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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Systematic aging of degradable nanosuspension ameliorates vibrating-mesh nebulizer performance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Dec 18.:1-6.
Abstract Context: The process of vibrating-mesh nebulization is affected by sample physicochemical properties. Exemplary, electrolyte supplementation of diverse formulations facilitated the delivery of adequate aerosols for deep lung deposition. Objective: This study addressed the impact of storage conditions of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanosuspension on aerosol properties when nebulized by the eFlow®rapid. Materials and methods: First, purified nanosuspensions were supplemented with electrolytes (i.e. sodium chloride, lactic and glycolic acid). Second, the degradable nanoparticles (NP) were incubated at different temperatures (i.e. 4, 22 and 36 °C) for up to two weeks. The effect of formulation supplementation and storage on aerosol characteristics was studied by laser diffraction and correlated with the sample conductivity. Results and discussion: Nebulization of purified nanosuspensions resulted in droplet diameters of >7.0 µm. However, electrolyte supplementation and storage, which led to an increase in sample conductivity (>10-20 µS/cm), were capable of providing smaller droplet diameters during vibrating-mesh nebulization (≤5.0 µm). No relevant change of NP properties (i.e. size, morphology, remaining mass and molecular weight of the employed polymer) was observed when incubated at 22 °C for two weeks. Conclusion: Sample aging is an alternative to electrolyte supplementation in order to ameliorate the aerosol characteristics of degradable NP formulations when nebulized by vibrating-mesh technology.
- Design, characterization, and evaluation of intranasal delivery of ropinirole-loaded mucoadhesive nanoparticles for brain targeting. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Dec 11.:1-8.
Abstract Context: Parkinson disease (PD) is a common, progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by marked depletion of striatal dopamine and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possibility of targeting an anti-Parkinson's drug ropinirole (RH) to the brain using polymeric nanoparticles. Materials and methods: Ropinirole hydrochloride (RH)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were prepared by an ionic gelation method. The RH-CSNPs were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, loading capacity, entrapment efficiency in vitro release study, and in vivo distribution after intranasal administration. Results and discussion: The RH-CSNPs showed sustained release profiles for up to 18 h. The RH concentrations (% Radioactivity/g) in the brain following intranasal administration (i.n.) of RH-CSNPs were found to be significantly higher at all the time points compared with RH solution. The concentration of RH was highest in the liver (7.210 ± 0.52), followed by kidneys (6.862 ± 0.62), intestine (4.862 ± 0.45), and lungs (4.640 ± 0.92) in rats following i.n. administration of RH-CSNPs. Gamma scintigraphy imaging in rats was performed to ascertain the localization of drug in the brain following intranasal administration of formulations. The brain/blood ratios obtained (0.251 ± 0.09 and 0.386 ± 0.57 of RH (i.n.) and RH-CSNPs (i.n.), respectively) at 0.5 h are indicative of direct nose to brain transport, bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conclusion: The novel formulation showed the superiority of nose to brain delivery of RH using mucoadhesive nanoparticles compared with other delivery routes reported earlier.
- A phospholipid complex to improve the oral bioavailability of flavonoids. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Dec 11.:1-11.
Abstract Aim: A phospholipid complex (TFH-PC) was prepared to increase the oral bioavailability of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin from TFH (total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Methods: Solvent evaporation was used to prepare TFH-PC. Relevant parameters were investigated based on the complexation rate of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray power diffraction (X-RPD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for characterization. Solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient (log P), dissolution rate, and in vivo pharmacokinetics were also investigated. Results: TFH-PC was successfully prepared in tetrahydrofuran with a drug to phospholipid ratio of 1:1, reaction temperature of 20 °C, and a reaction time of 1 h. The complexation rates of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin were 97.7%, 95.97%, and 92.23%, respectively. FT-IR, DSC, X-RPD, and SEM confirmed the formation of TFH-PC. The aqueous solubilities of the three flavonoids in TFH-PC increased 22.0-26.8-fold compared with TFH. The dissolution of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin in TFH-PC was 84.32%, 90.77%, and 100% within 10 min, respectively, greatly improved over TFH. After oral administration of TFH-PC in rats, the bioavailability of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin in TFH-PC relative to TFH was 223%, 172%, and 242%, respectively. Conclusion: The oral absorption of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin was significantly improved in TFH-PC, mainly due to increased solubility and dissolution rate. This phospholipid complex shows potential for oral delivery of the flavonoids in TFH.
