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Der Anaesthesist [journal]
- [Anesthesiological management of awake craniotomy : Asleep-awake-asleep technique or without sedation.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov 26.
Awake craniotomy is indicated in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment of certain movement disorders, such as in Parkinson disease patients or in the surgery of brain tumors in close vicinity to the language area. The standard procedure is the asleep-awake-asleep technique where general anesthesia or analgosedation is intermittently interrupted for neurological testing. In DBS the intraoperative improvement of symptoms, stereotactic navigation and microelectrode reading guide to the optimal position. In brain tumor resection, reversible functional impairments during electrical stimulation on the brain surface (brain mapping) show the exact individual position of eloquent or motoric areas that should be protected.The anesthesiology procedures used are very variable. It is a balancing act between overdosing of anesthetics with impairment of respiration and alertness and underdosing with pain, strain and stress for the patient. For the asleep-awake-asleep technique high acceptance but also frequent and partly severe complications have been reported. The psychological stress for the patient can be immense. Obviously, a feeling of being left alone and being at someone's mercy is not adequately treated by drugs and performance of the neurological tests is undoubtedly better and more reliable with less pharmacological impairment. Cranial nerve blocks can reduce the amount of anesthetics as they provide analgesia of the scalp more efficiently than local infiltration. With these nerve blocks, a strong therapeutic relationship and a specific communication, sedatives can be avoided and the need for opioids markedly reduced or abolished. The suggestive communication promotes for instance dissociation to an inner safe refuge, as well as reframing of disturbing noises and sensations. Each of the methods applied for awake craniotomy can profit from the principles of this awake-awake-awake technique.
- [In Process Citation]. [Comment, Letter]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep; 63(8-9):700,702.
- [Seeing more : Technical innovations in regional anesthesia]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov; 63(11):875-82.
Visualization and verification are key factors since the implementation of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. This article reviews and discusses newer technical innovations in regional anesthesia with regard to optimization of needle guidance, improvements in needle visibility, technical improvements in ultrasound techniques and innovative technologies in regional anesthesia. Clinically available applications are presented as well as experimental tools and techniques with a potential for clinical implementation in the future. Mechanical needle guides are used to improve alignment of needle axis and ultrasound beam axis. Compound imaging technology improves needle visibility in steep needle insertion angles and is already implemented in daily clinical practice. Sonoelastography improves tissue discrimination and detection of small amounts of fluids. Benefits of 3D and 4D ultrasound in regional anesthesia are discussed as well as experimental tools for tissue discrimination, such as optical reflection spectrophotometry.
- [Every year …] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov 12.
- [Power of words]. [Journal Article]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov; 63(11):814-5.
- [Malignant hyperthermia.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov 12.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hereditary, mostly subclinical myopathy. Trigger substances, such as volatile anesthetic agents and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine can induce a potentially fatal metabolic increase in predisposed patients caused by a dysregulation of the myoplasmic calcium (Ca) concentration. Mutations in the dihydropyridine ryanodine receptor complex in combination with the trigger substances are responsible for an uncontrolled release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This leads to activation of the contractile apparatus and a massive increase in cellular energy production. Exhaustion of the cellular energy reserves ultimately results in local muscle cell destruction and subsequent cardiovascular failure. The clinical picture of MH episodes is very variable. Early symptoms are hypoxia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia whereas the body temperature rise, after which MH is named, often occurs later. Decisive for the course of MH episodes is a timely targeted therapy. Following introduction of the hydantoin derivative dantrolene, the previously high mortality of fulminant MH episodes could be reduced to well under 10 %. An MH predisposition can be detected using the invasive in vitro contracture test (IVCT) or mutation analysis. Few elaborate diagnostic procedures are in the developmental stage.
- [Simulation as possible training for palliative emergencies : Prospective initial data analysis of participants from two simulation training sessions.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov 12.
