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Developmental Cell [journal]
- MT1-MMP-Dependent Control of Skeletal Stem Cell Commitment via a β1-Integrin/YAP/TAZ Signaling Axis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 14.
In vitro, topographical and biophysical cues arising from the extracellular matrix (ECM) direct skeletal stem cell (SSC) commitment and differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which the SSC-ECM interface is regulated and the outcome of such interactions on stem cell fate in vivo remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that conditional deletion of the membrane-anchored metalloproteinase MT1-MMP (Mmp14) in mesenchymal progenitors, but not in committed osteoblasts, redirects SSC fate decisions from osteogenesis to adipo- and chondrogenesis. By effecting ECM remodeling, MT1-MMP regulates stem cell shape, thereby activating a β1-integrin/RhoGTPase signaling cascade and triggering the nuclear localization of the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ, which serve to control SSC lineage commitment. These data identify a critical MT1-MMP/integrin/YAP/TAZ axis operative in the stem cell niche that oversees SSC fate determination.
- Tissue Repair through Cell Competition and Compensatory Cellular Hypertrophy in Postmitotic Epithelia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 14.
In multicellular organisms, tissue integrity and organ size are maintained through removal of aberrant or damaged cells and compensatory proliferation. Little is known, however, about this homeostasis system in postmitotic tissues, where tissue-intrinsic genetic programs constrain cell division and new cells no longer arise from stem cells. Here we show that, in postmitotic Drosophila follicular epithelia, aberrant but viable cells are eliminated through cell competition, and the resulting loss of local tissue volume triggers sporadic cellular hypertrophy to repair the tissue. This "compensatory cellular hypertrophy" is implemented by acceleration of the endocycle, a variant cell cycle composed of DNA synthesis and gap phases without mitosis, dependent on activation of the insulin/IGF-like signaling pathway. These results reveal a remarkable homeostatic mechanism in postmitotic epithelia that ensures not only elimination of aberrant cells through cell competition but also proper organ-size control that involves compensatory cellular hypertrophy induced by physical parameters.
- Independent control by each female gamete prevents the attraction of multiple pollen tubes. [Journal Article]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 13; 25(3):317-23.
In flowering plants, double fertilization is normally accomplished by the first pollen tube, with the fertilized ovule subsequently inhibiting the attraction of a second pollen tube. However, the mechanism of second-pollen-tube avoidance remains unknown. We discovered that failure to fertilize either the egg cell or the central cell compromised second-pollen-tube avoidance in Arabidopsis thaliana. A similar disturbance was caused by disrupting the fertilization-independent seed (FIS) class polycomb-repressive complex 2 (FIS-PRC2), a central cell- and endosperm-specific chromatin-modifying complex for gene silencing. Therefore, the two female gametes have evolved their own signaling pathways. Intriguingly, second-pollen-tube attraction induced by half-successful fertilization allowed the ovules to complete double fertilization, producing a genetically distinct embryo and endosperm. We thus propose that each female gamete independently determines second-pollen-tube avoidance to maximize reproductive fitness in flowering plants.
- Ethylene signaling is required for synergid degeneration and the establishment of a pollen tube block. [Journal Article]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 13; 25(3):310-6.
In flowering plants, sperm cells are delivered by pollen tubes, which are attracted by two egg-cell-adjoining synergids. Successful fertilization terminates pollen tube attraction; however, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Here, we show that the process of fertilization activates an EIN3- and EIN2-dependent ethylene-response cascade necessary for synergid cell death and the concomitant establishment of a pollen tube block. Microinjection of the ethylene precursor ACC into the female gametophyte or constitutive ethylene response results in premature synergid disintegration. This indicates that the requirement of fertilization for synergid degeneration and associated establishment of a pollen tube block can be bypassed by mimicking a postfertilization ethylene burst. Surprisingly, the persistent synergid in ethylene-hyposensitive plants adopts the molecular profile and cell-cycle regime of the biparental embryo-nourishing tissue, suggesting that ethylene signaling prevents the formation of an asexual maternal endosperm fraction.
- Direct Binding of SAS-6 to ZYG-1 Recruits SAS-6 to the Mother Centriole for Cartwheel Assembly. [Journal Article]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 13; 25(3):284-98.
