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Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis [journal]
- Assessment of Aspergillus fumigatus pathogenicity in aerosol-challenged chickens (Gallus gallus) belonging to two lineages. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar 19.
Infection due to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus remains a common and life-threatening infection in many animals, especially birds. Animal models are still required to better understand the physiopathology of infection and evaluate diagnostic tools and treatment procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the pathogenicity of A. fumigatus in two lineages of chicken (Gallus gallus): SPF White Leghorn PA12 layers and conventional JA657 broilers. Four-day-old birds were experimentally infected in an inhalation chamber in order to reproduce a "natural" contamination and to obtain a large repartition of conidia into the respiratory tract. Half of the chicks were injected subcutaneously with dexamethasone for 4 days before the infective challenge. At days 0 and 7, the effects of chicken lineage and immunosuppressive treatment on pulmonary fungal burden were analyzed using two linear mixed models. The pathogenicity of A. fumigatus varied according to the lineage: no clinical signs and no mortality were observed in layer chickens whereas more than 50% of mortality occurred in broilers. The effect of immunosuppressive treatment was also demonstrated, notably on animals weight but also on mortality.
- First detection of the Africa/Caribbean/Latin American subtype of Culex flavivirus in Asian country, Taiwan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar 2.
Culex flavivirus (CxFV), a member of the genus flavivirus, is a novel insect-specific flaviviruses that can be divided into two subtypes, the cytopathic Asia/U.S. and the noncytopathic Africa/Caribbean/Latin American subtypes. The CxFV circulates in several Asian countries, and here we conducted the first study investigating CxFV in Taiwan. A total of 14,016 mosquitoes were collected between 2010 and 2012 and 3.4% (6/179) of the pools were CxFV-positive. The phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Taiwan isolates are closely related to the Africa/Caribbean/Latin American subtype, but form an independent cluster. In the cytology experiments, the CxFV Taiwan isolate infected only mosquito cells and caused cell-cell fusion that might be associated with a unique glycine residue at position 117 within the envelope protein, which is shared with the cytopathic effect-causing Asia/US subtype. This study marks the first time the Africa/Caribbean/Latin American subtype of CxFV has been identified in an Asian country and grouped into a novel cluster.
- B and T cell epitope mapping and study the humoral and cell mediated immune response to B-T constructs of YscF antigen of Yersinia pestis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Feb 25.
YscF antigen, a type III secretion protein has recently been shown partial protection in murine model. Five peptides of YscF antigen were predicted using DNASTAR and T-cell prediction software. Peptides were synthesised and authenticated using competitive, direct binding immunoassay with anti YscF/peptide sera raised in mice. Peptide P1 and P2 were found to be B cell epitope while P3 was minor B cell epitope. P4 peptide was a pure T cell epitope based on lymphoproliferative response, cytokines profile and T-bet expression. Furthermore, with an intention to enhance immunogenicity, three B-T constructs were designed between the above epitopes. Conjugate B1T1 and B2T1 showed higher serum IgG/IgA titre, respectively, as well as high secretory IgA plus secretory component (Sc) both in lung and intestinal washes. Also, these conjugates showed high T-cell proliferation in addition to higher Th1 type cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in cells obtained from spleen, lamina propria and Peyer's patches. B3T1 stimulated cells showed moderate levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 but higher levels of IL-4. This study demonstrates superior immunogen of B1T1 and B2T1 of YscF antigen to be exploited as vaccine candidate for plague.
- Connection of toxin-antitoxin modules to inoculation eschar and arthropod vertical transmission in Rickettsiales. [Journal Article]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 36(2):199-209.
The biological role of toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) in pathogenicity and cell addiction of Rickettsia was recently reported. We realized a comparative genomic analysis onto 33 rickettsial genomes and correlated the presence of TAS encoding genes with vertical transmission (VT) in arthropod hosts, the presence of inoculation eschar in humans and experimental animals, and the mortality in humans. There is a significant statistical link between TAS and the presence of an eschar (p≤0.0001). The presence of TAS is also significantly inversely correlated with mortality. The toxic effect of TAS may increase the local reaction, thus inhibiting the spread of rickettsiae associated with fatal outcome of the disease. The TAS were also linked to VT (p≤0.0001). Together with our previous findings we speculate that this is the first addiction system evidenced in intracellular bacteria. Thus, the TAS, as selfish genetic elements, might be essential to the evolutionary strategy of intracellular bacteria.
- Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius bats with serotype-2 dengue virus. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 36(2):193-8.
Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus that primarily infects humans and Aedes sp. mosquitoes. However, viral replication in wild animals other than non-human primates has been scarcely studied. In this report, the susceptibility of Artibeus intermedius frugivorous bat to serotype-2 dengue virus (DENV-2) infection was tested. Twenty-three bats were intraperitoneally inoculated with different viral loads of DENV-2 (New Guinea-C strain). Forty-three percent of the infected bats developed bruises on the chest or on the wings. Histological analyses showed structural alterations in the spleen and bleeding in liver and intestine, but the virus was not detected by RT-PCR in any of the analyzed tissues, and it was found in only one bat (kidney) by semi-nested RT-PCR. In sera, the viral RNA was detected by semi-nested RT-PCR in 39% of bats, but only 8% of bats seroconverted. Overall, these data indicate that DENV-2 replicates poorly in these bats, suggesting they are not suitable hosts to this virus.
- The pathobiology of two Indonesian H5N1 avian influenza viruses representing different clade 2.1 sublineages in chickens and ducks. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 36(2):175-91.
