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Current pharmaceutical design [journal]
- Serotonergic System and Its Role in Epilepsy and Neuropathic Pain Treatment: a Review Based on Receptor Ligands. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Nov 20.
The serotonergic system is involved in pathomechanisms of both epilepsy and neuropathic pain. So far, participation in the epileptogenesis and maintenance of epilepsy was proved for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as 5-HTT serotonin transporter. Depending on the receptor type or its localization, its stimulation may increase or decrease neuronal excitability. According to the available data, neuropathic pain mechanisms involve 5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, 5-HT7 receptors and 5-HTT serotonin transporter. Changes in their expression modulate pain mainly by affecting the transmission through serotonergic descending pathways. Several compounds, whose mechanisms of action base on influence on the serotonergic system, are already in use. These are 5-HT3 agonists (triptans) in case of migraine, tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine reuptake inhibitors in neuropathic pain treatment. In addition, selective and non-selective ligands are tested for their anticonvulsant or analgesic properties. Some ED50 values have been already obtained in such animal models as maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures (epilepsy), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), chronic constriction injury (CCI) or formalin (neuropathic pain). This review shows that in case of drug discovery within the serotonergic system one must take into account special significance of factors such as: the species, the type of model, the route of administration, and the dose range.
- Editorial (Thematic Issue:Emerging Concepts in Bacterial Biofilm Control). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014; 21(1):3-4.
- Translational investigations for chronic pain. [EDITORIAL]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Nov 17.
- Design of Small Molecules Targeting I-BAR Proteins. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Nov 20.
Missing in metastasis (MIM, also MTSS1) is a member of the inverse Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (I-BAR) family that senses and stabilizes negative membrane protrusions. Abnormal expression of MIM has been frequently associated with a subset of human cancers and may play different roles in different stages of tumor progression. Overexpression of MIM-I-BAR in 293A cells potentiated the cell growth and increased the toxic response to paclitaxel. To modulate the function of MIM within cells, we designed several short peptide derivatives to target I-BAR dimerization. One of these derivatives had a cyclic configuration with a potency to disrupt the dimerization of MIM or ABBA proteins in vitro, and to be readily internalized into cells. Exposure of cells expressing MIM-I-BAR to this compound abolished increased susceptibility to paclitaxel and partially inhibited the I-BAR-mediated endocytosis. Our data suggests that this cyclic peptide can be used as a tool to study the function of intracellular MIM and as a lead to develop a therapy targeting human diseases involving abnormal MIM expressions.
- Chemistry and Pharmacology of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Nov 12.
The renin-angiotensin system has been established as an attractive target for pharmacological intervention since the discovery of first angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is). In fact, these drugs are primarily used in the management of cardiovascular system-related diseases and renal insufficiency. Their mechanism of action involves the adjustment of balance between vasoconstrictive, hypertrophic and salt/water-retentive angiotensin II and vasodilatory and natriuretic bradykinin by the inhibition of angiotensin II biosynthesis and bradykinin degradation. Currently there are thirteen family members approved for use in humans. They differ in structure, chemistry and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties yet they display a similar pharmacologic and toxicologic profile. All of them are effective in the treatment of hypertension as well as in cardiac insufficiency or diabetic nephropathy. Although they are generally well-tolerated several serious side-effects including life-threatening angioedema, renal failure and persistent dry cough could occur during the administration of ACE-Is, which may require the cessation of therapy. Furthermore, to provide maximum safety and efficiency of ACE-Is-based therapy, the knowledge of the related drug interactions and chronokinetics seems to be an absolute requirement. Here we discuss the above-mentioned issues regarding the pharmaceutical and chemical properties of the commercially-used ACE-Is.
- Selective Inhibitors of Zinc-Dependent Histone Deacetylases. Therapeutic Targets Relevant to Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Nov 10.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which act on acetylated histones and/or other non-histone protein substrates, represent validated epigenetic targets for the treatment of cancer and other human diseases. The inhibition of HDAC activity was shown to induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation, apoptosis as well as a decrease in proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and cell resistance to chemotherapy. Targeting single HDAC isoforms with selective inhibitors will help to reveal the role of individual HDACs in cancer development or uncover further biological consequences of protein acetylation. This review focuses on conventional zinc-containing HDACs. In its first part, the biological role of individual HDACs in various types of cancer is summarized. In the second part, promising HDAC inhibitors showing activity both in enzymatic and cell-based assays are surveyed with an emphasis on the inhibitors selective to the individual HDACs.
- The Janus Face of Adenosine: Antiarrhythmic and Proarrhythmic Actions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Oct 28.
