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Current HIV research [journal]
- HAART Has No Major Impact on Hematological and Plasma Bilirubin Changes in HIV-Infected Patients with Congenital G-6-PD Deficiency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 May 7.
Hematological effects of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in HIV-infected patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on hematological and plasma bilirubin changes in these patients. A hundred and nine HIV-infected Thai patients were tested for G-6-PD deficiency and its variant by using fluorescent spot test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, accordingly. Changes of hematological parameters and plasma bilirubin at baseline and 6 months of HAART were analyzed in G-6-PD deficiency patients. G-6-PD deficiency was found in 10 (9.17%) patients and G-6-PD Canton1376G>T was the most frequent. Of these, 3 patients were coinheritance of G-6-PD deficiency and thalassemia. Increased mean levels of lymphocyte counts, CD4+ T-cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and hemoglobin from baseline to 6 months of HAART were observed. Whereas, mean levels of total bilirubin and direct bilirubin at baseline were not significantly different from those at 6 months of HAART. Therefore, HAART did not cause hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia in HIV-infected patients with G-6-PD deficiency. On the other hand, the effective use of HAART is associated with improvements in hemoglobin and MCH levels of these patients.
- Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs for Prevention of HIV-Mother-to-Child Transmission on Hematological Parameters and Hemoglobin Synthesis in HIV-Uninfected Newborns With and Without Thalassemia Carrier. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Apr 22.
The effects of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs administered to HIV-infected pregnancy on hematological parameters and hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis in ARV-exposed newborns with and without thalassemia carrier and of ARV drugs in worsening anemia in thalassemia carrier newborns are not well understood. Cord blood samples were collected from newborns of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnancies. Hematological parameters and hemoglobin typing were analyzed by automated blood counter and capillary electrophoresis (CE), respectively. In the group of thalassemia carrier, the ARV-exposed newborns had significantly lower mean levels of red blood cell counts and hematocrit and had significantly higher mean levels of MCH than the ARV-unexposed newborns. Similar results were found in the group of newborns without thalassemia carrier. There were no statistically differences in mean levels of Hb-A2, Hb-A, Hb-F and Hb-E (when applicable) in ARV-exposed and -unexposed newborns either with or without thalassemia carrier. However, ARV-exposed newborns who were thalassemia carrier had the lowest levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit when compared to the other groups. Therefore, ARV drugs used for prevention of HIV-mother-to-child transmission (HIV-MTCT) alter hematological parameters but did not affect hemoglobin synthesis in newborns with and without thalassemia carrier. However, thalassemia and ARV drugs might have synergetic effect in inducing severe anemia.
- Long-Term Gender-Based Outcomes for Atazanavir/Ritonavir (ATV/r) - Containing Regimens in Treatment-Experienced Patients with HIV. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Apr 12.
Clinical data on antiretroviral effectiveness in women is limited, especially long-term data, because women are usually underrepresented in clinical trials. This sub-analysis of a large European non-comparative, retrospective, observational cohort study evaluated gender differences in long-term outcomes in antiretroviral-experienced adult patients with HIV-1 infection switched to an ATV/r-based regimen between October 2004 and March 2007. Data were extracted from 3 European HIV databases every 6 months (maximum follow-up 5 years). Time to virological failure (VF), defined as two consecutive HIV-1 RNA ≥50 c/mL or one HIV-1 RNA ≥50 c/mL followed by treatment discontinuation (TD), and time to TD were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Associations of gender with VF and TD were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional models. Safety and tolerability were evaluated. In total, 1294 patients (336 women, 958 men) were analyzed. No gender differences in time to VF were observed; at 3 years, the probability of not having VF was 0.59 (95%CI: 0.52, 0.65) and 0.63 (95%CI: 0.59, 0.67) for women and men, respectively. In multivariate analyses, women had a higher risk of TD than men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95%CI: 1.28, 1.85) but no increased risk of VF (HR, 1.06; 95%CI: 0.85, 1.33). Safety and tolerability were comparable between genders. In a clinical setting, long-term efficacy and safety outcomes of ATV/r-based regimens were similar by gender. Women had a higher risk of TD but no increased risk of VF. ATV/r is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option for treatment-experienced men and women with HIV-1 infection.
