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Dig Liver Dis [journal]
- Long-term effect of faecal occult blood screening on incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 15.
Several randomized trials have shown a reduction of colorectal cancer mortality by screening using guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests. However, little is known on the long-term effect of screening at the population level in everyday practice.Small-sized geographic areas including a total of 91,199 individuals were allocated to either biennal screening using the Hemoccult-II test or no screening. The expected mortality and incidence in the cohort invited to screening was determined using mortality and incidence in the non-screened population.Colorectal cancer mortality was significantly lower in the population invited to screening than in the non-screened population after 11 screening rounds (standardized mortality ratio: 0.87; 0.80-0.94). The standardized mortality ratio remained significant whatever the duration of follow-up. This reduction in colorectal cancer mortality was more pronounced in those who participated in the first screening campaign, who were regular participants in screening rounds (standardized mortality ratio: 0.67; 0.59-0.76). In contrast, colorectal cancer incidence was not different between the screened and non-screened populations (standardized incidence ratio: 1.01; 0.96-1.06).Our findings confirm, in the long term, that screening with Hemoccult can reduce colorectal cancer mortality. The data also highlight the benefit of regular participation in screening and the absence of effect of screening on colorectal cancer incidence.
- Weight loss outcomes after liver biopsy in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. [LETTER]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 15.
- The efficacy and safety of statins for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. [REVIEW]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 12.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an emerging liver disease in Western countries and the most frequent cause of incidental elevation of serum liver enzymes. Dyslipidaemia is frequently observed in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and treatment of dyslipidaemia plays a critical role in the overall management of these patients. Moreover, coronary artery disease remains the most common cause of death. Statins are effective lipid-lowering agents, associated with a lowering the risk of cardiovascular events in several interventional randomized clinical trials. However, statins are often underused in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and many physicians are concerned about the prescription of statins to patients with unexplained persistent elevation of liver enzymes or active liver disease. Based on currently available data, statin therapy, at low-to-moderate doses, seems to be safe and has low liver toxicity. Treatment of dyslipidaemia in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is recommended and may also improve liver function tests. In these patients, the risks of not taking statins could outweigh the risks of taking the drug. Conversely, the usefulness of statins for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is still a matter of debate and randomized clinical trials of adequate size and duration are required.
- Narrow band imaging combined with water immersion technique in the diagnosis of celiac disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 12.
The "multiple-biopsy" approach both in duodenum and bulb is the best strategy to confirm the diagnosis of celiac disease; however, this increases the invasiveness of the procedure itself and is time-consuming.To evaluate the diagnostic yield of a single biopsy guided by narrow-band imaging combined with water immersion technique in paediatric patients.Prospective assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of narrow-band imaging/water immersion technique-driven biopsy approach versus standard protocol in suspected celiac disease.The experimental approach correctly diagnosed 35/40 children with celiac disease, with an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 87.5% (95% CI: 77.3-97.7). An altered pattern of narrow-band imaging/water immersion technique endoscopic visualization was significantly associated with villous atrophy at guided biopsy (Spearman Rho 0.637, p<0.001). Concordance of narrow-band imaging/water immersion technique endoscopic assessments was high between two operators (K: 0.884). The experimental protocol was highly timesaving compared to the standard protocol.An altered narrow-band imaging/water immersion technique pattern coupled with high anti-transglutaminase antibodies could allow a single guided biopsy to diagnose celiac disease. When no altered mucosal pattern is visible even by narrow-band imaging/water immersion technique, multiple bulbar and duodenal biopsies should be obtained.
- Clinical features and outcomes of patients with drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis: A retrospective cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 12.
Drugs and herbal products can induce autoimmune hepatitis. We assessed frequency and clinical outcomes of patients suffering from drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis.All patients with drug-induced liver injury admitted between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. Diagnoses of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis and idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis were made according to simplified criteria. After discharge, all patients had regular follow-up and were contacted to update outcomes.Among 10,270 in-hospital patients, 136 (1.3%) were diagnosed with drug-induced liver injury. Among them, 12 (8.8%) were diagnosed as drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (41.7% males, age range 17-73); 8 (66.7%) were with jaundice at admission. Liver biopsies showed a pattern compatible with drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis, featured by severe portal inflammation and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis group had a shorter duration of drug intake, and higher values of transaminases and gamma globulins. All patients received immunosuppressive therapy with subsequent clinical remission, and five achieved a steroid-free long-term remission.A diagnosis of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis was quite rare in our cohort, and clinical pattern was similar to idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. Severe portal inflammation, prominent portal-plasma cells, rosette formation and severe focal necrosis were significantly more frequent in drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis as compared to drug-induced liver injury.
- Prospective multi-region study on primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Chinese patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 11.
