Der Anaesthesist [journal]
- [Victory over surgical pain : 170 years ago the era of modern anesthesia began - but what happened in the operating theater in the time before?] [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 15.
170 years ago, on 6 October 1846, the dentist William Thomas Green Morton, sucessfully demonstrated ether anesthesia in a patient undergoing surgery in the operating theater of the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. He thereby put an end to the unthinkable suffering of patients who had to undergo surgery when fully conscious. Before this "discovery" surgical procedures resembled a battle for life and death. Only a few documents exist illustrating the attitude of surgeons concerning their actions and which tortures patients had to tolerate. One of the first German standard operating procedures for the perioperative period was formulated in 1812 by Christian Bonifacius Zang. In her diaries and letters, the english novelist Frances Burney described her mastectomy without anesthesia on 30 September 1811. The Scottish physician and novelist John Brown, in his story of "Rab and his friends", painted a picture of the mastectomy of Ailie Noble by the famous Scottish surgeon James Syme in 1833, also without anesthesia. Finally, in his letters the Scottish scientist George Wilson described the amputation of his left foot at the ankle in January 1843, again by James Syme and again without the use of anesthesia.
- [Above and beyond BMI : Alternative methods of measuring body fat and muscle mass in critically ill patients and their clinical significance]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 13.
Obesity leads to better survival in critically ill patients. Although there are several studies confirming this thesis, the "obesity paradox" is still surprising from the clinician's perspective. One explanation for the "obesity paradox" is the fact that the body mass index (BMI), which is used in almost all clinical evaluations to determine weight categories, is not an appropriate measure of fat and skeletal muscle mass and its distribution in critically ill patients. In addition, height and weight are frequently estimated rather than measured. Central obesity has been identified in many disorders as an independent risk factor for an unfavourable outcome. The first clues are to be found in intensive care. Along with obesity, an individual's entire muscle mass is a variable that has an influence on outcome. Central obesity can be measured relatively easily with an abdominal calliper, but the calculation of muscle mass is more complex. A valid and detailed measurement of this can be obtained using computed tomography (CT) images, acquired during routine care. For future clinical observation or interventional studies, single cross-sectional CT is a more sophisticated tool for measuring patients' anthropometry than a measuring tape and callipers. Patients with sarcopenic obesity, for example, who may be at a particular risk, can only be identified using imaging procedures such as single cross-sectional CT. Thus, BMI should take a back seat as an anthropometric tool, both in the clinic and in research.
- [A new age of mass casuality education? : The InSitu project: realistic training in virtual reality environments]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 13.
Chief emergency physicians are regarded as an important element in the care of the injured and sick following mass casualty accidents. Their education is very theoretical; practical content in contrast often falls short. Limitations are usually the very high costs of realistic (large-scale) exercises, poor reproducibility of the scenarios, and poor corresponding results.To substantially improve the educational level because of the complexity of mass casualty accidents, modified training concepts are required that teach the not only the theoretical but above all the practical skills considerably more intensively than at present. Modern training concepts should make it possible for the learner to realistically simulate decision processes. This article examines how interactive virtual environments are applicable for the education of emergency personnel and how they could be designed.Virtual simulation and training environments offer the possibility of simulating complex situations in an adequately realistic manner. The so-called virtual reality (VR) used in this context is an interface technology that enables free interaction in addition to a stereoscopic and spatial representation of virtual large-scale emergencies in a virtual environment. Variables in scenarios such as the weather, the number wounded, and the availability of resources, can be changed at any time. The trainees are able to practice the procedures in many virtual accident scenes and act them out repeatedly, thereby testing the different variants.With the aid of the "InSitu" project, it is possible to train in a virtual reality with realistically reproduced accident situations. These integrated, interactive training environments can depict very complex situations on a scale of 1:1. Because of the highly developed interactivity, the trainees can feel as if they are a direct part of the accident scene and therefore identify much more with the virtual world than is possible with desktop systems.Interactive, identifiable, and realistic training environments based on projector systems could in future enable a repetitive exercise with changes within a decision tree, in reproducibility, and within different occupational groups. With a hard- and software environment numerous accident situations can be depicted and practiced. The main expense is the creation of the virtual accident scenes. As the appropriate city models and other three-dimensional geographical data are already available, this expenditure is very low compared with the planning costs of a large-scale exercise.
