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Current HIV research [journal]
- Epidemiological Profile of Naïve HIV-1/AIDS Patients in Istanbul: The Largest Case Series from Turkey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Apr 11.
The aim of the study was to report the epidemiological profile of HIV-1 positive patients from, Istanbul, Turkey, which has one of the lowest HIV-1/AIDS prevalences in Europe. The patients were followed by ACTHIV-IST group which was established by the Infectious Diseases Departments of five teaching hospitals (three university hospitals and two public hospitals) in Istanbul, Turkey. The HIV-1positive patients were added to the standard patient files in all of the centers; these files were then transferred to the ACTHIV-IST database in the Internet. A total of 829 naiv-untreated HIV-1 positive patients were chosen from the database. The numbers of male patients were 700 (84.4%) and the mean age of the patients was 37 years (range, 17-79). In our study group 348 (42%) of the patients were married, 318 (38.7%) of the patients were single. The probable route of transmission was heterosexual intercourse in 437 (52.7%) patients and homosexual intercourse in 256 (30.9%) patients. In 519 (62.6%) patients the diagnose was made due to a screening test and in 241 (29.1%) patients, the diagnose was made due to an HIV-related/non-related disease. the mean CD4+ T cell number in 788 of the patients was 357.8/mm3 (±271.1), and the median viral load in 698 of the patients was 100,000 copies/mL (20-9,790,000). In Turkey, the number of HIV-1 positive patients is still low and to diagnose with a screening test is the most common way of diagnostic route.
- Influence of Antiretroviral Therapy and Periodontal Disease on Human Salivary Beta-Defensin 2 in Patients Infected with HIV. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Apr 7.
Studies have addressed periodontal disease biomarkers in salivary proteins associated with innate immunity, mostly due to the alteration in the concentration of many of these proteins in the presence of inflammation. On the other hand, some systemic diseases can modify salivary protein concentrations, which may change their importance or role as specific biomarkers. To study the relationship between periodontal disease and concentrations of human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in the saliva of patients infected and not infected with HIV. To evaluate the association between HBD-2 salivary concentration and viral load, the TCD4+ lymphocyte count (LTCD-4+) and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was assessed in HIV-infected patients. Concentrations of HBD-2 were measured in 48 patients not infected with HIV and 53 HIV-infected patients by ELISA, and these data were compared according to periodontal status. Within the group of HIV-infected patients, measures of HBD-2 were assessed according to viral load, LTCD-4+ count and the use of ART. Concentrations of salivary HBD-2 were associated with periodontal disease in non-HIV-infected patients. In HIV-infected patients, salivary HBD-2 was associated with serum status and the use of ART, but it was not related to the periodontal condition. The presence of HBD-2 in the saliva of HIV-infected patients showed no correlations with LTCD-4+ count or viral load. HBD-2 could be a periodontal biomarker in non-HIV-infected patients, but in HIV-infected patients, while salivary HBD-2 was influenced by the serum status and ART use, it was not correlated with the periodontal condition.
- Oxidative Stress in HIV Patients receiving Antiretroviral Therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Apr 1.
Oxidative stress, defined as the imbalance between the oxidant and antioxidant systems, is thought to be associated with the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It has been observed that perturbations in antioxidant defense systems, and consequently redox imbalance, are present in many tissues of HIV-infected patients. Existing evidences suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to different stages of viral life cycle including viral replication and its consequences such as inflammatory response and decreased immune cell proliferation. The level of production of free radical species in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving antiretrovirals (ART) including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was reported to be higher than those who harbor HIV-1 infection without receiving any treatment or normal and healthy subjects. These observations suggest that the HIV-1 infection alone or in combination with introduction of ARV/HAART may induce oxidative stress and further augment HIV-1 pathogenesis. HIV-1 infection and the treatment with antiretrovirals have been found to cause antioxidant enzyme dysfunction in monocytes and central spinal fluid (CSF) leading to cognitive impairment in women. However, the exogenous application of some natural plant products or recent synthetic antioxidants might be useful in scavenging the free radicals. It is expected that their application as an additional strategy may facilitate ARV therapy or HAART for the effective treatment of HIV-1 infected persons or AIDS patients. This review offers a perspective on the current account of oxidative stress in HIV-1 infected individuals and its possible amelioration using suitable antioxidants, plant products and herbal preparations.
- Detection of Cryptococcus Neoformans Capsular Antigen in HIV-Infected Patients in the State of Para in the North of Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Mar 11.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important cause of morbidity in HIV-infected patients worldwide. In the northern region of Brazil, the prevalence of this infection is poorly known due to a lack of systematic investigations. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of cryptococcosis by detecting antigenaemia in HIV-infected patients in the State of Pará, Brazil. A latex Cryptococcus antigen detection kit was used to test 418 serum samples from HIV-infected patients seen at two Infectious Disease Specialized Units in the State of Pará. The C. neoformans antigenaemia prevalence was 2.6%, and titres reached 1:8. The cases occurred mainly in asymptomatic females, and 45% presented CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of fewer than 200 cells/mm. These results show the importance of early C. neoformans antigenaemia detection to prevent fungal disease.