- The dissolution and solid-state behaviours of coground ibuprofen-glucosamine HCl. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Dec 11.:1-11.
Abstract The cogrinding technique is one of most effective methods for improving the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs and it is superior to other approaches from an economical as well as an environmental standpoint, as the technique does not require any toxic organic solvents. Present work explores the role of d-glucosamine HCl (GL) as a potential excipient to improve dissolution of a low melting point drug, ibuprofen (Ibu), using physical mixtures and coground formulations. The dissolution of the poorly soluble drug has been improved by changing the ratio of Ibu:GL and also grinding time. The results also showed that although GL can enhance the solubility of Ibu, it also reduces pH around the Ibu particles which led to poor dissolution performance when the concentration of GL is high. The effect of GL on the solubility of Ibu could be misleading if the pH of the final solution was not measured. Grinding reduced the particle size of GL significantly but in case of Ibu it was less effective. Solid state analysis (XRPD, DSC, and FT-IR) showed that ibuprofen is stable under grinding conditions, but the presence of high concentration of GL in samples subjected to high grinding times caused changes in FT-IR spectrum of Ibu which could be due to intermolecular hydrogen bond or esterification between the carboxylic acid group in the ibuprofen and hydroxyl group in the GL.
- Prediction of in vivo drug performance using in vitro dissolution coupled with STELLA: a study with selected drug products. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Dec 12.:1-7.
Abstract Prediction of the in vivo performance of the drug product from the in vitro studies is the major challenging job for the pharmaceutical industries. From the current regulatory perspective, biorelevant dissolution media should now be considered as quality control media in order to avoid the risk associated. Physiological based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) coupled with biorelevant dissolution medium is widely used in simulation and prediction of the plasma drug concentration and in vivo drug performance. The present investigation deals with the evaluation of biorelevant dissolution media as well as in vivo drug performance by PBPK modelling using STELLA® simulation software. The PBPK model was developed using STELLA® using dissolution kinetics, solubility, standard gastrointestinal parameters and post-absorptive disposition parameters. The drug product selected for the present study includes Linezolid film-coated immediate-release tablets (Zyvox), Tacrolimus prolonged-release capsules (Advagraf), Valganciclovir tablets (Valcyte) and Mesalamine controlled-release capsules (Pentasa) each belonging to different biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). The simulated plasma drug concentration was analyzed and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared with the reported values. The result from the present investigation indicates that STELLA® when coupled with biorelevant dissolution media can predict the in vivo performance of the drug product with prediction error less than 20% irrespective of the dosage form (immediate release versus modified release) and BCS Classification. Thus, STELLA® can be used for in vivo drug prediction which will be helpful in generic drug development.
- Trans-ungual delivery of itraconazole hydrochloride by iontophoresis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Dec 8.:1-5.
Abstract Itraconazole (ITR) is a potent antifungal drug. However, poor aqueous solubility limits its permeation ability across the human nail plate. Therefore, in this project, ITR was converted to hydrochloride salt (ITR-HCl) to improve its solubility and to render it amenable to iontophoresis. ITR-HCl was characterized by spectroscopic methods and antifungal efficacy was evaluated in comparison to the base. In vitro and ex vivo transport studies (passive and iontophoresis) were carried out across the porcine hoof membrane and excised human cadaver toe using two different protocols; continuous delivery of drug for 24 h and pulsed delivery of drug for 3 days (8 h/day). The antifungal efficacy of ITR-HCL was comparable to ITR. Iontophoresis was found to be more effective than passive mode of delivery of ITR-HCL. In both iontophoresis as well as passive mode of delivery, the pulsed protocol resulted in more ungual and trans-ungual delivery of drug than continuous protocol. ITR-HCL could be delivered into and across the nail plate by iontophoresis. Human cadaver toe appears to be a good model to investigate the ungual delivery of drugs.
