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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Effect of lyophilized grapefruit juice on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in-vitro and in-vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Dec 5.
Abstract The administration of grapefruit juice (GFJ) has been postulated to inhibit the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system and thus can enhance the uptake of substrate drugs. However, for various reasons, the results obtained have been always swaying between confirmation and refutation. This study aims at re-evaluating the effect of lyophilized freshly-prepared grapefruit juice (LGFJ) prepared from the whole peeled fruit on P-gp activity using the model drug doxorubicin (DOX) in-vitro and timolol maleate (TM) in-vivo. Human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/DX5v cells, grown under nanomolar concentration of DOX and highly expressing P-gp, were used as model cells for in-vitro studies whereas white New Zealand male rabbits were used for in-vivo studies. Results showed that the accumulation of DOX in MES-SA/DX5v cells was increased by 18.3 ± 2.0% in presence of LGFJ compared to control experiments. Results from in-vivo absorption studies showed that the relative oral bioavailability of TM ingested with LGFJ was significantly higher by 70% and 43% compared to the oral bioavailability of TM ingested with saline and a commercial GFJ, respectively. This study as such confirms the inhibitory effects of LGFJ on P-gp efflux proteins and highlights the superiority of using lyophilized freshly prepared juices over the commercially available juices in research studies. Also, the results call for further studies to assess the possibility of co-administrating LGFJ with anti-cancer agents to modulate multidrug resistance in their cellular environment or incorporating LGFJ in solid dosage forms to improve oral bioavailability of drugs.
- In vitro and in vivo evaluations of a novel pulsed and controlled osmotic pump capsule. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Dec 3.
Abstract Objective: For better treatment of circadian cardiovascular events, a novel Propranolol hydrochloride (PNH) delayed-release osmotic pump capsule was developed. Methods: The capsule body was designed of asymmetric membrane and the capsule cap was made impermeable. The physical characteristics of capsule body walls and membrane permeability were compared among different coating solutions. Results: The formulation with the glycerin and diethyl phthalate (DEP) ratio of 5:4 appeared to be the best. The lag time and subsequent drug release were investigated through assembling the capsule body with capsule caps of different length. WSR N-10 was chosen as the suspending for its moderate expanding capacity. The influence of factors (WSR N-10 content, NaCl content and capsule cap length) on the responses (lag time and drug release rate) was evaluated using central composite design-response surface methodology. A second-order polynomial equation was fitted to the data and actual response values were in good accordance with the predicted ones. The optimized formulation displayed complete drug delivery, zero-order release rate with 4-h lag time. The results of in vivo pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs clearly suggested the controlled and sustained release of PNH from the system and that the relative bioavailability of this preparation was about 1.023 comparing the marketed preparation. Conclusions: These results indicate that by the adjustment of capsule cap length, PNH could be developed as a novel pulsatile and controlled drug delivery system.
- New co-processed MCC-based excipient for fast release of low solubility drugs from pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 27.
Abstract In this study, a new co-processed excipient composed of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), sorbitol, chitosan and Eudragit® E, easily obtained by wet massing, to increase the dissolution rate of active ingredients of low water solubility from pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization is evaluated. Indomethacin, nifedipine, furosemide, ibuprofen, prednisolone and hydrochlorothiazide are used as model drugs of different solubility. All pellet formulations evaluated showed adequate morphological, flow and mechanical properties. Pellets prepared with the co-processed excipient show a higher drug dissolution rate than those prepared with MCC and even higher than the pure drug powder. The fast drug dissolution and the complete disintegration (<3 min) of the pellets can be explained by the great porosity of the formulations, the high solubility of the sorbitol, the disintegrant capacity of the chitosan and the distribution of the Eudragit® E polymer particles in-between the other components of the co-processed mixture. In conclusion, this new co-processed excipient is very suitable to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs from pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization. Moreover, the drug release rate can be estimated from the Ln of the drug solubility in acidic medium.
- Tablet formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient with a sticking and filming problem: direct compression and dry granulation evaluations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 27.