Palliative emergencies describe an acute situation in patients with a life-limiting illness. At present defined curricula for prehospital emergency physician training for palliative emergencies are limited. Simulation-based training (SBT) for such palliative emergency situations is an exception both nationally and internationally.This article presents the preparation of recommendations in the training and development of palliative care emergency situations.A selected literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane database (1990-2013). Reference lists of included articles were checked by two reviewers. Data of the included articles were extracted, evaluated und summarized. In the second phase the participants of two simulated scenarios of palliative emergencies were asked to complete an anonymous 15-item questionnaire. The results of the literature search and the questionnaire-based investigation were compared and recommendations were formulated based on the results.Altogether 30 eligible national and international articles were included. Overall, training curricula in palliative emergencies are currently being developed nationally and internationally but are not yet widely integrated into emergency medical training and education. In the second part of the investigation, 25 participants (9 male, 16 female, 20 physicians and 5 nurses) were included in 4 multiprofessional emergency medical simulation training sessions. The most important interests of the participants were the problems for training and further education concerning palliative emergencies described in the national and international literature.The literature review and the expectations of the participants underlined that the development and characteristics of palliative emergencies will become increasingly more important in outpatient emergency medicine. All participants considered palliative care to be very important concerning the competency for end-of-life decisions in palliative patients. For this reason, special curricula and simulation for dealing with palliative care patients and special treatment decisions in emergency situations seem to be necessary.
- Anesthesia in swine : Optimizing a laboratory model to optimize translational research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov 12.
In order to extrapolate novel therapies from the bench to the bedside (translational research), animal experiments are scientifically necessary. Swine are popular laboratory animals as their cardiorespiratory physiology is very similar to humans. Every study has to be approved by the local and/or national animal ethical committees. As swine are extremely sensitive to stress the primary goal is therefore to provide a calm, stress-free environment in both housing and experimental facilities. Swine should be properly sedated for transport and normothermia needs to be ensured. It is recommended to commence anesthesia by injecting ketamine and propofol followed by endotracheal intubation during spontaneous breathing. After intubation, anesthesia maintenance is performed with morphine or piritramide, propofol and rocuronium and routine monitoring is applied analogue to a clinical operating theater for humans. Normothermia (38.5 °C) needs to be ensured. While surgical procedures can be readily extrapolated from a human operating theater to swine, non-anesthesiologist scientists may lose the animal rapidly due to airway management problems. Vascular access can be secured by cut-downs or ultrasound-guided techniques in the inguinal and the neck region. For humane euthanasia of pigs, morphine, followed by propofol, rocuronium and potassium chloride are recommended. As radical animal right groups may threaten scientists, it is prudent that animal laboratories have unmarked entrance doors, are located in buildings that are not accessible to the public and strictly controlled access of laboratory staff is enforced. In conclusion, swine are an excellent laboratory animal for bench to bedside research and can be managed properly when basic knowledge and adequate skills on careful handling, anesthesia and surgical considerations are present.
- [Acute perioperative hemodilution without using hydroxyethyl starch : Hemodynamic alterations under "controlled" hypovolemia.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov 9.
Up to now hydroxyethyl starch preparations have frequently been used to compensate for volume deficits accompanying blood withdrawal during acute normovolemic hemodilution. This approach was questioned with respect to the current limitations for use of hydroxyethyl starch solutions imposed by the European Medicines Agency. Because crystalloids distribute evenly across the whole extracellular compartment, 80 % of the infused solution will be "lost" to the interstitial space. Thus, a physiological adjustment of blood loss caused by hemodilution with crystalloids alone (1:5 ratio) seems hardly feasible and according to current data perhaps not even desirable. A 3:1 ratio (crystalloids versus blood loss) as applied in the current study can be regarded as a practical compromise between physiological needs and recommendations according to the literature (1.4:1) but will lead to moderate hypovolemia the hemodynamic consequences of which are not well described.The current study investigates the hemodynamic impact of a hemodilution with crystalloids under the precondition of a 3:1 substitution ratio compared to withdrawn blood.In the context of acute perioperative hemodilution 10 otherwise healthy women graded I and II on the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification scheduled for open gynecological cancer surgery underwent an average blood withdrawal of 1097 ± 285 ml which was substituted by an average of 3430 ± 806 ml of Ringer's lactate. The resulting deficit in blood volume was exactly quantified by a double tracer technique. Hemodynamic changes were evaluated by a combination of thermodilution and pulse contour analysis (PiCCO system®). Subsequently, the remaining volume deficit was compensated by 245 ± 64 ml of a 20 % albumin solution and hemodynamic parameters were again evaluated.When infusing Ringer's lactate in a 3:1 ratio compared to the actual blood loss, the blood volume decreased by 12 %. The volume effect of Ringer's lactate proved to be 17 %. While mean arterial pressure and heart rate remained constant, key hemodynamic parameters changed relevantly during the time course. A significant rise in cardiac output and myocardial contractility could be observed which was accompanied by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. In contrast, cardiac preload and the parameters representing pulmonary vascular permeability remained unaltered. The infusion of 245 ± 64 ml of a 20 % albumin solution nearly completely restituted blood volume and led to an insignificant rise in systemic vascular resistance but did not normalize cardiac output or myocardial contractility.In the study population, the loss of intravascular fluid during perioperative haemodilution could be compensated by an increase in cardiac performance. However, whether patients with a reduced cardiac capacity (i.e. older patients) are capable to improve their cardiac output sufficiently in order to compensate hypovolemia accompanying perioperative haemodilution with crystalloids remains questionable.
- [Eleven years of core data set in intensive care medicine : Severity of disease and workload are increasing.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Nov 8.
In the year 2000 a working group of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care Medicine (DIVI) defined a core data set on quality assurance for the first time. In the following years the participating intensive care units sent data to the registry on a voluntary basis and received an annual report on benchmarking data. Alterations in the quality in the field of intensive care medicine have so far only been published to a very low extent.This study analyzed the core date set of the DIVI between 2000 and 2010 in respect to changes in disease severity using the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), the need for therapeutic interventions with the therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS 28) and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality.Inclusion criteria were participation in the registry for at least 4 years, SAPS II, SOFA, TISS28 scores available and data on ICU discharge. A standardized mortality rate (SMR) was calculated for each year.The mean SAPS II score including 94,398 patients increased by 0.23 points/year with a standard error (SE) of 0.02 to 26.9 ± 12 points (p < 0.001). Similarly, the SOFA score on admission to the ICU increased by 0.14 points/year (SE 0.04) to 3.4 ± 2.7 points (p < 0.001), the proportion of patients with a two organ failure doubled to 7.1 % and the number of patients dependent on ventilation increased by 13.6 % to 59.8 %. The mean time on ventilation increased by 0.17 ventilator days/year (SE 0.01, p < 0.001) to 3.1 ± 7.5 days/patient. The mean number of therapeutic interventions increased by 8.7 % to 26.3 ± 8.3 TISS 28 points/day. The mean length of stay on the ICU (4.3 ± 8 days) and the age of the patients (63.2 ± 17.0 years) remained unchanged. The readmission rate showed no significant changes between the years 2004 and 2010. The readmission rate to the ICU within 48 h after primary discharge was 3.1 % with a 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 3.0-3.3 in contrast to 1.5 % (95 % CI 1.4-1.6) for readmission to the ICU after 48 h. The length of stay in hospital before admission to the ICU decreased for patients with scheduled surgery (6.3 ± 9.7 days vs. 4.2 ± 6.9 days), increased slightly for patients with medically indicated admission to the ICU (2.4 ± 8.2 days 3.1 ± 8.6 days) and remained unchanged for patients with unscheduled admission to the ICU after surgery (4.1 ± 8.6 days). The SMR decreased between 2000 and 2004 from 0.97 to 0.72 and increased again thereafter to 0.99 (ICU mortality 8.5 %).The severity of disease on admission to the ICU, the proportion of patients on ventilation and the workload of therapeutic interventions increased between 2000 and 2010 in German ICUs but the length of stay of patients in the ICU remained unchanged. The SMR decreased until 2005 and increased thereafter to return to the initial values. The overall ICU mortality was low compared to international data.