- Frequency of Depression and it's Correlation with Serum Carnitine Level in HIV/AIDS Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Apr 8.
There are some evidences regarding the beneficial effects of carnitine in depressive disorders. Carnitine deficiency is prevalent in HIV positive individuals. Also incidence of depression is significantly higher among the HIV positive individuals compared to HIV negative populations. In a cross-sectional study correlation between serum total carinitine level and depression score based on Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire was assessed in 100 HIV/AIDS (42 males and 58 females) individuals. According to Beck Depression Inventory definitions, 31%, 16% and 21% of the patients experienced mild, moderate and severe level of depression respectively. The mean ±SD serum concentration of total carnitine in the patients was 37.96±26.08 (μmol/L). Fifty-four (54%) of the patients were categorized as carnitine deficient. A non-statistically significant negative correlation between patients' depression scores and total levels of serum carnitine was found. Considering the prevalence of depression among HIV/AIDS patients and probable role of carnitine in pathogenesis of depressive disorders, more studies are needed to reveal any relationship between depression and body storage of carnitine.
- Preface: AIDS-free generation is now in sight. [Introductory Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Jan; 11(1):1.
- Herpetic (Non-Cytomegalovirus) Retinal Infections In Patients With The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Apr 1.
Human herpes viruses cause significant morbidity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Even after the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), herpes viruses remain the leading causes of blindness in AIDS patients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and the closely-related immune reconstitution uveitis syndrome are the most common causes of blindness, but progressive outer retinal necrosis and acute retinal necrosis due to varicella zoster and herpes simplex are also important causes of vision loss. Successful treatment of these conditions requires an aggressive approach with multi-drug intravenous therapy or repeated intravitreal antiviral injections. Since the rate of retinal detachment is alarmingly high despite successful antiviral therapy, internists and ophthalmologists must work closely together to recognize and treat complications as they arise. Fortunately, Epstein-Barr virus is a rare cause of retinal infection and human herpes virus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 do not appear to be primary pathogens. However, increasing evidence suggests that HHV-6 and HHV-7 play important roles in modulating the immune system and potentiating infection by CMV.
- Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in low and middle-income countries. [Editorial]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Mar; 11(2):79-80.
- Male involvement and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: an integrative review. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Mar; 11(2):169-77.
The purpose of the study was to describe male involvement in programmes for preventing mother-tochild transmission (PMTCT) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study questions guiding this review were: how are male partners involved in PMTCT programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa and what are the strategies for improvement of male involvement?An integrative review was conducted based on the data retrieved from the PubMed MEDLINE database. In all, 18 articles were included in this review. Qualitative content analysis was used as a method of data synthesis.Based on the findings of this review, some studies suggested that men had positive attitudes towards PMTCT programmes. However, also barriers to male involvement were identified. These barriers included negative attitude, lack of resources, fear of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test result, marital difficulties, problems with health care services and cultural barriers. Accepting HIV testing was associated with factors related to both wife and husband. Strategies for improving male involvement included ones that focus on men's and their wives' resources (sensitizing men about antenatal care (ANC) and PMTCT, focusing on the conjugal context and couples counselling), the development of health care services (tailoring the services to male needs, taking care of health care staff's resources, developing health care strategies) and the community (educating the community, testing, safer infant feeding).We should highlight the male participation in PMTCT programmes. However, more research is needed in order to evaluate their impact on PMTCT, as well as on broader family health outcomes.
- Reproductive health and family planning needs among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. [Journal Article]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Mar; 11(2):160-8.
Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa.Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion.Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes.HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.