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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Investigation of injectable drospirenone organogels with regard to their rheology and comparison to non-stabilized oil-based drospirenone suspensions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 12.
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate organogels as potential injectable drug-delivery systems for drospirenone (DRSP). Recently, studies on organogel characterization with focus on the parenteral injection are rarely to find in the literature. DRSP organogels contained the drug suspended in medium-chain triglycerides and were stabilized by various organogelators. The DRSP organogels were assessed in comparison to non-stabilized DRSP microcrystal suspensions (MCSs). Furthermore, rheological properties of the organogels, in particular the elastic modulus (G'), the complex viscosity (η*) and the elasticity, were evaluated with respect to the long-term stability, syringeability/injectability and in vitro release. DRSP organogels showed significantly improved storage stability compared to non-stabilized MCSs with regard to sedimentation and particle growth. Furthermore, all of the DRSP organogels showed shear-thinning behavior. Thus, ejection from syringes was possible by an autoinjector using 23G needles comparable to non-stabilized MCSs. Nevertheless, DRSP organogels exhibited significantly more sustained drug release than non-stabilized MCSs most likely caused by partial recovery of the organogelator structures at 37 °C after destruction. Consequently, DRSP organogels were evaluated to be superior to conventional non-stabilized MCSs. Silica organogels, which provided the highest elasticity, moderate G' and η* and avoided most efficiently particle growth, are slightly more preferable compared to the other DRSP organogels.
- Application of in-line viscometer for in-process monitoring of microcrystalline cellulose-carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel formation during batch manufacturing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 11.
Abstract Physical stability and consistent dose delivery of pharmaceutical suspension formulations comprised of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) hydrogels is dependent on their rheological properties. To obtain the desired rheological characteristics, good control of the hydrogel dispersion in water is required. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the XL7-100 Process Viscometer could be employed as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool to monitor the dispersion process in real time during batch manufacturing. Using this instrument, viscosity profiles were measured during the hydrogel processing for a range of operating conditions. It was confirmed that viscosity obtained by the XL7-100 Process Viscometer in the off-line mode, could be linearly correlated to that of the conventional Brookfield viscometer. In addition, the XL7-100 Process Viscometer was able to detect variations in the hydrogel concentrations as well as process conditions in real time. Under fixed operating conditions, the dynamic viscosity profile showed low variability and good inter-batch reproducibility for a properly dispersed hydrogel. For a well-validated mixing process, an off-trend in-line viscosity reading may be indicative of batch failure or poor dispersion homogeneity. Therefore, the in-line viscometer can be used in manufacturing to monitor the batch to batch consistency. However, it is not proven to be able to characterize the real-time structure formation of the hydrogel. It is recommended that the in-line viscometer be used as a complimentary tool along with the off-line rheometer for both efficient and effective in-process quality control of the MCC & NaCMC hydrogel dispersion.
- The stress stability of olanzapine: studies of interactions with excipients in solid state pharmaceutical formulations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 10.
Abstract Stress stability testing represents an important part of the drug development process. It is used as an important tool for the identification of degradation products and degradation pathways, as well as for the assessment of changes in physical form of drug molecules. The impact of excipients on the stability of olanzapine confirms that levels of impurities and degradants are limiting parameters and are therefore used for stability evaluation. The major degradation product of olanzapine was identified as 2-methyl-5,10-dihydro-4H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine-4-one (III). The structure of III was determined by using LC-MS, IR and NMR. Compatibility and stress stability results demonstrated that tablet formulations of olanzapine are sensitive to temperature and moisture. In samples protected from moisture, the increase in concentration of III was shown to be highly temperature dependent and the degradation followed zero-order kinetics. In addition, studies of olanzapine with excipients and in formulated tablets revealed polymorphic phase changes in some samples, influenced by a combination of stress temperature and humidity conditions. Polymorphic transitions were monitored using x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis and exhibited no correlation between the phase change (appearance of a new polymorph) and the degradation process.
- Novel strategies for the buccal delivery of macromolecules. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 10.
Abstract For years now, the delivery of small molecules through the buccal mucosal route has been described in the literature, but it has only been over the past decade that investigations into macromolecule delivery via the buccal route have sharply increased. The administration of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides, antibodies, or nucleic acids by buccal administration would be greatly enhanced due to the avoidance of the gastrointestinal conditions, rapid uptake into systemic circulation, as well as the potential for controlled drug delivery. Since macromolecules are faced with a number of specific challenges related to permeation through the epithelium, several strategies have been employed historically to improve their buccal absorption and subsequent bioavailability. Several conventional strategies to improve macromolecule penetration include the use of chemical permeation enhancers, enzyme inhibitors and the use of mucoadhesive materials acting as carriers. More recent approaches include the incorporation of the macromolecule as part of nanostructured delivery systems to further enhance targeting and delivery. This review focuses on the different permeation enhancing strategies as well as formulation design that are tailored to meet the challenges of active macromolecule delivery using the buccal mucosal route of administration.