- [Perioperative ventilation: naturally lung-protective!] [EDITORIAL]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 13.
- [Aggression and subjective risk in emergency medicine : A survey]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 8.
Healthcare personnel may be faced with different degrees of violence and aggression, particularly concerning preclinical care. However, systematic data with respect to the frequency and type of violence in emergency medicine in Germany has not been researched.At an anesthesiology congress, an anonymous survey was distributed about the different kinds and extent of violent acts that the participants had experienced during their work in emergency medicine. Moreover, the participants' subjective feelings toward professional and personal safety when handling emergency cases were explored.Every fourth participant in the survey (25.2 %) had experienced occupational physical violence within the last 12 months. Verbal harassment or insults within the last twelve months were reported by 58.2 % of the participants. While 80 % of the participants feel "entirely" or "mostly" safe with regard to the professional aspect of their occupation, personal safety was considered "entirely" in only 9.3 % and "mostly" in 46.4 % of the cases. Nearly every third participant (31.8 %) feels only "partially" safe and every eighth participant feels "rather not" or "not at all" safe during emergency medicine missions. Men appreciate their expertise as well as their personal safety more so than women (p < 0.001).Aggression and violence towards healthcare personnel in emergency medicine occur on a regular basis in the German healthcare system. Little research has been conducted in this area, so the issue has not yet been perceived as a relevant problem. Appropriate training for healthcare personnel in emergency medicine should be targeted at developing the skills needed when encountered with aggression and occupational violence.
- [Does intraoperative lung-protective ventilation reduce postoperative pulmonary complications?] [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 8.
Recent studies show that intraoperative protective ventilation is able to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC).This article provides an overview of the definition and ways to predict PPC. We present different factors that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury and explain the concepts of stress and strain as well as driving pressure. Different strategies of mechanical ventilation to avoid PPC are discussed in light of clinical evidence.The Medline database was used to selectively search for randomized controlled trials dealing with intraoperative mechanical ventilation and outcomes.Low tidal volumes (VT) and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), combined with recruitment maneuvers, are able to prevent PPC. Non-obese patients undergoing open abdominal surgery show better lung function with the use of higher PEEP levels and recruitment maneuvers, however such strategy can lead to hemodynamic impairment, while not reducing the incidence of PPC, hospital length of stay and mortality. An increase in the level of PEEP that results in an increase in driving pressure is associated with a greater risk of PPC.The use of intraoperative VT ranging from 6 to 8 ml/kg based on ideal body weight is strongly recommended. Currently, a recommendation regarding the level of PEEP during surgery is not possible. However, a PEEP increase that leads to a rise in driving pressure should be avoided.
- [Perioperative coagulation management during ascending aorta replacement on apixaban]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 5.
The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) present a valid therapeutic alternative to vitamin K antagonists in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism, and for the treatment and prevention of the recurrence of pulmonary embolisms and deep vein thrombosis. Despite Idarucizumab as an antagonist of Dabigatran there are no other specific antidotes available yet. Therefore, perioperative coagulation management by DOACs is challenging in patients undergoing emergency surgical procedures with a high risk of bleeding complications. This case study describes the perioperative procedure during ascending aorta replacement after aortic dissection with apixaban administration.
- [Performance development of a university operating room after implementation of a central operating room management]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 5.
