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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of rosuvastatin using natural oil antihyperlipdemic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 18.:1-10.
Abstract Aim: The aim is improving the antihyperlipidemic activity of Rosuvastatin Calcium (Rs) through improving its solubility using self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) containing natural oil full of unsaturated fatty acid and omega 3. Methods: A 7 × 3(2) full factorial design was adopted for optimization of oil ratio, Surfactant: Co-surfactant (S:CoS) ratio and oil:S/CoS ratio. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed for optimizing the system with drug loading (10 and 20%). The optimized SNEDD systems were evaluated according to their physical evaluation and drug release. Furthermore, the anti-hyperlipidemia efficacy was compared with commercially marketed product on rates followed by clinical study. Results: The system containing Tween 80:PEG 400 (3:1) and olive oil:garlic oil (1:1) as an oily phase has droplet size less than 100 nm, ZP (+23.43 ± 2.58 mV), PDI (<0.02) and cloud point (>90 °C). In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable enhancement of the Rs release from Rs-SNEDDS. The antihyperlipidemic effect of Rs-SNEDDS is greater than that of the commercial tablets and the pure drug on rates and in hyperlipidemic patients. Conclusion: Rs-SNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system for improving the drug solubility and antihyperlipidemic effect using natural oils as (olive oil and garlic oil).
- Surelease as granulating liquid in preparation of sustained release matrices of ethylcellulose and theophylline. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 17.:1-6.
Abstract Objectives: Use of Surelease as a granulation liquid in preparation of granules and matrices of theophylline and ethylcellulose was evaluated. Materials and methods: Physical mixtures (at 1:1 or 1:1.5 drug:polymer) were granulated using water, Surelease or diluted Surelease as granulating liquid. The granule characteristics (shape, size, flow rate, mechanical properties, friability and release profile) were studied. Afterwards, matrices were manufactured and their crushing strengths, friability and release profiles were determined. Results: Granulation produced agglomerated particles with better flowability than physical mixtures. Change of granulation liquid from water to Surelease or diluted Surelease led to the marginal increase in size of granules at 1:1 drug:polymer, however, the flow rate and Carr's index were considerably improved. The hardness, elastic modulus, friability and rate of drug release were not affected by granulation liquid. Increase in polymer content resulted in reduction in size of granules, flow rate, elastic modulus and rate of drug release. However hardness of the granules was unaffected. Granulation process and granulation liquid did not affect the hardness, and dissolution rate of matrices at 1:1 drug:polymer, while the use of Surelease or diluted Surelease as a granulating liquid, increased the hardness and decreased drug release rate at 1:1.5 drug:polymer. Matrices prepared from Surelease or diluted Surelease showed similar characteristics. Conclusions: Surelease is a suitable granulating liquid for preparation of ethylcellulose matrices especially when high amount of polymer is used and could not only improve the flow and compatibility of the granules, but also help in reducing the rate of drug release.
- Twin screw granulation - review of current progress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 17.:1-9.
Abstract Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique.
- Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive nanoparticles of poly (methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) containing glycyrrhizic acid intended for vaginal administration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 13.:1-8.
Abstract Traditional vaginal preparations reside in the vaginal cavity for relatively a short period of time, requiring multiple doses in order to attain the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, mucoadhesive systems appear to be appropriate to prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity. In the current study, mucoadhesive nanoparticles based on poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) intended for vaginal delivery of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) (a drug with well-known antiviral properties) were prepared and characterized. Nanoparticles were generated by a solvent displacement method. Incorporation of GA was performed during nanoprecipitation, followed by adsorption of drug once nanoparticles were formed. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, Z-potential, morphology, drug loading, interaction of GA with PVM/MA (by differential scanning calorimetry) and the in vitro interaction of nanoparticles with pig mucin (at two pH values, 3.6 and 5; with and without GA adsorbed). The preparation method led to nanoparticles of a mean diameter of 198.5 ± 24.3 nm, zeta potential of -44.8 ± 2.8 mV and drug loading of 15.07 ± 0.86 µg/mg polymer. The highest mucin interaction resulted at pH 3.6 for nanoparticles without GA adsorbed. The data obtained suggest the promise of using mucoadhesive nanoparticles of PVM/MA for intravaginal delivery of GA.
- New Editor for Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 13.:1.
- Histopathological evaluation of caffeine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in efficient treatment of cellulite. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 10.:1-7.
Abstract Context: Cellulite refers to dimpled appearance of the skin, usually located in the thighs and buttocks regions of most adult women. Objective: The aim of this study was to formulate topically used caffeine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) for the treatment of cellulite. Methods: SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization technique using Precirol® as lipid phase. The physical characterization and stability studies of SLNs as well as in vitro skin permeation and histological studies in rat skin were conducted. Results: The mean particle size, encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency percentages for optimized SLN formulation were 94 nm, 86 and 28%, respectively. In vitro drug release demonstrated that caffeine-loaded SLN incorporated into carbopol made hydrogel (caffeine-SLN-hydrogel) exhibited a sustained drug release compared to the caffeine hydrogel over 24 h. Caffeine-loaded SLNs showed a good stability during 12 months of storage at room temperature. The DSC and XRD results showed that caffeine was dispersed in SLN in an amorphous state. In vitro permeation studies illustrated higher drug accumulation in the skin with caffeine-SLN-hydrogel compared to caffeine hydrogel. The flux value of caffeine through rat skin in caffeine-SLN-hydrogel was 3.3 times less than caffeine hydrogel, representing lower systemic absorption. In contrast with caffeine hydrogel, the histological studies showed the complete lysis of adipocytes by administration of caffeine-SLN-hydrogel in the deeper skin layers. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that SLNs are promising carrier for improvement of caffeine efficiency in the treatment of cellulite following topical application on the skin.
