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Der Anaesthesist [journal]
- [From fishing trip to the critical care unit : Successful resuscitation after a near drowning accident.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 18.
In the context of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines, modifications of the proposed treatment algorithm need to be performed in order to respond to different parameters. In this respect several factors interacting with cardiac arrest are essential and need to be included in the therapy. This case report demonstrates an example of resuscitation in the situation of hypothermia.After a near drowning accident and approximately 30 min underwater, a patient suffering from severe hypothermia initially required resuscitation after the rescue. A return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was successfully achieved within a short length of time and after 15 days on the intensive care unit the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation facility without any signs of focal neurological deficits.Section 8 of the ERC guidelines provides additional information for resuscitation under specific conditions. In this case report, hypothermia was one of the main criteria leading to an adjusted pharmacological therapy. Furthermore, selection of the appropriate hospital for an optimal advanced treatment including controlled warming of the patient and management of hypothermia-induced complications had to be evaluated.
- [Spectrum of missions for a rescue helicopter : Changes in a south German urban area over the last 25 years.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 18.
Over the past decade the number of air rescue missions has increased continuously. The reasons for this are still discussed at great length. In addition to the demographic changes to becoming an increasingly older and sicker society, the political reform in the healthcare system with a simultaneous reduction and concentration of hospitals and formation of centers is also under discussion.The key questions to be answered are, therefore, can the increasing demands on the emergency physician really be explained by an increasing number of severely ill and injured patients? Is a proportion of the missions really not indicated because they do not involve immediately life-threatening "acute medical" emergencies and are caused by a lack of alternative paramedical service infrastructures, unavailability of a general practitioner or the only temporary availability of medical on-call standby services?This study therefore analyzed the alterations of a possible change with respect to the spectrum of missions and the utilization of air rescue services in the metropolitan area of Stuttgart. All primary missions of the rescue helicopter (RTH) "Christoph 41" (based in Leonberg) from 2006 to 2011 were included in the study and compared to the data from 1987 to 1992.The indications for missions and the spectrum of patients for the RTH Christoph 41 have changed over the last 25 years. The proportion of emergency trauma cases has significantly decreased and missions for non-trauma cases have increased. The proportion of patients with life-threatening conditions has increased. Despite the change in the spectrum of missions, emergency physicians are confronted with a greater number of patients with life-threatening conditions than 25 years ago. The patients treated were on average clearly older than the patients who were treated by the air rescue service 25 years ago.The changes in the spectrum of missions up to more emergencies involving non-trauma patients and older patients must be taken into consideration during training and advanced training.
- [Differences of analgesic efficacy and complication rates between ultrasound and nervestimulator guided peripheral nerve catheters : Database analysis on patient-relevant target parameters.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 18.
Peripheral nerve catheters (PNC) play an important role in postoperative pain treatment following major extremity surgery. There are several trials reported in the literature which investigated the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US) and nerve stimulator (NS) guided PNC placement; however, most of these trials were only small and focused mainly on anesthesiologist-related indicators of block success (e.g. block onset time and procedure time) but not primarily on patient-related outcome data including postoperative pain during movement.This retrospective analysis compared the analgesic efficacy and safety of US versus NS guided peripheral nerve catheters (PNC) for postoperative pain therapy in a large cohort of patients.Data of patients (June 2006-December 2010) treated with US (nus = 368 June 2008-December 2010) and NS (nns = 574, June 2006-May 2008) guided PNC were systematically analyzed. Apart from demographic data, postoperative pain scores [numeric rating scale (NRS): 0-10] on each treatment day, the number of patients with need for additional opioids, cumulative local anesthetic consumption and catheter-related complications were compared.On the day of surgery patients treated with US-guided PNC reported lower NRS at rest (p = 0.034) and during movement (p < 0.001). Additionally, the number of patients requiring additional opioids on the day of surgery was lower in the US group (absolute difference 12.4 %, p = 0.001). Furthermore, the number of multiple puncture attempts (absolute difference 5.6 %, p < 0.001) and failed catheter placements (absolute difference 3.4 %, p = 0.06) were lower in the US group. There were no patients in both groups with long-lasting neurological impairment.This database analysis demonstrated that patients treated with US-guided PNC reported significantly lower postoperative pain scores and the number of patients requiring additional opioids was significantly lower on the day of surgery. The numbers of multiple punctures and failed catheter placements were reduced in the US group, which might be seen as an advantage of US-guided regional anaesthesia.
- [Interdisciplinary management of trauma patients : Update 3 years after implementation of the S3 guidelines on treatment of patients with severe and multiple injuries.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 18.