- Role of Trim5α in the Suppression of Cross-Species Transmission and its Defence against Human Immunodeficiency Virus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Mar 6.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was discovered 30 years ago and was followed by the identification and characterization of its causative agent, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Increasing spread of retroviral infections has impelled science to understand the evolution of retroviruses from primates to humans. In the course of evolution, host cells have developed intracellular proteins to counteract the transforming viral defence system. Such inhibitory endogenous intracellular proteins are known as a restriction factors. Tripartite motif protein isoform 5 alpha (TRIM5α), Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC), and Tetherin proteins are few important restriction factors that have been extensively studied. Several evidences have conveyed information regarding specific adaptations occurring in HIV-1 and its relatives to inhibit these host defenses; making the study more interesting. The characteristic potential of restriction factors to restrict the replication of retroviruses was enticing when studies were found that HIV-1 virus cannot infect nonhuman primate species. This review emphasizes on TRIM5α as a restriction factor and its significance in the evolution of retroviruses. It also accentuates the role of polymorphism within the regions of TRIM5α in both human and primate species that eventually affect the cross-species transmission of immunodeficiency viruses.
- HIV-1 Rev Multimerization: Mechanism and Insights. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Mar 6.
To export intron-containing viral mRNAs that encode the structural components of new viral particles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, HIV-1 uses the cellular CRM1 export pathway that is exploited by the viral Rev protein. Rev multimerizes on the Rev response element (RRE) present in the intron-containing RNA species to bridge these to the cellular export factor CRM1. As a result, this Rev-RRE complex is exported to the cytoplasm. This review provides a systematic overview of different aspects of the crucial function of Rev multimerization, such as co-operative Rev-Rev and Rev-RNA interactions, the biological function of Rev multimerization, the relevance of Rev multimerization in the absence of RRE and its potential as a therapeutic target.
- Progress in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 in Zhejiang Province, China, 2007-2013. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Feb 25.
In this article, a retrospective study was conducted based on surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 positive pregnant women and their children from 2007-2013 in China's Zhejiang Province. HIV counseling and testing, mother and infant characteristics, and outcomes were reported here. This study compares two principal periods, from 2007-2009 and from 2010-2013. Between the two periods, the rate of HIV counseling among pregnant women rose significantly from 84.87% to 99.08% and the rate of HIV testing rose from 80.60% to 98.58% .However, the HIV-1 prevalence among pregnant women increased slightly, from 0.01% to 0.02%. Over 70% of infected women were migrants and half of these HIV-1 positive pregnant women were 20-30 years old. Variations in the characteristics of HIV-1 positive pregnant women were observed over time, the proportion of women employed increased dramatically from 15.03% during 2007-2009 to 31.34% during 2010-2013 and the proportion of women with high school education increased from 0.52% to 6.51% the same time. 32.53% women were identified prior to pregnancy during 2010-2013, this figure was obviously higher than that (3.11%) during 2007-2009. Sexual contact remained the primary route of transmission route over the years which accounting for half of the infected. But women infected by blood transfusion declined noticeably. The proportion of mothers and children with ART had a big increase over time. The overall mother-to-child transmission rate was 7.14%
- Expansion or Depletion of T Follicular Helper Cells During HIV Infection: Consequences for B Cell Responses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr HIV Res 2014 Feb 25.
HIV infection is characterized by aberrant B cell responses and B cell dysfunction. These dysfunctional responses have been extensively documented in peripheral blood and organized lymphoid tissues such as the lymph nodes. Though the loss of CD4 T cell help has been thought to play a key role in dysfunctional B cell responses, recent studies have implicated a subset of CD4 T helper cells called the T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in this process. Tfh cells interact with B cells and play a key role in mediating the germinal center reaction, and driving the differentiation and maturation of B cells. Why Tfh expand in some HIV infected individuals as compared to their loss in others is still not clear. Here we review some of the recent developments in the field and discuss the implications of Tfh cell dysregulation on B cell responses during HIV infection.
- Genetic variants of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter (ABCB1) as possible biomarkers for adverse drug reactions in an HIV/AIDS cohort in Zimbabwe. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Curr HIV Res 2013 Sep; 11(6):481-90.
A study was conducted in an HIV/AIDS Zimbabwean cohort to assess possible associations of pharmacogenetic variants with common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during anti-retroviral treatment (ART) and/or tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Genotype and allele frequencies for CYP2B6 G516T, CYP2B6 T983C, CYP2A6*17, ABCB1 rs10276036 C>T, NAT2*5 and NAT2*14 were similar to those reported in literature for other African populations. The CYP2B6 516TT genotype and male gender were significantly associated with occurrence of Efavirenz induced central nervous system disorders (OR 20.58, p=0.004) and the ABCB1 rs10276036TT genotype with Nevirapine induced skin hypersensitivity (OR 4.01, p=0.04). For Stavudine, time on treatment was the main factor in development of lipodystrophy (OR 1.06, p<0.0001). For isoniazid, increasing patient age was associated with peripheral neuropathy (OR 1.05, p=0.001). Although genetic polymorphisms may play a role in predicting occurrence of ADRs, this study also indicates that other factors (gender, age, treatment time) are crucial in predicting drug-induced adverse effects.