The difficult financial situation in German hospitals requires measures for improvement in process quality. Associated increases in revenues in the high income field "operating room (OR) area" are increasingly the responsibility of OR management but it has not been shown that the introduction of an efficiency-oriented management leads to an increase in process quality and revenues in the operating theatre. Therefore the performance in the operating theatre of the University Medical Center Göttingen was analyzed for working days in the core operating time from 7.45 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. from 2009 to 2014. The achievement of process target times for the morning surgery start time and the turnover times of anesthesia and OR-nurses were calculated as indicators of process quality. The number of operations and cumulative incision-suture time were also analyzed as aggregated performance indicators. In order to assess the development of revenues in the operating theatre, the revenues from diagnosis-related groups (DRG) in all inpatient and occupational accident cases, adjusted for the regional basic case value from 2009, were calculated for each year. The development of revenues was also analyzed after deduction of revenues resulting from altered economic case weighting. It could be shown that the achievement of process target values for the morning surgery start time could be improved by 40 %, the turnover times for anesthesia reduced by 50 % and for the OR-nurses by 36 %. Together with the introduction of central planning for reallocation, an increase in operation numbers of 21 % and cumulative incision-suture times of 12% could be realized. Due to these additional operations the DRG revenues in 2014 could be increased to 132 % compared to 2009 or 127 % if the revenues caused by economic case weighting were excluded. The personnel complement in anesthesia (-1.7 %) and OR-nurses (+2.6 %) as well as anesthetists (+6.7 %) increased less compared to the revenues or were slightly reduced. This improvement in process quality and cumulative incision-suture times as well as the increase in revenues, reflect the positive impact of an efficiency-oriented central OR management. The OR management releases due to measures of process optimization the necessary personnel and time resources and therefore achieves the basic prerequisites for increased revenues of surgical disciplines. The method presented can be used by other hospitals as a guideline to analyze performance development.
- Randomized crossover study assessing oropharyngeal leak pressure and fiber optic positioning : Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ versus Laryngeal Tube LTS II™ size 2 in non-paralyzed anesthetized children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 5.
As there are currently no data available comparing the practicability of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Supreme™ size 2 versus the laryngeal tube LTS II™ size 2 in children, this trial was conducted to quantify the differences between these two airway devices concerning leak pressure and fiber optic-controlled positioning in non-paralyzed, anesthetized pediatric patients.A total of 56 children aged 1-6 years and weighing between 11 and 23 kg were enrolled in the study. Anesthesia was intravenously induced according to local standards using fentanyl and propofol. After induction of anesthesia both airway devices were inserted consecutively in accordance with the randomization protocol.The mean oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for the LTS II™ (33±8 cmH2O) than for the LMA Supreme™ (21±7 cmH2O, p < 0.0001). Fiber optic position monitoring was better when the LMA Supreme™ was used (p < 0.001). The first attempt success rates for insertion (55Supreme LMA vs. 43LTSII, p < 0.001), the insertion time (25 s Supreme LMA vs. 34 s LTSII, p < 0.04) and the frequency of bloodstaining (0Supreme LMA vs 4LTSII, p < 0.04) for the initially used device were better for the LMA Supreme™ than the laryngeal tube LTS II™.We conclude that oropharyngeal leak pressure, fiber optic position, first attempt insertion success rate and bloodstaining differed between the LMA Supreme™ and the LTS II™ in children.
- [Intern(euron)al affairs : The role of specific neocortical interneuron classes in the interaction between acetylcholine and GABAergic anesthetics]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]
- Anaesthesist 2016 Jul 5.
Acetylcholine is a neuromodulator which is released throughout the central nervous system and plays an essential role in consciousness and cognitive processes including attention and learning. Due to its 'activating' effect on the neuronal and behavioral level its interaction with anesthetics has long been of interest to anesthesiologists. It is widely held that a reduction of the release of acetylcholine by general anesthetics constitutes part of the anesthetic effect. This notion is backed by numerous human and animal studies, but is also in seeming contradiction to findings that acetylcholine activates specific classes of inhibitory neurons: if acetylcholine excites elements within the neuronal network responsible for the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), its withdrawal should diminish, not enhance, the effect of anesthetics.Focusing on cortical circuits, we present an overview of recent advances in cellular neurophysiology, particularly the interactions between inhibitory neuron classes, which provide insights on the interaction between acetylcholine and GABA.