1-7 Pa. These data indicate that OXYS rats have hyperviscosity syndrome as the result of abnormal RBC deformability and aggregation. We propose to use OXYS rats as an animal model for preclinical studies to test compounds with hemorheological properties aimed to treat AMD.
- Are overall adiposity and abdominal adiposity separate or redundant determinants of blood viscosity? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jul 25.
In line with recent literature showing that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are independently associated with the risk of death, we recently reported that body mass index (BMI) and waist-to hip ratio (WHR) were independent predictors of blood viscosity, related to different determinants of viscosity (for BMI: plasma viscosity and red cell aggregation; for WHR: hematocrit). Since this report was challenged by a study showing that abdominal adiposity (as measured with waist circumference WC and not WHR) is the only independent determinant of viscosity, we re-assessed on our previous database correlations among viscosity factors, BMI, WHR and WC. Blood viscosity was correlated to BMI (r = 0.155 p = 0.004), WHR (r = 0.364; p = 0.027) and WC (r = 0.094; p = 0.05). Hematocrit was correlated to WHR (r = 0.524) but neither to BMI (r = -0.021) nor waist circumference (r = 0.053). WC was correlated with plasma viscosity (r = 0.154; p = 0.002) while WHR was not (r = -0.0102 NS). A stepwise regression analysis selected two determinants of whole blood viscosity at high shear rate: BMI (p = 0.0167) and WC (p = 0.0003) excluding WHR. Therefore, in this sample, abdominal fatness expressed by WC and whole body adiposity remains independent determinants of blood viscosity. WHR and WC have not the same meaning, WC measuring the size of abdominal fat while WHR measuring the shape of body distribution regardless the degree of fat excess. Interestingly, hematocrit is rather related to shape (even within a normal range of body size) than the extent of abdominal fatness, and is not related to whole body adiposity.
- Protective effect of quercetin against in vitro erythrocyte rheology alterations produced by arsenic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jul 11.
Humans are exposed to heavy metals such as arsenic (As), through contaminated food and drinking water. The effect of As on RBC membrane is one of the most important biological effects. In a previous work, we have studied the AsV in vitro effect on erythrocytes biophysical properties discovering alterations regarding aggregability deformability, cell morphology, membrane fluidity and osmotic response. We have also observed that the presence of the metal produces an oxidative stress in RBCs that might be the origin of rheological impairment. In the present work we analyzed RBCs rheological properties associated with membrane fluidity and lipid peroxidation in presence of As and quercetin (Qc). From our results we can conclude that RBCs treatment with Qc is efficient to prevent the impairment of the mechanical properties of the cell membrane produced by the As, through oxygen reactive agents in the membrane structure, mainly on the lipids. This protective effect is observed in the preservation of the erythrocytes rheological properties and consequently in the maintenance of an appropriate blood flow, specially in the small vessels in the peripheral circulation.
- Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval training on type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk in young healthy adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jul 7.
Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which provides significant improvements in CVD risk markers. Healthy volunteers undertook 6 weeks of HIIT. T2DM and CVD risk predictors including glucose tolerance, VO2max, blood pressure (BP), and lipids were measured before and after HIIT. HIIT training was associated with beneficial changes in a range of predictors of blood flow and cardiovascular risk. There was a heterogeneous response to HIIT, with some subjects responding with favourable changes and others being non-responders to HIIT. In responders, HIIT was associated with a statistically significant (p = 0.023) increase in VO2max, from 45.4 (38.4,52.5) to 56.9 (51.2,65.7) (median (interquartile range)(ml/min/kg)). In responders HIIT resulted in a decrease in systolic BP from 127 (126,129) to 116 (106,122) (mmHg) with p = 0.026 and a decrease is diastolic blood pressure from 72 (69,74) to 57 (56,66) with p = 0.026. There was also some evidence of a beneficial change in blood lipid and glucose concentrations with HIIT. In conclusion, personalised HIIT has potential as an intervention to improve blood flow and cardiovascular health.
- Blood viscosity is lower in trained than in sedentary sickle cell trait carriers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jun 24.
The aim of this study was to compare blood and plasma viscosities, as well as the hematocrit/blood viscosity ratio (HVR), between trained and sedentary SCT carriers. Thirty African male SCT carriers from the city of Dakar (Senegal) participated in the study: one group composed of 15 trained SCT carriers (TSCTc) and one group composed of 15 sedentary individuals (SSCTc). Blood was sampled in resting condition and blood and plasma viscosities were measured using a cone-plate viscometer. After the determination of hematocrit by microcentrifugation, HVR was determined for each subject. Blood and plasma viscosities, as well as hematocrit, were significantly reduced in TSCTc compared to SSCTc. As a consequence, HRV was greater in TSCTc. These findings provide evidence that SCT carriers should be encouraged to practice regular physical activity to limit the cardiovascular strain usually caused by their blood hyperviscosity.
- S-nitrosoglutathione efflux in the erythrocyte. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jun 23.
Glutathione is an abundant molecule inside erythrocyte, originating S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) by reacting with nitric oxide (NO). GSNO has been regarded as a store and transporter of NO, with significant interest as a potential therapeutic agent, acting as an NO donor. NO metabolism inside the erythrocyte generates several derivatives, which can be altered by external and internal stimuli such as acetylcholine (ACh), a natural substrate of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In spite of the knowledge gained in the last decades concerning NO efflux in erythrocytes little is known regarding erythrocyte GSNO efflux, which has also an significant role in microcirculation. Hence, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efflux of GSNO, concomitant with the efflux of NO, after stimulation with AChE effectors. To achieve these goals, the in vitro effect of AChE modulators - ACh and timolol - in erythrocyte NO and GSNO were studied. Timolol is an erythrocyte AChE inhibitor. Venous blood samples were collected from 18 healthy Caucasian men. For each blood sample, erythrocyte suspensions were obtained and incubated in the absence (controls) and presence of ACh and timolol maleate (10 μM final concentration of each modulator). Both timolol and ACh induced significant GSNO efflux in the erythrocyte when compared to the control; however the efflux was lower in the presence of timolol compared to ACh. Although erythrocyte NO efflux in presence of timolol is similar to the control, the efflux decreased when compared to the ACh treatment. The presence of timolol induces significant decrease of intra-erythrocyte GSNO levels, relative to control and ACh treatment. In conclusion, when erythrocytes were stimulated with ACh or timolol, GSNO efflux occurs associated with NO efflux. These new results brings new insight into the metabolism of erythrocyte NO and new possible therapeutic applications for GSNO.
- Rheological red blood cell properties in morbidly obese and super obese patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2014 Jun 23.