Abstract Objective: To develop a tablet formulation for an active pharmaceutical ingredient for which sticking and filming problems occurred during tablet punching. Methods: Direct compression and dry granulation tableting techniques were evaluated using factorial experimental design. The effects of chrome-coated punch tips, filler types and active percent in the tablet formulation by direct compression were evaluated. Similarly, for dry granulation using the roller compaction technique, three formulation factors - roller compaction pressure, intragranular filler percent and filler type - were studied. Tablets prepared by both techniques were characterized in regard to their compressibility index, tablet hardness, disintegration time, friability index and stickiness-filming index (an arbitrary index). Ten formulations were prepared by each technique. Using multiple response optimizations and estimated response surface plots, the data were analyzed to identify optimum levels for the formulation factors. Results: Compressibility index values for all the formulations prepared by direct compression exceeded 25%, unlike the blends prepared by dry granulation. Both tablet hardness and disintegration time for direct compression formulations were significantly lower than for dry granulation formulations. The friability index values were significantly higher for direct compression formulations than for dry granulation formulations. All the direct compression formulations, unlike the dry granulation formulations, had a high stickiness-filming index. Conclusion: Statistical analysis helped in identifying the optimum levels of formulation factors, as well as the method for eliminating sticking and filming. Unlike the direct compression technique, dry granulation yielded tablets for which sticking and filming were completely eliminated.
- Antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral injection using an in situ thermosensitive hydrogel. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 26.
Abstract Local drug delivery strategies based on nanoparticles, gels, polymeric films, rods and wafers are increasingly used in cancer chemotherapy in order to enhance therapeutic effect and reduce systemic toxicity. Herein, a biodegradable and biocompatible in situ thermosensitive hydrogel was designed and employed to deliver tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) locally by intratumoral injection. The triblock copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-butyrolactone (β-BL) and lactide (LA) in bulk using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an initiator and Sn(Oct)2 as the catalyst, the polymer was characterized by NMR, gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. Blood and tumor pharmacokinetics and in vivo antitumor activity of TNF-α after intratumoral administration in hydrogel or solution with the same dose were evaluated on S180 tumor-bearing mice. Compared with TNF-α solution, TNF-α hydrogel exhibited a longer T1/2 (4-fold) and higher AUCtumor (19-fold), but Cmax was lower (0.5-fold), which means that the hydrogel formulation improved the efficacy with a lower systhemic exposure than the solution formation. In addition, TNF-α hydrogel improved the antitumor activity and survival due to lower systemic exposure than the solution. These results demonstrate that the in situ thermosensitive hydrogel-based local delivery system by intratumoral injection is well suited for the administration of TNF-α.
- Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 22.
Abstract Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions.
- Effects of different culture conditions on biological potential and metabolites production in three Penicillium isolates. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 22.
Abstract The genus Penicillium is well known for its importance in drug and food production. Certain species are produced on an industrial scale for the production of antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) or for insertion in food (e.g. cheese). In the present work, three Penicillium species, part of the natural mycobiota growing on various food products were selected - P. ochrochloron, P. funiculosum and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium. The objective of our study was to value these species from the point of view of production of bioactive metabolites. The species were obtained after inoculation and growth in Czapek and Malt media. Both mycelia and culture media were analyzed to monitor the production of different metabolites by each fungus and their release to the culture medium. The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and tocopherols were determined. Antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, as also the antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, organic acids and tocopherols extracts. Rhamnose, xylose, fructose and trehalose were found in all the mycelia and culture media; the prevailing organic acids were oxalic and fumaric acids, and protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most common phenolic acids; γ-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E isoform. Generally, the phenolic extracts corresponding to the mycelia samples revealed higher antioxidant activity. Concerning the antimicrobial activity there were some fluctuations, however all the studied species revealed activity against the tested strains. Therefore, the in-vitro bioprocesses can be an alternative for the production of bioactive metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industry.
- In-vitro and in-vivo comparison of T-OA microemulsions and solid dispersions based on EPDC. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 20.