- Incorporation of calcium salts into xanthan gum matrices: hydration, erosion and drug release characteristics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 5.:1-9.
Abstract Xanthan gum (XG), a hydrophilic biopolymer with modified release properties, was used to produce directly compressed matrix tablets containing a model drug, sodium p-aminosalicylate. Three formulations were prepared, each containing a different calcium dihydrate salt: calcium chloride, calcium sulfate or dibasic calcium phosphate. The aim of the investigation was to relate the calcium ion content and solubility of the calcium salt to the in vitro drug release profile of the xanthan matrices. Tablet hydration, erosion and drug release were determined in distilled water using the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) paddle method. The data showed that the overall drug release was the greatest with addition of calcium sulfate, followed by calcium chloride and dibasic calcium phosphate. The chloride salt formulation displayed the greatest percentage erosion due to rapid mass loss during the initial phase, followed by those with sulfate or phosphate salts. As xanthan gel viscosity increased and drug release was also found to be lower, it can be concluded that drug release is influenced by the solubility of the salt present in the formulation, since these parameters determine the viscosity and structure of the gel layer.
- Development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of cilostazol-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 28.:1-19.
Abstract Context: The clinical applications of cilostazol (CLZ) are limited by its low aqueous solubility (<5 µg/ml) and high biovariability. Objective: The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility of CLZ by forming inclusion complexes (ICs) with beta cyclodextrin (β-CD) and formulating them into oral disintegrating tablets. Methods: Phase solubility study of CLZ with β-CD was performed in water. Job's plot was constructed to determine the stoichiometry of ICs. ICs, prepared by spray-drying technique, were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance. Molecular modeling studies were performed to understand the mode of interaction of CLZ with β-CD. The formulation process was undertaken using a reproducible design of experiment generated model, attained by variation of diluents and disintegrants at three levels. Tablets were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time (DT), wetting time (WT) and dissolution profiles. Results and discussion: Phase solubility studies suggested an AL type curve with stability constant (Ks) of 922.52 M(-1). Job's plot revealed 1:2 stoichiometry. All analytical techniques confirmed inclusion complexation. Molecular modeling revealed dispersive van der Waals interaction energy as a major contributor for stabilization of complex. The spray-dried complexes showed higher solubility and faster dissolution compared to plain CLZ. The optimized formulation showed DT of 11.1 ± 0.8 s, WT of 8.7 ± 0.9 s and almost complete dissolution of CLZ in 15 min. Conclusion: The prepared tablets with low DT and fast dissolution will prove to be a promising drug delivery system with improved bioavailability and better patient compliance.
- Spray drying of drug-swellable dispersant suspensions for preparation of fast-dissolving, high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 27.:1-15.
Abstract Bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug can be improved by preparing a drug nanosuspension and subsequently drying it into nanocomposite microparticles (NCMPs). Unfortunately, drug nanoparticles aggregate during milling and drying, causing incomplete recovery and slow dissolution. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of various classes of dispersants on drug dissolution from drug NCMPs, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs via high drug nanoparticle loaded, surfactant-free NCMPs. Precursor suspensions of griseofulvin (GF, model drug) nanoparticles in the presence of various dispersants were prepared via wet stirred media milling and spray dried to form the NCMPs. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, polymer) alone and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, surfactant) was used as a base-line stabilizer/dispersant during milling. Two swellable crosslinked polymers, croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG), and a conventional soluble matrix former, Mannitol, were used in addition to HPC. Besides being used as-received, CCS was also wet co-milled with GF for two different durations to examine the impact of CCS particle size. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV spectroscopy, NCMP redispersion and dissolution tests were used for characterization. The results show that incorporation of CCS/SSG, preferably wet-milled to a wide particle size distribution, into the spray-dried NCMPs resulted in fast release and dispersion of drug nanoparticle clusters. The swellable dispersants were superior to Mannitol in dissolution enhancement, and could achieve fast release comparable to SDS, demonstrating the feasibility of spray drying to prepare high drug-loaded, surfactant-free nanocomposites.
- Development of gel-forming lyophilized formulation with recombinant human thrombin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 27.:1-8.
Abstract The objective of this work was development and evaluation of gel-forming lyophilized formulation with recombinant human thrombin for topical administration. The influence of pH, ionic strength and buffer type on protein stability was evaluated as part of the pre-formulation screening studies. Results indicated an optimal pH from 6.0 to 7.0 and increased stability with increasing content of sodium chloride. The tested buffer types had no significant effect on thrombin stability. For further development, thermosensitive Pluronic® F-127 was employed as a bulking and gelling agent. Physical and mechanical characterization and viscosity measurement confirmed the gel-forming properties of the formulation at the application temperature of 32 °C. Several techniques (addition of well-soluble polyols, different freezing protocols and reconstitution under vacuum) were tested to decrease the reconstitution time. The obtained results revealed that a vacuum in the vial headspace is crucial for acceptable reconstitution. The freeze drying process has no negative impact on recombinant thrombin stability, and this was confirmed by reverse-phase-HPLC, activity assay and optical density measurements.