Adenosine is a ubiquitous, endogenous purine involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological regulatory mechanisms. Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous antiarrhythmic substance to prevent hypoxia/ischemia-induced arrhythmias. Adenosine (and its precursor, ATP) has been used in the therapy of various cardiac arrhythmias over the past six decades. Its primary indication is treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, but it can be effective in other forms of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, like sinus node reentry based tachycardia, triggered atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, or ventricular tachycardia based on a cAMP-mediated triggered activity. The main advantage is the rapid onset and the short half life (1-10 sec). Adenosine exerts its antiarrhythmic actions by activation of A1 adenosine receptors located in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, as well as in activated ventricular myocardium. However, adenosine can also elicit A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptor-mediated global side reactions (flushing, dyspnea, chest discomfort), but it may display also proarrhythmic actions mediated by primarily A1 adenosine receptors (e.g. bradyarrhythmia or atrial fibrillation). To avoid the non-specific global adverse reactions, A1 adenosine receptor-selective full agonists (tecadenoson, selodenoson, trabodenoson) have been developed, which agents are currently under clinical trial. During long-term administration with orthosteric agonists, adenosine receptors can be internalized and desensitized. To avoid desensitization, proarrhythmic actions, or global adverse reactions, partial A1 adenosine receptor agonists, like CVT-2759, were developed. In addition, the pharmacologically "silent" site- and event specific adenosinergic drugs, such as adenosine regulating agents and allosteric modulators, might provide attractive opportunity to increase the effectiveness of beneficial actions of adenosine and avoid the adverse reactions.
- Calcium Store Stability as an Antiarrhythmic Endpoint. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Oct 28.
Cardiac arrhythmias are electrical phenomena; thus, sarcolemmal ion channels have long been considered as targets of antiarrhythmic therapy. The contribution of abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling to digitalis-induced arrhythmogenesis is an old concept; however, the role of abnormal Ca2+ handling as a common cause of arrhythmia, i.e. relevant to all arrhythmogenic mechanisms, has been fully recognized in more recent times. Stability of the intracellular Ca2+ store (sarcoplasmic reticulum, SR) is crucial to physiological Ca2+ handling; when it is compromised, Ca2+ may be released independently from excitation and lead to secondary perturbation of membrane potential. Ca2+ store stability depends on the interplay between sarcolemmal and SR "effectors" (ion channels and transports), which are mutually linked by Ca2+-mediated feed-back control. While instrumental to cell homeostasis, such control makes any attempt to modulate SR stability dauntingly complex. This review discusses current knowledge on the factors leading to SR instability, the mechanisms by which SR instability translates into arrhythmias and which interventions may be best suited to prevent SR instability. Although still at an initial stage of development, such interventions might represent the future of antiarrhythmic drug therapy.
- Future Perspectives in the Pharmacological Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Heart Failure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Oct 28.
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by significant impairment of cardiac ventricular function. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly observed sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. Both HF and AF are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and their prevalence increases with age. Approximately 50% of patients with moderate HF die due to ventricular fibrillation that leads to sudden cardiac death. Patients with AF exhibit increased mortality due to HF and stroke. HF and AF often co-exist, and the development of the other condition further deteriorates prognosis. Both chronic HF and AF lead to structural and electrophysiological changes in the heart called remodeling, modifying therapeutic targets including those for antiarrhythmic intervention. Current pharmacological treatment of arrhythmias has major limitations due to low efficacy and serious adverse effects. In this review, the main aspects of electrical remodeling in HF and AF are discussed along with possible novel targets identified for future pharmacological antiarrhythmic therapy.
- Role of gap junction channel in the development of beat-to-beat action potential repolarization variability and arrhythmias. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Pharm Des 2014 Oct 28.
The short-term beat-to-beat variability of cardiac action potential duration (SBVR) occurs as a random alteration of the ventricular repolarization duration. SBVR has been suggested to be more predictive of the development of lethal arrhythmias than the action potential prolongation or QT prolongation of ECG alone. The mechanism underlying SBVR is not completely understood but it is known that SBVR depends on stochastic ion channel gating, intracellular calcium handling and intercellular coupling. Coupling of single cardiomyocytes significantly decreases the beat-to-beat changes in action potential duration (APD) due to the electrotonic current flow between neighboring cells. The magnitude of this electrotonic current depends on the intercellular gap junction resistance. Reduced gap junction resistance causes greater electrotonic current flow between cells, and reduces SBVR. Myocardial ischaemia (MI) is known to affect gap junction channel protein expression and function. MI increases gap junction resistance that leads to slow conduction, APD and refractory period dispersion, and an increase in SBVR. Ultimately, development of reentry arrhythmias and fibrillation are associated post-MI. Antiarrhythmic drugs have proarrhythmic side effects requiring alternative approaches. A novel idea is to target gap junction channels. Specifically, the use of gap junction channel enhancers and inhibitors may help to reveal the precise role of gap junctions in the development of arrhythmias. Since cell-to-cell coupling is represented in SBVR, this parameter can be used to monitor the degree of coupling of myocardium.