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Dermatologic therapy [journal]
- Diffuse cutaneous bullous mastocytosis in a newborn. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):176-9.
Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis is the rarest subtype of mastocytosis among those that affect children. A 7-month-old girl presented at birth dry and thickened skin. On the second day of life, tense blisters appeared on erythrodermic areas and during the next days spread over the face, trunk, and limbs. The skin was bright red, had a "peau d'orange" appearance, and was considerably thickened with numerous translucent and hemorrhagic blisters. A skin biopsy revealed massive infiltration of the dermis with mast cells, leading to the diagnosis of diffuse erythrodermic mastocytosis. Systemic corticosteroids were given along with antihistamines with good results. Despite the progresses in the understanding of pathogenesis, genetics, and diagnostic criteria of mastocytosis, clear and reliable prognostic markers are still lacking, especially in order to predict systemic involvement. not only in diffuse but also in the commoner forms of the disease.
- Pruritic papular eruption in HIV: a case successfully treated with NB-UVB. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):173-5.
Pruritic papular eruption (PPE) is a skin disease characterized by the eruption of itching papules on the extremities, face, and trunk; it is quite frequent in HIV-positive patients especially during the advanced immunosuppressive stage. PPE usually improves or heals when antiretroviral therapy restores the immune system function, but in some cases, it can take several months, and a symptomatic treatment for PPE is required. Systemic antihistamines, topical steroids, topical tacrolimus, itraconazole, pentoxyphilline, and ultraviolet B phototherapy have been proposed in cases of persisting PPE, but an elective treatment has not yet been found. We describe the case of a black patient affected by PPE, nonimproving with antiretroviral treatment, and resistant to topical steroids and oral antihistamines; a satisfactory and speedy result was achieved with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy.
- Methyl - aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy and topical tretinoin in a patient with vulvar extramammary Paget's disease. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):170-2.
Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare neoplasm of apocrine gland-bearing areas of the skin. The most common site of presentation is the vulva. Surgery is the most frequently reported therapy so far; however, it is invasive and it is complicated by a high rate of recurrence. For this reason, several less-invasive treatments have been recently proposed, including photodynamic therapy. We describe in this article the case of an 84-year-old patient with a noninvasive vulvar extramammary Paget's disease successfully treated with methyl-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy associated with topical tretinoin.
- Simple, easy, and still effective treatment option in severe rhinophyma: shave and paste. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):168-9.
A 74-year-old man suffering from severe rhinophyma with breathing difficulty and depression seeking for help presented to our clinic. The cauliflower-like mass was full thickness excised and a full thickness skin graft from right inguinal region was applied. An exceptionally treatment and satisfactory cosmetic result was obtained in single stage.
- Female-specific pruritus from childhood to postmenopause: clinical features, hormonal factors, and treatment considerations. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):157-67.
There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus in recent years. The purpose of this review was to highlight itch entities in women, and in particular pruritic vulvar dermatoses that women experience among different age groups. Unique temporal shifts may contribute to the etiology of many of these conditions. These changes lead to cyclical changes in the skin's basic composition. Specifically, estrogen receptors have been detected on keratinocytes that respond to rising and falling levels of estrogen. These receptors lead to changes in skin hydration, collagen content, and in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans that form the skin barrier. In addition, hormonal pH changes associated with the menstrual cycle may be an important factor in the aggravation of itch as increasing pH is known to activate the proteinase-activated receptor-2, a well-known itch mediator. Common pruritic conditions in women that will be discussed include atopic and irritant dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, infectious vulvovaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, atrophic vulvovaginitis, squamous cell carcinoma, lichen simplex chronicus, and neuropathic itch. We also examine pruritic conditions associated with pregnancy including pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and atopic eruption of pregnancy. Finally, acceptable and contraindicated antipruritic agents in pregnancy are examined.
- Complementary integrative approach for treating pruritus. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):149-56.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat pruritus for both patients and medical providers. CAM includes natural products, mind-body medicine, and manipulative and body-based practices. In this overview, we summarize current evidence, possible mechanisms and clinical approaches for treating pruritus with CAM techniques. We focus on pruritus associated with atopic dermatitis, herpes zoster, chronic urticaria, burns, and postoperative contexts where the evidence for CAM approaches is promising.
- Pruritus to anticancer agents targeting the EGFR, BRAF, and CTLA-4. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):135-48.
In the past decade, the expanded use of targeted anticancer drugs has significantly prolonged survival in patients treated for a variety of cancers. Despite their increased specificity, agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs), BRAF inhibitors, and targeted immunotherapies have commonly been associated with a number of dermatologic adverse events, often necessitating treatment modifications and negatively impacting patients' quality of life. Although toxicities such as rash and xerosis are frequently discussed, symptomatic pruritus, or itch, has emerged as an important, and frequently neglected, event. The present study reviews the incidence and clinical presentation of pruritus with the EFGRIs, and with two novel anti-melanoma drugs, vemurafenib and ipilimumab, with a focus on the putative underlying pathophysiology, and current management strategies.
- Practical guidelines for the use of steroid-sparing agents in the treatment of chronic pruritus. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):120-34.
Chronic pruritus in the adult patient is both an underappreciated and a difficult to treat condition. In the vast majority of cases, itch is the result of inflammatory skin disease and therefore may be responsive to systemic anti-inflammatory therapies. Urticarial dermatitis is an under-recognized cause of chronic itch in the adult population. Patients with this disorder are characterized by prolonged, prednisone-responsive pruritus, often in the absence of substantial cutaneous findings. Skin findings, when present, can range from subtle, persistent urticarial lesions to excoriated papules, often intermixed with urticaria, eczematous change, and lichenification secondary to chronic scratching. Hereby, we describe our algorithm for evaluation and management of adult patients with refractory pruritus (urticarial dermatitis in particular), including evaluation for other etiologies of pruritus, pre-immunosuppression workup, and the use of azathioprine and other steroid-sparing agents for treatment of recalcitrant itch.
- The effects of treatment on itch in atopic dermatitis. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):110-9.
Pruritus causes significant impairment in the quality of life of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Treatments for itch in atopic dermatitis range from simple avoidance of pruritus triggers to more complicated systemic therapy. Several treatments aim to target specific mediators of itch in atopic dermatitis, whereas others improve pruritus by reducing inflammation. Currently the most effective treatments for atopic dermatitis-associated itch are primarily topical or systemic anti-inflammatory agents. Better management of pruritus in atopic dermatitis is an important goal and necessitates the development of novel targeted treatments as well as efficient use of current therapies.
- Neuropathic itch: diagnosis and management. [Journal Article]
- Dermatol Ther 2013 Mar-Apr; 26(2):104-9.
Chronic pruritus (CP) is a frequent symptom in the general population; in 8% of all patients, it has a neuropathic origin. CP is of neuropathic origin when nerve fiber damage is responsible for the symptom. The damage can be caused by compression or degeneration of the nerve fibers in the skin or extracutaneous in peripheral nerves or the central nervous system. There are significant differences in the pathogenesis and in the clinical presentation of neuropathic CP. Localized neuropathic CP such as brachioradial pruritus or notalgia paresthetica are due to a circumscribed nerve compression and are often limited on the corresponding dermatome. In contrast, generalized neuropathic CP, as in small fiber neuropathies, may be associated with a systemic or metabolic underlying disease. It is not always easy to establish the diagnosis because a variety of diseases can be responsible for this type of CP. The present study shows an overview of possible diseases, diagnostic tools, and the relevant therapy strategies.