- Design and in vitro characterization of buccoadhesive tablets of timolol maleate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 5.
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate buccoadhesive tablets of timolol maleate (TM) due to its potential to circumvent the first-pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability. Methods: The tablets were prepared by direct compression using two release modifying polymers, Carbopol 974P (Cp-974p) and sodium alginate (SA). A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, Cp-974p and SA, in various proportions in percent w/w, which influences the in vitro drug release and bioadhesive strengths. Physicochemical properties of the drug were evaluated by ultraviolet, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD). Tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, drug content, surface pH, swelling index, bioadhesive force and in vitro drug release. Results: The FTIR and DSC studies showed no evidence of interactions between drug, polymers and excipients. The P-XRD study revealed that crystallinity of TM remain unchanged in optimized formulation tablet. Formulation F9 achieves an in vitro drug release of 98.967% ± 0.28 at 8 h and a bioadhesive force of 0.088 N ± 0.01211. Conclusion: We successfully developed buccal tablet formulations of TM and describe a non-Fickian-type anomalous transport as the release mechanism.
- Novel oleic acid derivatives enhance buccal permeation of didanosine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 5.
Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the potential of novel oleic acid (OA) derivatives as buccal permeation enhancers for the delivery of didanosine (ddI). The OA derivatives, i.e. ester derivative (OA1E), the dicarboxylic acid derivative (OA1A) and the bicephalous dianionic surfactant (OA1ANa) were synthesized and their effects were compared to the parent OA. OA, OA1E, OA1A and OA1ANa at 1% w/w all showed potential for enhancing the buccal permeability of ddI with enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.29, 1.33, 1.01 and 1.72, respectively. OA1ANa at 1% w/w demonstrated the highest flux (80.30 ± 10.37 µg cm(-2 )h), permeability coefficient (4.01 ± 0.57 × 10(-3) cm h(-1)) and ER (1.72). The highest flux for ddI (144.00 ± 53.54 µg cm(-2 )h) was reported with OA1ANa 2% w/w, which displayed an ER of 3.09 more than that with ddI alone. At equivalent concentrations, OA1ANa (ER = 3.09) had a significantly higher permeation-enhancing effect than its parent OA (ER = 1.54). Histomorphological studies confirmed that OA1ANa at all concentrations (0.5, 2.0 and 6.0% w/w) had no adverse effects on the mucosae. Morphological changes such as vacuoles formation and increased intercellular spaces were attributed to the buccal permeation-enhancing effect of OA1ANa. This study demonstrated the potential of novel OA derivatives as buccal permeation enhancers. OA1ANa at 2% w/w was also identified as the optimal novel OA derivative to widen the pool of fatty acid derivatives as chemical permeation enhancers for buccal drug delivery.
- Estimation of bottle filling counts for conventional pharmaceutical tablets and capsules. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 5.
Abstract A method has been developed using commonly available data for estimating the number of tablets or hard shell capsules that can be filled into bottles. The single unit volumes of conventional pharmaceutical biconvex tablets and capsules can be calculated from simple geometric relationships, which then can be used to determine the packing fraction of the units in bottles. The packing fractions of capsules and tablets studied in this work ranged from 0.53 to 0.63 and 0.56 to 0.62, respectively, and were dependent on bottle size and shape. This method can be used to assess a variety of packaging configurations computationally during drug product development.
- Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of dipyridamole. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 4.
Abstract A multiple-unit floating alginate bead drug delivery system with prolonged stomach retention time was developed in this study. The floating alginate beads were prepared by ionic cross-linking method, using CaCO3 as the gas-forming agent. Over 92% of the beads remained floating after 9 h. In order to prepare sustained-release dosage forms of dipyridamole, the solid dispersion technique was applied using a blend of Eudragit L100 and Eudragit RLPO. Afterwards, the solid dispersions of dipyridamole were incorporated into the floating alginate beads. The drug release was modified by changing the ratio of Eudragit RLPO and Eudragit L100 in the solid dispersions. The in vivo results showed that the relative bioavailability of alginate beads was enhanced by approximately 2.52-fold compared with that of the commercial tablet. Therefore, our study illustrated the potential use of floating alginate beads combined with the solid dispersion technique for the delivery of acid-soluble compounds, such as dipyridamole.
- Calculation procedures and HPLC method for analysis of the lipophilicity of acyclovir esters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 3.
Abstract Acyclovir (ACV) belongs to a class of drugs with low bioavailability. Selected ACV esters including acetyl (Ac-), isobutyryl (iBut-), pivaloyl (Piv-), ethoxycarbonyl (Etc-) and nicotinoyl (Nic-) were synthesized, and their lipophilicity was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) RP method. Statistical analyses of the comparative values of log P and clog P were carried out using computational methods. It was proved that the AC log P algorithm can be useful for the analysis of these compounds and has a statistically justified application in the assessment of the quantitative structure-activity relationship. Moreover, the lipophilicity determined by the HPLC method appears as follows: ACV < Ac- < Nic- < Etc- < iBut- < Piv-.