To determine the pathobiology of Indonesian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza, two viruses representing clades 2.1.1 and 2.1.3 were inoculated into broiler chickens and Pekin ducks via the eyes, nostrils and oropharynx. In chickens, both viruses produced fulminant disease; tissue tropism was broad but predominantly endothelial and viral loads in tissues were high. Except for one case of meningoencephalitis, the infection in ducks was sub-clinical, leading only to seroconversion. In these ducks, virus and viral antigen occurred in lower amounts, mainly in the respiratory tract (airsac and sinuses), prior to day 7 after inoculation. During clinical disease, chickens shed high virus titres orally and cloacally. Ducks intermittently shed low virus titres from the oral route for up to 8 days post-inoculation. We discuss the significance of the data for understanding the pathogenesis and pathobiology of Indonesian H5N1 in chickens and ducks.
- Exploring the immune response of porcine mesenteric lymph nodes to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: an analysis of transcriptional changes, morphological alterations and pathogen burden. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 36(2):149-60.
Infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) cause important economic problems in the swine industry and threaten the integrity of a safe and healthy food supply. Controlling the prevalence of Salmonella in pig production requires a thorough knowledge of the response processes that occurs in the gut associated immune tissues. To explore the in vivo porcine response to S. typhimurium, MLN samples from four control pigs and twelve infected animals at 1, 2 and 6 days post infection (dpi) were collected to quantify the mRNA expression of gene coding for 42 innate immune-related molecules. In addition, the presence of S. typhimurium in MLN was examined and its effect on tissue micro-anatomy. Higher S. typhimurium loads were observed at 2dpi, triggering an innate immune response, marked by a substantial infiltration of phagocytes and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes. Such response resulted in a significant decrease in pathogen burden in MLN at 6dpi, although Salmonella could not be completely eliminated from tissue. Furthermore, our results suggest that in porcine infections, S. typhimurium might interferes with dendritic cell-T cell interactions and this strategy could be involved in the conversion of Salmonella infected pigs to a carrier state.
- First description of natural Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infections in dogs from Argentina. [Journal Article]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 36(2):169-73.
Bacteria belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family are vector transmitted agents that affect a variety of vertebrate hosts including the tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys, which cause canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclic thrombocytopenia, respectively. These two infections, typically reported from tropical and sub-tropical regions, have not been previously reported in dogs from Argentina. A total of 86 blood samples from dogs with suspected rickettsial disease and 28 non-suspected dogs were studied. Analysis included evaluation of hematological findings, PCR for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species and sequencing of the positive PCR products. E. canis was detected in the blood of six dogs and A. platys in eighteen. All the dogs categorized as non-suspected were negative by PCR. Co-infection with Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli was documented. This first report of E. canis and A. platys infections in dogs from Argentina indicates that these tick-borne infections have a considerably broader range than previously recognized in South America.
- Resveratrol suppresses calcium-mediated microglial activation and rescues hippocampal neurons of adult rats following acute bacterial meningitis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Mar; 36(2):137-48.
Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a serious disease with severe neurological sequelae. The intense calcium-mediated microglial activation and subsequently pro-inflammatory cytokine release plays an important role in eliciting ABM-related oxidative damage. Considering resveratrol possesses significant anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, the present study aims to determine whether resveratrol would exert beneficial effects on hippocampal neurons following ABM. ABM was induced by inoculating Klebsiella pneumoniae into adult rats intraventricularly. The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin-B4 (GSA-IB4) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) measurement were used to examine the calcium expression, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine level, and extent of oxidative stress, respectively. In ABM rats, strong calcium signaling associated with enhanced microglial activation was observed in hippocampus. Increased microglial expression was coincided with intense production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage. However, in rats receiving resveratrol after ABM, the calcium intensity, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine and MDA levels were all significantly decreased. Quantitative data showed that much more hippocampal neurons were survived in resveratrol-treated rats following ABM. As resveratrol successfully rescues hippocampal neurons from ABM by suppressing the calcium-mediated microglial activation, therapeutic use of resveratrol may act as a promising strategy to counteract the ABM-induced neurological damage.
- Surveillance guidelines for disease elimination: A case study of canine rabies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2012 Dec 19.
Surveillance is a critical component of disease control programmes but is often poorly resourced, particularly in developing countries lacking good infrastructure and especially for zoonoses which require combined veterinary and medical capacity and collaboration. Here we examine how successful control, and ultimately disease elimination, depends on effective surveillance. We estimated that detection probabilities of <0.1 are broadly typical of rabies surveillance in endemic countries and areas without a history of rabies. Using outbreak simulation techniques we investigated how the probability of detection affects outbreak spread, and outcomes of response strategies such as time to control an outbreak, probability of elimination, and the certainty of declaring freedom from disease. Assuming realistically poor surveillance (probability of detection <0.1), we show that proactive mass dog vaccination is much more effective at controlling rabies and no more costly than campaigns that vaccinate in response to case detection. Control through proactive vaccination followed by 2 years of continuous monitoring and vaccination should be sufficient to guarantee elimination from an isolated area not subject to repeat introductions. We recommend that rabies control programmes ought to be able to maintain surveillance levels that detect at least 5% (and ideally 10%) of all cases to improve their prospects of eliminating rabies, and this can be achieved through greater intersectoral collaboration. Our approach illustrates how surveillance is critical for the control and elimination of diseases such as canine rabies and can provide minimum surveillance requirements and technical guidance for elimination programmes under a broad-range of circumstances.