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- The importance of pharmacokinetic studies in drug development. [Editorial]
- Contraception 2013 Jun; 87(6):701-2.
- Interest in over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives among women in the United States. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Contraception 2013 Apr 23.
BACKGROUND:A growing body of evidence indicates that over-the-counter (OTC) access to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) is safe and effective.
STUDY DESIGN:We performed a nationally representative survey of adult women at risk of unintended pregnancy using a probability-based online panel. In November-December 2011, 2046 eligible women completed the survey. Weighted proportions were calculated, and logistic regression was used to identify covariates associated with support for and interest in using an OTC OCP.
RESULTS:A total of 62.2% said they were strongly (31.4%) or somewhat (30.9%) in favor of OCPs being available OTC. A total of 37.1% of participants reported being likely to use OCPs if available OTC, including 58.7% of current users, 28.0% using no method and 32.7% using a less effective method. Covariates associated with a higher odds of reporting interest in using OTC OCPs were younger age; being divorced, being separated or living with a partner (versus married); being uninsured or having private insurance (versus public insurance); living in the south (versus northeast); and current use of OCPs or less effective methods, or nonuse of contraception (versus use of another hormonal method or intrauterine device). Among respondents who said they were likely to use OTC OCPs, the highest amount they were willing to pay was on average $20.
CONCLUSIONS:US women are supportive of OTC access to OCPs, and many would obtain refills OTC or start using OCPs if they were available OTC.
- Pregnancy: not a disease but still a health risk. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Contraception 2013 Apr 11.
- Randomized trial of the effect of tailored versus standard use of the combined oral contraceptive pill on continuation rates at 1 year. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Contraception 2013 Apr 11.
BACKGROUND:There is growing interest from women and clinicians in extended or tailored use of the combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill. Potential advantages include less bleeding, greater contraceptive efficacy and user satisfaction. We examined the effect of a tailored pill regimen, compared with the standard regimen, on continuation and satisfaction rates at 1 year and associated bleeding patterns.
STUDY DESIGN:This was a randomized controlled trial with 503 women aged 18-45 years. Women were randomized to either the standard regimen (21 daily pills followed by a 7-day pill-free interval) or tailored regimen (daily pills until three consecutive days bleeding triggers a 3-day pill-free interval) of Microgynon 30® (ethinyl oestradiol 30 mcg, levonorgestrel 150 mcg). Primary outcome was COC continuation at 12 months; secondary outcomes included satisfaction with pill regimen regarding contraception and bleeding pattern. Daily electronic diaries were used to record women's pill use, switching to other contraceptive methods, menstrual bleeding patterns and satisfaction levels.
RESULTS:Eighty-three percent of women were already taking the COC at recruitment, 13% were restarting the COC and 4% were first time COC users. Seventy-one percent of all women were followed up at 12 months. Continuation rates at 1 year were 82% in the tailored arm versus 80% in the standard arm [odds ratio (OR)=1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.67-1.91]. Satisfaction with contraceptive regimen was 86% (tailored) versus 94% (standard) (OR=0.37; 95% CI=0.17-0.79), and satisfaction with bleeding pattern was 79% versus 87%, respectively (OR=0.53; 95% CI=0.30-0.93). Median number of bleeding days per month was 2.4 (tailored) and 4.9 (standard). Incidence, duration and intensity of bleeding episodes were significantly lower in the tailored arm.
CONCLUSIONS:In women familiar with standard use of the COC, switching to tailored COC use or continuing with standard use were both associated with high COC continuation rates and high satisfaction with contraceptive regimen and bleeding pattern. While significant differences tended to favor the standard group, tailored COC use was associated with significantly less bleeding, suited some women very well and can provide a suitable alternative to standard use.
- Pathways to unsafe abortion in Ghana: the role of male partners, women and health care providers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Contraception 2013 Mar 22.
BACKGROUND:Despite abortion being legal, complications from induced abortion are the second leading cause of maternal mortality in Ghana. The objective of this study was to understand the decision-making process associated with induced abortion in Ghana.
STUDY DESIGN:Data were collected from female postabortion patients, male partners, family planning nurses and obstetricians/gynecologists at two teaching hospitals in Ghana using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.
RESULTS:While experiences differ for married and single women, men are involved in abortion decision making directly, through "orders" to abort, or indirectly, through denying responsibility for the pregnancy. Health care providers can be barriers to seeking safe abortions in this setting.
CONCLUSIONS:Women who choose to terminate a pregnancy without their male partners' knowledge should have the means (both financial and social) to do so safely. Interventions with health care providers should discourage judgemental attitudes and emphasize individually focused patient care.
- Practice of and attitudes towards family planning among South Asian American immigrants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Contraception 2013 Apr 1.
BACKGROUND:Previous studies performed outside of the US that examined contraceptive knowledge and beliefs in South Asian women identified significant barriers. Our study aimed to further understand these practices in this population residing in the US.
METHODS:This cross-sectional study surveyed women of all ethnicities receiving health care from either of two ambulatory practices in New Jersey from October 2011 to November 2012. Using chi-squared testing, the frequencies of contraceptive outcomes between South Asians and non-South Asians were compared.
STUDY DESIGN:There were 42 South Asian respondents and 143 non-South Asian respondents. Our results show that South Asians are statistically significantly less likely to routinely use contraception and that gaps in contraceptive knowledge appear to stem from multiple barriers, including family opposition and pressure from spouse or in-laws to have children, cultural prohibitions, fear of side effects and misinformation, lack of education/knowledge about contraceptives and difficulty in accessing contraception. These gaps in contraceptive knowledge were also found to be multigenerational, despite higher levels of education generally seen in the South Asian population.
CONCLUSIONS:Clinicians caring for South Asian women should acknowledge both the barriers and the lack of contraceptive knowledge in this population and provide culturally competent family planning information to them during all women's health encounters.
- Group versus individual family planning counseling in Ghana: a randomized, noninferiority trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Contraception 2013 Mar 22.
BACKGROUND:Group, rather than individual, family planning counseling has the potential to increase family planning knowledge and use through more efficient use of limited human resources.
STUDY DESIGN:A randomized, noninferiority study design was utilized to identify whether group family planning counseling is as effective as individual family planning counseling in Ghana. Female gynecology patients were enrolled from two teaching hospitals in Ghana in June and July 2008. Patients were randomized to receive either group or individual family planning counseling. The primary outcome in this study was change in modern contraceptive method knowledge. Changes in family planning use intention before and after the intervention and intended method type were also explored.
RESULTS:Comparisons between the two study arms suggest that randomization was successful. The difference in change in modern contraceptive methods known from baseline to follow-up between the two study arms (group-individual), adjusted for study site, was -0.21, (95% confidence interval: -0.53 to 0.12) suggesting no difference between the two arms.
CONCLUSIONS:Group family planning counseling was as effective as individual family planning counseling in increasing modern contraceptive knowledge among female gynecology patients in Ghana.
- Social marketing of emergency contraception: Are we missing a valuable opportunity? [Journal Article]
- Contraception 2013 Jun; 87(6):703-5.
- Comment on "Suspect Online Sellers and Contraceptive Access" [LETTER]
- Contraception 2013 Mar 26.