(Current HIV research[TA]) articles in PubMed
- Spatiotemporal Analysis of AIDS Incidence among Adults in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 Aug 2CH
- CONCLUSIONS: AIDS remains a major public health problem in Brazil, mainly in the southern and southeastern regions of the country. Considering its association with HDI, it is noted that the disease still remains related to the pattern observed in the early years of the studied period, at least in the more developed regions of Brazil. This certainly happens because of the chronicity of the disease, thus affecting people with good socioeconomic status.
- HIV Infection and Myocardial Infarction. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 Aug 3CH
- After the advent of the potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has declined dramatically and HIV infection became a chronic disea...
After the advent of the potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has declined dramatically and HIV infection became a chronic disease with a significant increase in the life expectancy of HIV-positive people. Consequently, chronic comorbidities as coronary heart disease raised an increasing concern in this population. An increased risk of myocardial infarction has been reported among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population, but the pathogenic mechanism of this accelerated atherosclerotic process is complex and certainly multifactorial. The occurrence of myocardial infarction may be the consequence of traditional risk factors (that are overrepresented in the HIV-infected population), direct viral replication, and long-term toxicity of the antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, despite the persistent viral suppression induced by cART usually reduces the cardiovascular risk, several studies show in HIV-positive subjects a condition of chronic inflammation and immune activation that could lead to both accelerated endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic disease. Therefore, cardiovascular risk reduction and coronary heart disease prevention are today a leading challenge for all the clinicians involved in the HIV patients' care.
- Design-Based Peptidomimetic Ligand Discovery to Target HIV TAR RNA Using Comparative Analysis of Different Docking Methods. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 Jul 19CH
- Discovering molecules capable of binding to HIV trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA thereby disrupting its interaction with Tat protein is an attractive strategy for developing novel antivir...
Discovering molecules capable of binding to HIV trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA thereby disrupting its interaction with Tat protein is an attractive strategy for developing novel antiviral drugs. Computational docking is considered as a useful tool for predicting binding affinity and conducting virtual screening. Although great progress in predicting protein-ligand interactions has been achieved in the past few decades, modeling RNA-ligand interactions is still largely unexplored due to the highly flexible nature of RNA. In this work, we performed molecular docking study with HIV TAR RNA using previously identified cyclic peptide L22 and its analogues with varying affinities toward HIV-1 TAR RNA. Furthermore, sarcosine scan was conducted to generate derivatives of CGP64222, a peptide-peptoid hybrid with inhibitory activity on Tat/TAR RNA interaction. Each compound was docked using CDOCKER, Surflex-Dock and FlexiDock to compare the effectiveness of each method. It was found that FlexiDock energy values correlated well with the experimental Kd values and could be used to predict the affinity of the ligands toward HIV-1 TAR RNA with a superior accuracy. Our results based on comparative analysis of different docking methods in RNA-ligand modeling will facilitate the structure-based discovery of HIV TAR RNA ligands for antiviral therapy.
- Naringin Ameliorates HIV-1 Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Mitochondrial Toxicity. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 May 20CH
- CONCLUSIONS: Naringin ameliorated oxidative stress and NRTI-induced mitochondrial damage and might, therefore, be beneficial in managing toxicities and complications arising from NRTI use.
- Effects of Antiretroviral Molecules on Survival and Gene Expression of an Osteoblast-like Cell Line. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 May 18CH
- Background The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy effectively undermined the evolution of HIV disease. Nevertheless, clinical observations indicated a clear association between therapy and the...
Background The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy effectively undermined the evolution of HIV disease. Nevertheless, clinical observations indicated a clear association between therapy and the impairment of bone mineral density. Objective We selected some antiretroviral compounds used in clinical practice, to study their impact on bone health and their possible implication in the onset of bone disease. Method Scalar concentrations of several antiretroviral drugs (used in single and in combination) were tested on an osteoblast-like cell line, HOBIT cells, to analyse cell survival and gene expression of selected bone markers. Results None of the tested concentrations of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Nevirapine, Maraviroc or Raltegravir induced any significant apoptosis activation at our experimental conditions. Only some protease inhibitors and Efavirenz, at high concentration, determined a significant activation of programmed cell death. In parallel experiments, protease inhibitors used in combination with Tenofovir and Emtricitabine, increased apoptosis . Furthermore, we performed a study of mRNA expression of specific genes involved in osteoblast biology and in bone synthesis and observed that some protease inhibitors induced a selective decrease of some osteogenic markers. Conclusion All the protease inhibitors included in this study trigger apoptosis at the highest concentration analysed, suggesting great caution in HIV-patients co-infected with HBV or HCV, where elevated plasma concentrations of drugs could be reached as a consequence of liver failure. Lastly, an increased apoptosis rate and an impairment of osteogenic markers were recorded only in presence of Nelfinavir, suggesting a role of protease inhibitors in the alteration of osteoblast biology.