The recommendations still have to be implemented 3 years after publication of the S3 guidelines on the treatment of patients with severe and multiple injuries.This article reiterates some of the essential core statements of the S3 guidelines and also gives an overview of new scientific studies.In a selective literature search new studies on airway management, traumatic cardiac arrest, shock classification, coagulation therapy, whole-body computed tomography, air rescue and trauma centers were identified and are discussed in the light of the S3 guideline recommendations.The recommendations on airway management are up to date; however, recommendations on difficult airway evaluation tools, e.g. the LEMON law, should be included. The first pass success (i.e. intubation success at the first attempt) must be considered as a quality marker in the future. Video laryngoscopy is identified as a leading airway procedure in order to reach this aim. Recently estimated learning curves for endotracheal intubation and supraglottic airway devices should be implemented in qualification statements. Life-saving emergency interventions have to be performed in the prehospital setting as they do not prolong the complete treatment period for severely injured patients up to discharge from the resuscitation room. The outcome of patients suffering from traumatic cardiac arrest is better than expected. Recently developed algorithms for trauma patients have to be implemented. The prehospital trauma life support (PHTLS) and advanced trauma life support (ATLS) shock classification does not reflect the clinical reality; therefore, lactate, lactate clearance and base deficit should be used for evaluating the shock state in the resuscitation room. Concerning coagulation therapy, tranexamic acid is easy to administer, safe and effective as an antifibrinolytic therapy and should not be restricted to the most severely injured patients. Numerous studies have shown the positive effect of whole-body computed tomography on treatment time and outcome; however, clear indications for the use of whole-body computed tomography are lacking. Further investigations supported the positive effects of air rescue on the treatment outcome of trauma patients.The recommendations on interdisciplinary trauma management contained in the S3 guidelines on the treatment of patients with severe and multiple injuries should be implemented into the clinical routine. Additionally, the knowledge gained from more recent scientific studies is necessary for anesthetists and emergency physicians to be able to adequately implement the core statements of the S3 guidelines for the treatment of patients with severe and multiple injuries.
- [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 13.
Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be very dark to allow endogenous melatonin secretion, which is a night signal and supports continuous sleep. Sleep disorders can be treated with timed light exposure, as well as behavioral and environmental strategies to compensate for sleep deprivation. Fatigue due to sleep deprivation can only be systematically treated with sleep.
- [Fluid resuscitation in hemorrhage.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 11.
How fluid resuscitation has to be performed for acute hemorrhage situations is still controversially discussed. Although the forced administration of crystalloids and colloids has been and still is practiced, nowadays there are good arguments that a cautious infusion of crystalloids may be initially sufficient. Saline should no longer be used for fluid resuscitation. The main argument for cautious fluid resuscitation is that no large prospective randomized clinical trials exist which have provided evidence of improved survival when fluid resuscitation is applied in an aggressive manner. The explanation that no positive effect has so far been observed is that fluid resuscitation is thought to boost bleeding by increasing blood pressure and dilutional coagulopathy. Nevertheless, national and international guidelines recommend that fluid resuscitation should be applied at the latest when hemorrhage causes hemodynamic instability. Consideration should be given to the fact that damage control resuscitation per se will neither improve already reduced tissue perfusion nor hemostasis. In acute and possibly rapidly progressing hypovolemic shock, colloids can be used. The third and fourth generations of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) are safe and effective if used correctly and within prescribed limits. If fluid resuscitation is applied with ongoing re-evaluation of the parameters which determine oxygen supply, it should be possible to keep fluid resuscitation restricted without causing undesirable side effects and also to administer a sufficient quantity so that survival of patients is ensured.
- [Cost minimization analysis in postoperative pain management : Economic efficiency and effectiveness of two infusion pump systems.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 6.
Besides reliable efficacy and patient satisfaction, economic efficiency is becoming increasingly more important in postoperative pain management.The present study investigated the effectiveness of two pain pump systems and compared the running costs in treatment.In this study 40 patients received an interscalene catheter prior to shoulder surgery. Postoperative pain management was provided via an electronic pump with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or a mechanical pump without PCA. Patients kept a pain log. After treatment they were interviewed about their satisfaction with the pump. In addition drug consumption, nursing material, staff time for handling and maintenance of the pumps and preparation of medications pro re nata were assessed.Postoperative pain levels and patient satisfaction were comparable in both groups. Economically, the electronic pump was more cost-effective than the electronic model for a duration of treatment of 1 and 2 days. With treatment duration of 3 days the costs of both pumps were equivalent; however, the PCA feature of the electronic pump allowed a reduced intake of systemic analgesics on demand.Both pain pump systems provide equally effective pain management, while the electronic model caused less costs. Both pumps offer advantages and disadvantages that should be considered based on local circumstantial demands.
- [Monitoring liver function.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 5.
- [Ernst von der Porten : Looking for facts before and after forced emigration.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Sep 5.
The Ernst von der Porten medal has been awarded for many years to exceptional personalities by the Alliance of German Anesthesiologists to honor the outstanding achievements of the physician Ernst von der Porten from Hamburg in the development of anesthesiology as an autonomous discipline Only recent access to hitherto inaccessible documents enabled the reconstruction of his final years. He was persecuted and excluded by the National Socialist (NS) regime due to his Jewish roots and finally forced to emigrate. Records revealed that even in the so-called safe exile, degrading treatment and humiliation continued for Ernst von der Porten and his family. He eventually evaded this situation by committing suicide.
- [Catheter complications in persistent left superior vena cava.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesist 2014 Aug 29.