Abstract The goal of this study was to enhance the absorption of a new water-insoluble antitumor lead compound, T-OA (3β-hydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid-3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methyl ester). Early-stage preparation discovery concept (EPDC) was employed in this study. Based on this concept, a microemulsion system was chosen as the method of improving bioavailability. The solubility of T-OA was checked in different oils, surfactants and cosurfactants. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate the microemulsion domain. Developed high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine drug content. The transparent o/w microemulsion formulation composed of oleic acid (oil), Tween 80 (surfactant), ethanol (co-surfactant) and water enhanced the solubility of T-OA up to 20 mg/mL. It was characterized in terms of appearance, content, viscosity, zeta potential, conductivity, morphology and particle size. The particle size distribution, viscosity, conductivity and zeta potential were found to be 70 nm, 15.57 MPa s, 44.1 μS cm(-1) and -0.174, respectively. Oral bioavailability of T-OA microemulsion and oleic acid solution were checked by using rat model. Contrast to the solid dispersion and proto drug, the area-under-the-curve (AUC) of T-OA microemulsion and oleic acid solution were significantly enhanced. The relative bioavailability of T-OA microemulsion was found to be 5654.7%, which is 57-fold higher than the pure drug. Improved T-OA solubility in microemulsion was found sustained 48 h in dilution study. While the solid dispersion may precipitate under the gastrointestinal circumstance based on dilution results. The in-vivo and in-vitro results indicated that, compare to improve the solubility, it is more important to maintain and prolong the T-OA dissolved status, for improvement of the in-vivo absorption.
- In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of ciprofloxacin liposome for pulmonary administration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 19.
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ciprofloxacin liposome of high encapsulation efficiency with optimal physical properties for pulmonary administration and to test its in-vivo potential in rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin-loaded liposome was prepared by gradient of ammonium sulfate method. The particle size and morphology were determined using a NANOPHOX particle size analyzer and a transmission electron microscope, respectively. Encapsulation efficiency was calculated by UV spectrophotometry. Ciprofloxacin liposome released in vitro was performed using simulated lung fluid. In-vivo studies, pharmacokinetics and pulmonary distribution, HPLC method was established to determine the concentration of ciprofloxacin in rat plasma and lung tissue. The pulmonary pathological section was used to observe the change of pulmonary pathology. Results: The optimized ciprofloxacin liposome, which had a high encapsulation efficiency of 93.96%, and an average particle size of 349.6 nm with a span of 0.42, showed sustained in-vitro release. The optimized ciprofloxacin liposome was further examined in the in-vivo study in rats. The concentration of ciprofloxacin in lung and blood was simultaneously determined in each rat. The ratio of the AUClung value between ciprofloxacin liposome and ciprofloxacin solution was 288.33, whereas the relative bioavailability was 72.42%, and the drug targeting efficiency of ciprofloxacin liposome and ciprofloxacin solution by intratracheal administration were 799.71 and 2.01, respectively. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin liposome for pulmonary administration offered an attractive alternative that was able to deliver high concentrations of antibiotic directly to the chosen target site while minimizing the local irritation.
- Organic-aqueous crossover coating process for the desmopressin orally disintegrating microparticles. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2013 Nov 19.
Abstract The purpose of the present study was to prepare desmopressin orally disintegrating microparticles (ODMs) using organic-aqueous crossover coating process which featured an organic sub-coating followed by an aqueous active coating. Sucrose beads and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were used as inert cores and a coating material, respectively. Characterizations including size distribution analysis, in-vitro release studies and in-vitro disintegration studies were performed. A pharmacokinetic study of the ODMs was also conducted in eight beagle dogs. It was found that sucrose beads should be coated using organic solvents to preserve their original morphology. For the active coating, the aqueous coating solution should be used for drug stability. When sucrose beads were coated using organic-aqueous crossover coating process, double-layer ODMs with round shapes were produced with detectable impurities below limit of US Pharmacopeia. The median size of ODMs was 195.6 μm, which was considered small enough for a good mouthfeel. The ODMs dissolved in artificial saliva within 15 s because of hydrophilic materials including sucrose and HPC in the ODMs. Because of its fast-dissolving properties, 100% release of the drug was reached within 5 min. Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax and AUC24 indicated bioequivalence of the ODMs and the conventional immediate release tablets. Therefore, by using the organic-aqueous crossover coating process, double-layer ODMs were successively prepared with small size, round shapes and good drug stability.