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Dig Liver Dis [journal]
- Position paper of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF): The multidisciplinary clinical approach to hepatocellular carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 Feb 23.
Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach framed in a network where all the diagnostic techniques and therapeutic resources are available in order to provide the optimal level of care. Given this assumption, the Coordinating Committee of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver nominated a panel of experts to elaborate practical recommendations for the multidisciplinary management of hepatocellular carcinoma aiming to provide: (1) homogeneous and efficacious diagnostic and staging work-up, and (2) the best treatment choice tailored to patient status and tumour stage at diagnosis. The 2010 updated American Association for the Study of Liver Disease Guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma were selected as the reference document. For each management issue, the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease recommendations were briefly summarised and discussed, according to both the scientific evidence published after their release and the clinical expertise of the Italian centres taking care of these patients. The Italian Association for the Study of the Liver expert panel recommendations are finally reported.
- A low-volume polyethylene glycol plus ascorbate solution for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy: The NORMO randomised clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 Jun 13.
BACKGROUND:Patient acceptability of the preparation is a key factor in the success of colonoscopy, yet standard polyethylene glycol solutions are poorly tolerated owing to their high volume (4L) and low palatability. This study compared the efficacy, safety and acceptability of a 2L polyethylene glycol+ascorbate solution with a standard 4-L polyethylene glycol solution.
METHODS:Adults referred for colonoscopy were randomised to 2-L polyethylene glycol+ascorbate (n=202) or 4-L polyethylene glycol solution (n=198). Colon cleansing success was assessed using the Harefield Cleansing Scale(©) and the Aronchick scale. Safety and acceptability were also assessed.
RESULTS:Successful cleansing was achieved in 94.1% and 90.9% of subjects with the 2-L and 4-L solutions respectively using the Harefield Cleansing Scale(©) and 94.6% and 90.0% using the Aronchick scale (non significant). Despite better acceptability and tolerability, no superiority over the standard 4-L preparation was demonstrated. Fewer treatment-related adverse events were reported with the 2-L solution (80.2% versus 89.9%, p=0.011). More subjects were willing to take the 2L PEG+ascorbate solution again (87% versus 51%, p<0.001), found it easier to drink (80% versus 70%, p=0.025), with a better taste (p=0.01).
CONCLUSIONS:Two-litre polyethylene glycol+ascorbate solution, with a similar high degree of cleansing and superior acceptability and tolerability, presents an alternative to 4-L polyethylene glycol when compliance is an issue.
- Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms: Think mitochondrial disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 Jun 12.
Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic. We describe the clinical, histopathological and genetic findings of six patients from three families with gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial disease. In two of the patients, anorexia nervosa was considered as an initial diagnosis. These cases illustrate the challenges of both diagnosing and managing mitochondrial disease and highlight two important but poorly understood aspects, the clinical and the genetic. The pathophysiology of gastrointestinal involvement in mitochondrial disease is discussed and emerging treatments are described. Finally, we provide a checklist of investigations for the gastroenterologist when mitochondrial disease is suspected.
- Low prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with gastroparesis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 Jun 11.
BACKGROUND:The histopathology of the gastric mucosa in patients with gastroparesis, a condition characterized by gastric retention without obstruction, has not been described.
AIM:To test the hypothesis that reactive gastropathy is more common in patients with gastroparesis than in subjects with normal gastric motility.
METHODS:We compared the prevalence of reactive gastropathy, Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of gastroparesis extracted from a national database of subjects with gastric biopsies (1/2008-6/2012).
RESULTS:There were 3040 patients with gastroparesis (median age 58 years, 67.3% women) and 575,895 controls (median age 57 years, 62.0% women) with no evidence of gastroparesis. Reactive gastropathy was marginally more prevalent in patients with gastroparesis (18.9%) than in controls (17.0%). In contrast, H. pylori gastritis was present in 10.8% of controls, but only in 5.9% patients with gastroparesis (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.45-0.61). Intestinal metaplasia was also less common in patients with gastroparesis (2.8% versus 3.9%; OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.58-0.89).
CONCLUSIONS:The low prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastroparesis could be explained by higher rates of previous eradication, conditions unfavourable to the survival of H. pylori, or a protective effect of mucosal inflammation against the development of motility disorders.
- A survey on mortality from non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Is the emergency referral system adequate? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 Jun 5.
BACKGROUND:Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Little information is available on the clinical management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Italy in relation to the current organization of the Italian Emergency Health Services into Level-I and Level-II Emergency Departments (ED), the latter being more complex structures with greater resources.