- Disease Progression in HIV Late Presenters: the Role of HIV Clinical Indicator Diseases Prior to HIV Diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016; 14(4):346-53CH
- CONCLUSIONS: HIV CIDs confer a higher risk for disease progression even after adjustment for these confounding factors. Evaluation of previous HIV CIDs at HIV diagnosis could be an additional tool to identify and better manage HIV late presenters with higher risks of disease progression.
- Baseline CD4/CD8 T-cell Ratio Predicts Prompt Immune Restoration upon cART Initiation. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 Apr 14CH
- The reversal of CD4/CD8 ratio is considered an independent predictor of death in the general population, where the ratio physiologically decreases with aging. Despite effective cART, CD4/CD8 normaliz...
The reversal of CD4/CD8 ratio is considered an independent predictor of death in the general population, where the ratio physiologically decreases with aging. Despite effective cART, CD4/CD8 normalization does not always occur in HIV-positive subjects. In the setting of HIV, low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio correlates with immune activation and non-AIDS events. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate and predictors of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization in a cohort of HIV-positive subjects starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods This is a retrospective-prospective observational cohort study conducted at the Unit of Infectious Diseases of the University of Catania. Our cohort included naive individuals who initiated cART from January 2007 to December 2013. Results A total of 123 individuals were enrolled. The median age was 38 years (IQR 29-44). The median baseline CD4+ T-cell count was 288 cells/µl (IQR 105-400). 83 (67.5%) had a CD4+ T-cell count <350/µl; baseline median CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.24 (IQR 0.13-0.4); 65 patients (52.8%) had a HIV viral load >100,000 copies/ml. At 24 months, 33 individuals (26.8%) normalized their CD4/CD8 ratio, with a median time to CD4/CD8 ratio normalization of 17 months (IQR 12-30). In univariate analysis, a baseline CD4+ T-cell count >350/µl (p <0.01), a baseline CD4/CD8 ratio >0.5 (p <0.01), CDC stage A (p<0.01) and an efavirenz-based first-line regimen (p<0.05) were associated with CD4/CD8 ratio normalization. In multivariate logistic analysis, the only predictor of CD4/CD8 normalization was a baseline ratio >0.5 (OR 4.3 (1.7-11.2), p=0.003) Conclusion Starting cART with a ratio >0.5 is associated with an increased likelihood to normalize CD4/CD8 ratio. Early diagnosis should be encouraged in order to treat patients promptly and favor a more robust immunological reconstitution.
- Prevalence of Drug Resistance Associated Mutations Among the Anti Retroviral Therapy Exposed HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Manipur, Northeast India. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016; 14(4):360-70CH
- CONCLUSIONS: DRAMs at the target sites of reverse transcriptase inhibitors are high and these were found to have developed resistance to the primary ART drugs that are used in Manipur. The findings of this study will help the clinicians to guide patients during the course of ART treatment regimes.
- Opioids and Opioid Maintenance Therapies: Their Impact on Monocyte- Mediated HIV Neuropathogenesis. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 Mar 24CH
- CONCLUSIONS: Here, we will discuss the effects of opioids and opioid maintenance therapies on the inflammatory functions of monocytes and macrophages that are related to the development of neuroinflammation in the context of HIV infection.
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- Mechanisms of HIV Neuropathogenesis: Role of Cellular Communication Systems. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2016 Mar 24CH
- CONCLUSIONS: In the current manuscript, we have described the mechanisms by which HIV "hijacks" these host cellular communication systems, leading to exacerbation of HIV neuropathogenesis, and to simultaneously promote the survival of HIV infected cells, resulting in the establishment of viral reservoirs.