Large-scale multi-region studies are urgently needed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date information on the antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori that is critical for selecting the most optimal eradication regimens.To determine the resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from dyspeptic patients.This is a prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study. Helicobacter pylori cultures were successful in 600 patients (never receiving eradication therapy) from Northern, Eastern, Middle, and Southern regions between 2008 and 2012. Resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and rifampicin was determined by Epsilometer test.The overall resistance rate was highest for metronidazole (403, 67.2%), followed by clarithromycin (225, 37.5%), levofloxacin (201, 33.5%), rifampicin (85, 14.2%), amoxicillin (41, 6.8%), and tetracycline (21, 3.5%). There were 16.3% isolates susceptible to all tested antibiotics, followed by mono-resistance (34.2%), double resistance (27.0%), triple resistance (16.8%), quadruple resistance (4.7%), quintuple resistance (0.7%) and sextuple resistance (0.3%). Independent factors influencing antibiotic resistance were gender (to levofloxacin), age (to levofloxacin), and endoscopic finding (to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin). Among the clarithromycin-resistant isolates, 75.6% and 48.0% were also resistant to metronidazole and levofloxacin, respectively.Helicobacter pylori resistance to commonly used antibiotics in China is a very serious issue, due to the high resistance rate and general multiple resistance.
- A rare case of hyperproliferative gastropathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 9.
- Prediction of occult hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplant donors through hepatitis B virus blood markers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 5.
Occult hepatitis B virus infection is defined as detectable HBV-DNA in liver of HBsAg-negative individuals, with or without detectable serum HBV-DNA. In deceased liver donors, results of tissue analysis cannot be obtained prior to allocation for liver transplantation.we investigated prevalence and predictability of occult hepatitis B using blood markers of viral exposure/infection in deceased liver donors.In 50 consecutive HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive and 20 age-matched HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-negative donors, a nested-PCR assay was employed in liver biopsies for diagnosis of occult hepatitis B according to Taormina criteria. All donors were characterized for plasma HBV-DNA and serum anti-HBs/anti-HBe.In liver tissue, occult hepatitis B was present in 30/50 anti-HBc-positive (60%) and in 0/20 anti-HBc-negative donors (p<0.0001). All anti-HBc-positive donors with detectable HBV-DNA in plasma (n=5) or anti-HBs>1,000mIU/mL (n=5) eventually showed occult infection, i.e, 10/30 occult hepatitis B-positive donors which could have been identified prior to transplantation. In the remaining 40 anti-HBc-positive donors, probability of occult infection was 62% for anti-HBe-positive and/or anti-HBs≥58mIU/mL; 29% for anti-HBe-negative and anti-HBs<58mIU/mL.In deceased donors, combining anti-HBc with other blood markers of hepatitis B exposure/infection allows to predict occult hepatitis B with certainty and speed in one third of cases. These findings might help refine the allocation of livers from anti-HBc-positive donors.
- Co-localization of gluten consumption and HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 genotypes, a clue to the history of celiac disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 4.
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible persons. Despite its detrimental effects on human health, it has not disappeared over time. The current evolutionary theory is that celiac disease is more common in areas reached later by agricultural revolution than in countries that started consumption of wheat earlier, due to negative selection caused by celiac disease. We reviewed data on worldwide prevalence of celiac disease, wheat consumption, and frequencies of HLA-celiac-disease-predisposing-genotypes to investigate their mutual relationship. Studies assessing prevalence of celiac disease were identified through a MEDLINE search. Wheat consumption and frequencies of HLA-DQ2-DQ8 were obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and allelefrequencies.net database. Correlations between celiac disease, wheat consumption, and HLA were analyzed by linear regression. We observed a significant correlation between wheat consumption and HLA DQ2 (p=0.01) and the sum of DQ2 and DQ8 (p=0.01) frequencies. Wheat consumption and HLA-DQ2 tend to co-localize in different continents. The correlation between the prevalence of celiac disease and either DQ2 and/or DQ8, or the product of DQ2+DQ8*wheat consumption was not statistically significant. Co-localization of gluten consumption and HLA-celiac-disease-predisposing-genotypes can be explained by positive selection of HLA-DQ2 genes in wheat-consuming areas, and "demic diffusion" of Middle East farmers into Europe.
- Tobacco smoking and intestinal metaplasia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Dig Liver Dis 2014 Sep 3.
The evaluation of specific risk factors for early endpoints in the gastric carcinogenesis pathway may further contribute to the understanding of gastric cancer aetiology.To quantify the relation between smoking and intestinal metaplasia through systematic review and meta-analysis.Articles providing data on the association between smoking and intestinal metaplasia were identified in PubMed(®), Scopus(®) and Web of Science™, searched until April 2014, and through backward citation tracking. Summary odds ratio estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed using the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I(2) statistic.A total of 32 articles were included in this systematic review and 19 provided data for meta-analysis. Smoking was defined as ever vs. never (crude estimates, six studies, summary odds ratio=1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.12, I(2)=67.4%; adjusted estimates, seven studies, summary odds ratio=1.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.61, I(2)=65.0%) and current vs. non-smokers (crude estimates, seven studies, summary odds ratio=1.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.84, I(2)=73.4%; adjusted estimates, two studies, summary odds ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.99-2.25, I(2)=0.0%).The weak and non-statistically significant association found through meta-analysis of the available evidence does not confirm smoking as an independent risk factor for intestinal metaplasia.