Assembly of SAS-6 dimers to form the centriolar cartwheel requires the ZYG-1/Plk4 kinase. Here, we show that ZYG-1 recruits SAS-6 to the mother centriole independently of its kinase activity; kinase activity is subsequently required for cartwheel assembly. We identify a direct interaction between ZYG-1 and the SAS-6 coiled coil that explains its kinase activity-independent function in SAS-6 recruitment. Perturbing this interaction, or the interaction between an adjacent segment of the SAS-6 coiled coil and SAS-5, prevented SAS-6 recruitment and cartwheel assembly. SAS-6 mutants with alanine substitutions in a previously described ZYG-1 target site or in 37 other residues, either phosphorylated by ZYG-1 in vitro or conserved in closely related nematodes, all supported cartwheel assembly. We propose that ZYG-1 binding to the SAS-6 coiled coil recruits the SAS-6-SAS-5 complex to the mother centriole, where a ZYG-1 kinase activity-dependent step, whose target is unlikely to be SAS-6, triggers cartwheel assembly.
- Spatially dependent dynamic MAPK modulation by the nde1-lis1-brap complex patterns Mammalian CNS. [Journal Article]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 13; 25(3):241-55.
Regulating cell proliferation and differentiation in CNS development requires both extraordinary complexity and precision. Neural progenitors receive graded overlapping signals from midline signaling centers, yet each makes a unique cell fate decision in a spatiotemporally restricted pattern. The Nde1-Lis1 complex regulates individualized cell fate decisions based on the geographical location with respect to the midline. While cells distant from the midline fail to self-renew in the Nde1-Lis1 double-mutant CNS, cells embedded in the signaling centers showed marked overproliferation. A direct interaction between Lis1 and Brap, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling threshold modulator, mediates this differential response to mitogenic signal gradients. Nde1-Lis1 deficiency resulted in a spatially dependent alteration of MAPK scaffold Ksr and hyperactivation of MAPK. Epistasis analyses supported synergistic Brap and Lis1 functions. These results suggest that a molecular complex composed of Nde1, Lis1, and Brap regulates the dynamic MAPK signaling threshold in a spatially dependent fashion.
- The TIKI/TraB/PrgY Family: A Common Protease Fold for Cell Signaling from Bacteria to Metazoa? [Journal Article]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 13; 25(3):225-7.
We report that the metazoan Wnt protease and signaling inhibitor TIKI shares sequence homology with bacterial TraB/PrgY proteins, inhibitors of pheromone signaling essential for propagation of antibiotic resistance. Our analysis suggests that these proteins represent an ancient metalloprotease clan regulating cellular communications across biological kingdoms.
- When two plus two should equal two. [Journal Article]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 13; 25(3):222-4.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is a masterpiece of cell-to-cell communication involving a unique double fertilization process and an intricate sperm delivery system. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Maruyama et al. (2013) and Völz et al. (2013) shed light on an elaborated system that coordinates sperm delivery with fertilization status.
- Scaling the MAPK Signaling Threshold during CNS Patterning. [Journal Article]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 13; 25(3):221-2.
Morphogenic gradients originating from signaling centers along the CNS developmental axes contribute to CNS patterning. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Lanctot et al. (2013) show that the Nde1-Lis1 complex interacts with Brap, a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway negative regulator, to facilitate position-dependent modulation of neural progenitor fate and CNS patterning.
- Viral Infection Controlled by a Calcium-Dependent Lipid-Binding Module in ALIX. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dev Cell 2013 May 7.
ALIX plays a role in nucleocapsid release during viral infection, as does lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that LBPA is recognized within an exposed site in ALIX Bro1 domain predicted by MODA, an algorithm for discovering membrane-docking areas in proteins. LBPA interactions revealed a strict requirement for a structural calcium tightly bound near the lipid interaction site. Unlike other calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins, the all-helical triangle-shaped fold of the Bro1 domain confers selectivity for LBPA via a pair of hydrophobic residues in a flexible loop, which undergoes a conformational change upon membrane association. Both LBPA and calcium binding are necessary for endosome association and virus infection, as are ALIX ESCRT binding and dimerization capacity. We conclude that LBPA recruits ALIX onto late endosomes via the calcium-bound Bro1 domain, triggering a conformational change in ALIX to mediate the delivery of viral nucleocapsids to the cytosol during infection.