- Inhibitory effect of ketoconazole and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 24.:1-6.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered ketoconazole and voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol and its metabolites in rats. Fifteen healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: A group (30 mg/kg ketoconazole), B group (30 mg/kg voriconazole) and C group (control group). A single dose of carvedilol was administered orally 30 min after administration of ketoconazole and voriconazole. Carvedilol and its metabolites plasma levels were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.0 software. The co-administrated with ketoconazole could significantly increase the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) of carvedilol (p < 0.01). And the Cmax of its three metabolites 4'-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol (4'-HPC), 5'-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol (5'-HPC) and o-desmethyl carvedilol (o-DMC) decreased drastically by 39.4% (p < 0.01), 45.0% (p < 0.01) and 40.8% (p < 0.05), respectively. Following co-administered with voriconazole, Tmax of carvedilol and o-DMC increased, and the Cmax of 5'-HPC decreased by 27.7% (p < 0.05), while other drugs pharmacokinetic parameters performed no significant differences. Therefore, in clinical, when carvedilol was co-administrated with ketoconazole, dose adjustment of carvedilol should be taken into account.
- Self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery system for improved oral bioavailability of rosuvastatin using natural oil antihyperlipdemic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 18.:1-10.
Aim:The aim is improving the antihyperlipidemic activity of Rosuvastatin Calcium (Rs) through improving its solubility using self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) containing natural oil full of unsaturated fatty acid and omega 3.
Methods:A 7 × 3(2) full factorial design was adopted for optimization of oil ratio, Surfactant: Co-surfactant (S:CoS) ratio and oil:S/CoS ratio. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed for optimizing the system with drug loading (10 and 20%). The optimized SNEDD systems were evaluated according to their physical evaluation and drug release. Furthermore, the anti-hyperlipidemia efficacy was compared with commercially marketed product on rates followed by clinical study.
Results:The system containing Tween 80:PEG 400 (3:1) and olive oil:garlic oil (1:1) as an oily phase has droplet size less than 100 nm, ZP (+23.43 ± 2.58 mV), PDI (<0.02) and cloud point (>90 °C). In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable enhancement of the Rs release from Rs-SNEDDS. The antihyperlipidemic effect of Rs-SNEDDS is greater than that of the commercial tablets and the pure drug on rates and in hyperlipidemic patients.
Conclusion:Rs-SNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system for improving the drug solubility and antihyperlipidemic effect using natural oils as (olive oil and garlic oil).
- Surelease as granulating liquid in preparation of sustained release matrices of ethylcellulose and theophylline. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 17.:1-6.
Objectives:Use of Surelease as a granulation liquid in preparation of granules and matrices of theophylline and ethylcellulose was evaluated. Materials and methods: Physical mixtures (at 1:1 or 1:1.5 drug:polymer) were granulated using water, Surelease or diluted Surelease as granulating liquid. The granule characteristics (shape, size, flow rate, mechanical properties, friability and release profile) were studied. Afterwards, matrices were manufactured and their crushing strengths, friability and release profiles were determined.
Results:Granulation produced agglomerated particles with better flowability than physical mixtures. Change of granulation liquid from water to Surelease or diluted Surelease led to the marginal increase in size of granules at 1:1 drug:polymer, however, the flow rate and Carr's index were considerably improved. The hardness, elastic modulus, friability and rate of drug release were not affected by granulation liquid. Increase in polymer content resulted in reduction in size of granules, flow rate, elastic modulus and rate of drug release. However hardness of the granules was unaffected. Granulation process and granulation liquid did not affect the hardness, and dissolution rate of matrices at 1:1 drug:polymer, while the use of Surelease or diluted Surelease as a granulating liquid, increased the hardness and decreased drug release rate at 1:1.5 drug:polymer. Matrices prepared from Surelease or diluted Surelease showed similar characteristics.
Conclusions:Surelease is a suitable granulating liquid for preparation of ethylcellulose matrices especially when high amount of polymer is used and could not only improve the flow and compatibility of the granules, but also help in reducing the rate of drug release.
- Twin screw granulation - review of current progress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Nov 17.:1-9.
Abstract Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique.