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Der Anaesthesist [journal]
- [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 13.
Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be very dark to allow endogenous melatonin secretion, which is a night signal and supports continuous sleep. Sleep disorders can be treated with timed light exposure, as well as behavioral and environmental strategies to compensate for sleep deprivation. Fatigue due to sleep deprivation can only be systematically treated with sleep.
- [Fluid resuscitation in hemorrhage.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 11.
How fluid resuscitation has to be performed for acute hemorrhage situations is still controversially discussed. Although the forced administration of crystalloids and colloids has been and still is practiced, nowadays there are good arguments that a cautious infusion of crystalloids may be initially sufficient. Saline should no longer be used for fluid resuscitation. The main argument for cautious fluid resuscitation is that no large prospective randomized clinical trials exist which have provided evidence of improved survival when fluid resuscitation is applied in an aggressive manner. The explanation that no positive effect has so far been observed is that fluid resuscitation is thought to boost bleeding by increasing blood pressure and dilutional coagulopathy. Nevertheless, national and international guidelines recommend that fluid resuscitation should be applied at the latest when hemorrhage causes hemodynamic instability. Consideration should be given to the fact that damage control resuscitation per se will neither improve already reduced tissue perfusion nor hemostasis. In acute and possibly rapidly progressing hypovolemic shock, colloids can be used. The third and fourth generations of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) are safe and effective if used correctly and within prescribed limits. If fluid resuscitation is applied with ongoing re-evaluation of the parameters which determine oxygen supply, it should be possible to keep fluid resuscitation restricted without causing undesirable side effects and also to administer a sufficient quantity so that survival of patients is ensured.
- [Cost minimization analysis in postoperative pain management : Economic efficiency and effectiveness of two infusion pump systems.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 6.
Besides reliable efficacy and patient satisfaction, economic efficiency is becoming increasingly more important in postoperative pain management.The present study investigated the effectiveness of two pain pump systems and compared the running costs in treatment.In this study 40 patients received an interscalene catheter prior to shoulder surgery. Postoperative pain management was provided via an electronic pump with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or a mechanical pump without PCA. Patients kept a pain log. After treatment they were interviewed about their satisfaction with the pump. In addition drug consumption, nursing material, staff time for handling and maintenance of the pumps and preparation of medications pro re nata were assessed.Postoperative pain levels and patient satisfaction were comparable in both groups. Economically, the electronic pump was more cost-effective than the electronic model for a duration of treatment of 1 and 2 days. With treatment duration of 3 days the costs of both pumps were equivalent; however, the PCA feature of the electronic pump allowed a reduced intake of systemic analgesics on demand.Both pain pump systems provide equally effective pain management, while the electronic model caused less costs. Both pumps offer advantages and disadvantages that should be considered based on local circumstantial demands.
- [Monitoring liver function.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 5.
- [Ernst von der Porten : Looking for facts before and after forced emigration.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 5.
The Ernst von der Porten medal has been awarded for many years to exceptional personalities by the Alliance of German Anesthesiologists to honor the outstanding achievements of the physician Ernst von der Porten from Hamburg in the development of anesthesiology as an autonomous discipline Only recent access to hitherto inaccessible documents enabled the reconstruction of his final years. He was persecuted and excluded by the National Socialist (NS) regime due to his Jewish roots and finally forced to emigrate. Records revealed that even in the so-called safe exile, degrading treatment and humiliation continued for Ernst von der Porten and his family. He eventually evaded this situation by committing suicide.
- [Catheter complications in persistent left superior vena cava.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Aug 29.
- [Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotic therapy.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Aug 24.
Antibiotic agents are crucial pillars in intensive care medicine and must be used rationally and sensibly. In the case of critically ill patients optimal dosing with respect to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles (PK/PD) can be vital. Preclinical results demonstrated important differences between antibiotic classes and gave rise to differing clinical dosing strategies, e.g. high dose once daily regimens for aminoglycosides or extended/continuous infusion of betalactams. Critically ill patients with altered pharmacokinetic parameters and infections by pathogens with low susceptibility are most likely to benefit from PK/PD-guided therapy.
- [Correct performance of transfusion.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Aug 22.
The administration of blood products is strictly regulated. Warming of blood components at body temperature is required only in rare cases. Addition of drugs to blood products is not allowed. During transfusion the monitoring of the patient is continued. In the case of an adverse event, exclusion of acute hemolysis is very important. As emergency transfusions have a higher risk than standard transfusions, their indications have to be restricted. When transfusion is completed the blood bag has to be preserved for 24 h. The effects of the blood transfusion have to be controlled. The administration of blood products must be documented to allow a possible cross-check from the recipient to the donor as well as from the donor to the recipient. The disposal of administered and of non-administered blood components is subject to the guidelines for hospital waste.
- [General anesthesia for ambulatory surgery : Clinical pharmacological considerations on the practical approach.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Aug 20.
Due to modern surgical and anesthesia techniques, many patients undergoing small or even medium surgical procedures will recover within minutes and can then be discharged after a few hours of monitoring. Aside from an optimized surgical technique, a precise and differentiated anesthesia concept is needed to guarantee rapid recovery and home readiness. Nowadays, remifentanil-propofol represents the standard regime in ambulatory anesthesia. The use of alfentanil, desfluran or sevofluran is also possible whereas other intravenous or inhaled anesthetics or other opioids are rarely used. If endotracheal intubation is necessary, a reduced intubating dose of neuromuscular blockers (NMB), such as mivacurium, atracurium and rocuronium, i.e. 1-1.5-times the 95 % effective dose (ED95) is a good possibility to accelerate neuromuscular recovery while still having acceptable intubation conditions. Due to its limitations and contraindications, succinylcholine is not the first choice but may be used in non-fasting patients in need of urgent (ambulatory) surgery, e.g. in bleeding women undergoing dilation and curettage. Even with these reduced dosages monitoring of neuromuscular recovery is crucial and should be applied to all patients when NMBs are used. Furthermore, patients should receive a risk-adapted postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis, e.g. with 4 mg dexamethasone and 4 mg ondansetron. Postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) should be anticipated by a new risk score and prophylaxis or treatment should be initiated. For postoperative pain relief, local or regional anesthesia techniques, such as infiltration, field or nerve blocks should be applied where possible. In addition, non-opioid analgesics are the basic treatment while longer-lasting opioids are only necessary for some patients.