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Der Anaesthesist [journal]
- [Complications in pediatric anesthesia.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 10.
As in adult anesthesia, morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced in pediatric anesthesia in recent decades. This fact cannot conceal the fact that the incidence of anesthetic complications in children is still much more common than in adults and sometimes with a severe outcome. Newborns and infants in particular but also children with emergency interventions and severe comorbidities are at increased risk of potential complications. Typical complications in pediatric anesthesia are respiratory problems, medication errors, difficulties with the intravenous puncture and pulmonal aspiration. In the postoperative setting, nausea and vomiting, pain, and emergence delirium can be mentioned as typical complications. In addition to the systematic prevention of complications in pediatric anesthesia, it is important to quickly recognize disturbances of homeostasis and treat them promptly and appropriately. In addition to the expertise of the performing anesthesia team, the institutional structure in particular can improve quality and safety in pediatric anesthesia.
- [Use of biomarkers in sepsis : Update and perspectives.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 9.
Sepsis and related complications are a challenge for intensive care medicine. Despite many advances in antibiotic therapy sepsis remains one of the most common diseases of patients in intensive care units and is designated as the main cause of death in critically ill patients. Persisting sepsis leads to impaired immunity, resulting in immunosuppression. Unspecific predictive signs complicate an early diagnosis; however, an early initiation of adequate therapy is of crucial importance for the prognosis. Scoring systems can be applied for the initial evaluation but are controversially discussed concerning the monitoring of disease progression and therapy as well as outcome prediction. Biomarkers are considered as a complementary approach.
- [Monitoring of liver function in the critically ill.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 6.
Liver failure and hepatic dysfunction represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for the intensivist. Besides acute liver failure, hypoxic hepatitis, sepsis and (secondary) sclerosing cholangitis may lead to massive liver dysfunction with subsequent multiorgan dysfunction syndrome that limits survival. Among classical laboratory parameters (so-called static liver parameters) liver function tests may help with the diagnosis to allow early treatment or prevention of liver dysfunction. The aim of this article is to present the current aspects of liver function monitoring and to provide guidelines to the intensivist for diagnosing liver dysfunction in the intensive care setting.
- [Risks in pediatric anesthesia : Causes and prevention of complications.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 5.
- [Anesthesia in a patient after endoscopic lung volume reduction : First anesthesiological experiences with implanted endobronchial valves.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 5.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with a high incidence and extensive comorbidities that make COPD a key challenge for anesthesiologists. A new treatment strategy, such as endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) with implantation of endobronchial valves is a rapidly developing area which is still unknown to many anesthesiologists. This article therefore describes first experiences in a patient with five endobronchial valves in the right upper lobe who needed urgent surgery due to lumbar disc herniation with neurological impairment. After preoperative evaluation of the patient's condition, the use of bronchodilating volatile anesthetics and adjusting the ventilatory settings with long expiration times and low peak pressure in a pressure controlled mode seems favorable in these patients. Intraoperatively, the patient should be assessed with modern physiological monitoring tools to titrate the administration of anesthetic agents, opioids and myorelaxant drugs. In conclusion the care of patients with implanted endobronchial valves after ELVR does not differ from COPD patients without ELVR. A close cooperation between surgeons, anesthesiologists and internists is mandatory in the care of these patients.
- [Out-of-hospital airway management : Five scenes of a tragedy.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 5.
- [Application fields of intraoperative transesophageal 3D echocardiography.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 3.
Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an established diagnostic tool and has to be regarded as the standard of care for intraoperative monitoring and cardiac surgical decision-making. Furthermore, intraoperative TEE is also used for monitoring and assessment of hemodynamic changes and the detection of previously unknown pathologies. In the past few years 3D-TEE has extended the spectrum of 2D-TEE by allowing pathomorphological features to be more easily and intuitively linked to the anatomy of the heart and the great vessels. Thus, a comprehensive 2D-TEE examination is favorably complemented by focused 3D-TEE. Especially during mitral valve surgery, 3D-TEE has proven its superiority in the diagnosis of the underlying pathology as demonstrated by a large number of studies in this field. This review presents the available data about the role of intraoperative 3D-TEE echocardiography and introduces practical fields of application.
- Prehospital airway management using the laryngeal tube : An emergency department point of view. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 2.