METHODS:A retrospective survey on clinical, endoscopic, and survival data was conducted by the regional sections of the 3 main Italian gastroenterological societies, AIGO, SIED and SIGE, recording all consecutive episodes of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding referred to 7 centres (4 of which were Level-II Emergency Departments) in Rome, Italy, during a one-year period. A total of 624 consecutive patients (64% males, mean age 67.6±16.2years) were included. Thirty-day mortality was 4.6%. Main factors associated with survival at both univariate and multivariate analysis were the presence of full Rockall score <5 and the admission to a Level-II Emergency Departments (p<0.001). Level-I Emergency Departments admitted patients with a full Rockall score ≥5 (p=0.02) more frequently than patients with negative endoscopic findings (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:Referral of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients to Emergency Departments with more resources (Level-II) is associated with reduced mortality. Yet, unfortunately, high-risk patients were more often admitted to Level-I Emergency Departments, which suggests the need for a better organization of the emergency referral system.
- Diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 May 31.
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms have substantially increased over the last decades. Because of the indolent clinical course of the disease even in advance stages and the rise in the incidental diagnosis of small asymptomatic lesions, the prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms is higher than that of pancreatic, gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinomas, making them the second most prevalent cancer type of the gastrointestinal tract. This increase in the overall prevalence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms has been paralleled by a growth in the importance of the endoscopist in the care of these patients, who usually require a multidisciplinary approach. In this manuscript the diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms will be reviewed.
- Small bowel capsule endoscopy for management of Crohn's disease: Where do we stand? [Journal Article]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 Jul; 45(7):556-7.
- Interaction between calcineurin inhibitors and IL-28B rs12979860 C>T polymorphism and response to treatment for post-transplant recurrent hepatitis C. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 May 27.
BACKGROUND:The impact of calcineurin inhibitors on achievement of sustained virological response to antiviral therapy for post-transplant recurrent hepatitis C is controversial. This study aimed at investigating the interactions between calcineurin inhibitors and interleukin-28B (IL-28B) gene polymorphisms and sustained virological response.
METHODS:Retrospective study of 147 liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C, who received 48 weeks of peg-interferon-α (N=113) or standard interferon (N=34), in association with ribavirin. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus were administered in 68 and 79 patients, respectively. IL-28B rs12979860 allele frequency was assessed in both donors and recipients.
RESULTS:Overall, 57 patients (38.8%) obtained sustained virological response; no difference was found between cyclosporine and tacrolimus-treated patients (42.6% vs. 35.4%, p=0.371). Recipient and donor IL-28B genotypic frequencies were C/C=30.6%, C/T=51.7%, T/T=17.7% and C/C=44.9%, C/T=50.3%, T/T=4.8%, respectively. Combining donor and recipient alleles, response rates decreased from cyclosporine-treated patients carrying ≤1 T allele (56.1%) to tacrolimus-treated patients carrying ≤1 T allele (44.7%) to patients carrying ≥2 T alleles (25.0%, p=0.0009).
CONCLUSIONS:Donor and recipient rs12979860 alleles synergistically influence sustained virological response rate to antiviral treatment for recurrent hepatitis C. In patients carrying <2 T alleles cyclosporine favours a better response than tacrolimus, while no difference was found in the presence of ≥2 T alleles.
- Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy for diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 May 23.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Endoscopical examination is not always sufficient for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal masses. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of gastrointestinal lesions.
METHODS:This retrospective study evaluated 114 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided biopsy of gastrointestinal masses with a 18G needle. Thirty-two of these patients underwent a 22G fine-needle biopsy for cytology. Histology was compared with a composite standard of reference for diagnosis (i.e. post-surgery histological evaluation in 73 cases and computed tomography or magnetic resonance scan findings, together with a compatible clinical follow-up for at least 24 months, in the remaining 41 cases). Safety was assessed by recording side effects for up to 4h after the procedure.
RESULTS:Of the 114 lesions evaluated, 112 were malignant (98.2%) and 2 benign (1.8%). Specimens were adequate for histology in all but one case. Specimens were obtained from the stomach (n=38; 33.3%), small bowel (n=36; 31.6%) and colon (n=40; 35.1%). Diagnosis was correct in 113/114 cases (99.1%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy were 99.1%, 100%, 100%, 66%, and 99%, respectively. One of the 114 patients (0.9%) bled from a gastric GIST.
CONCLUSIONS:Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of gastrointestinal lesions is a valid alternative when diagnosis of a gastrointestinal mass cannot be obtained with an endoscopical procedure.
- Linaclotide for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-The view of European regulators. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2013 May 20.