Competence in airway management and maintenance of oxygenation and ventilation represent fundamental skills in emergency medicine. The successful use of laryngeal tubes (LT, LT-D, LTS II) to secure the airway in the prehospital setting has been published in the past. However, some complications can be associated with the use of a laryngeal tube.In a nonconsecutive case series, problems and complications associated with the use of the laryngeal tube in prehospital emergency medicine as seen by independent observers in the emergency room are presented.Various problems and possible complications associated with the use of a laryngeal tube in eight case reports are reported: incorrect placement of the laryngeal tube in the trachea, displacement and/or incorrect placement of the laryngeal tube in the pharynx, tongue and pharyngeal swelling with subsequently difficult laryngoscopy, and inadequate ventilation due to unrecognized airway obstruction and tension pneumothorax.Although the laryngeal tube is considered to be an effective, safe, and rapidly appropriable supraglottic airway device, it is also associated with adverse effects. In order to prevent tongue swelling, after initial prehospital or in-hospital placement of laryngeal tube and cuff inflation, it is important to adjust and monitor the cuff pressure.
- [New KDIGO guidelines on acute kidney injury : Practical recommendations.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 2.
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients is very high and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In 2012 the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) guidelines were published in which evidence-based practical recommendations are given for the evaluation and management of patients with AKI. The first section of the KDIGO guidelines deals with the unification of earlier consensus definitions and staging criteria for AKI. The subsequent sections of the guidelines cover the prevention and treatment of AKI as well as the management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with AKI. In each section the existing evidence is discussed and a specific treatment recommendation is given. The guidelines appreciates that there is insufficient evidence for many of the recommendations. As a specific pharmacological therapy is missing, an early diagnosis, aggressive hemodynamic optimization, tight volume control, and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs are the only interventions to prevent AKI. If renal replacement therapy is required different modalities are available to provide an effective therapy with a low rate of adverse effects.
- [Intubation with a tube exchanger on an intubation trainer : Influence of tube tip position on successful intubation.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Jul 2.
Securing the airway using a tube exchanger catheter is an important and useful technique in anesthesia. Its success is mainly hampered by tube tip impingement of laryngeal structures. Advancing the tracheal tube along its normal curvature via a tube exchanger catheter has a high risk of tube tip impingement mainly of right laryngeal structures. The authors achieved successful clinical experience by rotating the tracheal tube 90° anticlockwise (ventral tube tip position) before railroading the tube via a tube exchanger catheter or a fiber optic bronchoscope through the larynx.The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the tracheal tube tip position while intubating an airway trainer over a tube exchange catheter.Volunteer anesthetists with varying years of professional experience were asked to intubate an intubation mannequin (Laerdal Airway Management Trainer) using the orotracheal route with an established tube exchange catheter (Cook Airway Exchange Catheter, 11F). Two different brands of tracheal tubes (Rüsch and Covidien, ID 7.0 mm) were used in a randomized order, each with the tracheal tube tip at first positioned right (90°), then ventrally (0°), left (270°) and finally dorsally (180°), resulting in eight intubation attempts for each participant. To ensure the correct tube tip position the tube was withdrawn before every intubation attempt until the tube tip position was visualized. The oropharnyx, larynx, trachea and tube were sufficiently lubricated with silicon spray (Rüsch Silikospray). The tube and airway exchange catheter size selection were made according to the clinical trial of Loudermilk et al. Successful endotracheal intubation without resistance was recorded for each tube tip position and tracheal tube brand.In total 20 anesthetists (13 consultants and 7 residents) with a median of 9.5 years (range 3-37 years) of professional experience participated in the study. Overall 160 intubation attempts were performed, 2 participants showed no successful intubation attempts at all and 38 out of 160 intubation attempts (23.8 %) were successful. Intubation success with the tracheal tube tip placed ventrally (0°) was 60 % followed by the left (270°) and right (90°) tracheal tube tip positions with 27.5 % and 7.5 % intubation success, respectively. With the tube tip placed dorsally (180°) none of the 40 intubation attempts were successful. Intubation attempts with the Rüsch tube were more successful (28.8 %) than those with the Covidien tube (18.8 %). Placing the tracheal tube tip ventrally, the Rüsch tube was twice as successful as the Covidien tube with 16 (80 %) versus 8 attempts (40 %, p = 0.011). There was no correlation between professional experience and intubation success (p = 0.362).Tube insertion via an airway exchange catheter or a fiberoptic bronchoscope is a basic technique in anesthesia. Knowledge about the difficulties and their prevention are essential for every anesthetist. The gap between the airway exchange catheter, the fiber bronchoscope and the tube diameters is one of the major reasons for tube tip impingement. This investigation showed that intubation success via a tube exchange catheter, as investigated in an intubation mannequin, is considerably influenced by the tracheal tube tip position. A 90° anticlockwise rotation, placing the tracheal tube tip ventrally, considerably increased intubation success. This is of particular importance if an anesthesia department has no appropriately sized tube exchange catheters or fiber bronchoscope for every age group of patients.