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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Increased dissolution of disulfiram by dry milling with silica nanoparticles. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 18.:1-10.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to find a suitable method to increase the dissolution of disulfiram (DSF) which is easily decomposed. The dissolution of DSF within 1 h was significantly increased from 37% to >90% by co-milling with Aerosil® 200 pharm (Aerosil) and the increased dissolution remained stable during long-term storage while there was no significant degradation of DSF. By monitoring the changes in particle size of the grinding mixture, a mosaic DSF-in-Aerosil structure was demonstrated. The core size of the mosaic DSF/Aerosil system was 3.625 µm. The particle size of DSF was reduced from 20.75 µm to ∼200 nm and the size of the mosaic DSF/Aerosil system (3.625∼7.956 µm) increased on increasing the drug-loading content. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the largely amorphous state of DSF in the mosaic drug/carrier system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of hydrogen bonding between DSF and Aerosil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy verified the DSF-in-Aerosil relationship in the particle size determination at different size levels. The possible mechanisms of dry milling included the hypothesis that during impact and collision, DSF particles melted into the surface of Aerosil turning them into an amorphous state or they became inlayed into the interspaces of the Aerosil structure with a much smaller size.
- The incorporation of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose into solid dispersion systems. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 18.:1-8.
Abstract While the use of amorphous solid dispersions to improve aqueous solubility is well documented, little consideration has traditionally been given to the finished dosage form. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dissolution performance of amorphous solid dispersions containing a dispersed superdisintegrant with binding properties. KinetiSol® dispersing was used to thermally process hypromellose acetate succinate-based compositions containing the drug substance nifedipine (NIF) and a highly compressible grade of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (New Binder Disintegrants; NBD-grade). Solid-state analysis demonstrated that compositions were rendered amorphous during processing. Tablets containing intra-dispersion NBD were found to exhibit non-sink dissolution performance similar to milled intermediate, demonstrating excellent disintegration characteristics. Conversely, tablets without intra-dispersion NBD were found to release significantly less NIF during dissolution analysis due to particle agglomeration. It was determined that compressibility and particle wetting increased as the level of intra-dispersion NBD increased.
- Process and formulation variables of pregabalin microspheres prepared by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method and their clinical application by animal modeling studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 14.:1-10.
Abstract Pregabalin is an anticonvulsant drug used for neuropathic pain and as an adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. In conventional therapy recommended dose for pregabalin is 75 mg twice daily or 50 mg three times a day, with maximum dosage of 600 mg/d. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect with a low risk of adverse effects and to reduce often drug dosing, modified release preparations; such as microspheres might be helpful. However, most of the microencapsulation techniques have been used for lipophilic drugs, since hydrophilic drugs like pregabalin, showed low-loading efficiency and rapid dissolution of compounds into the aqueous continous phase. The purpose of this study was to improve loading efficiency of a water-soluble drug and modulate release profiles, and to test the efficiency of the prepared microspheres with the help of animal modeling studies. Pregabalin is a water soluble drug, and it was encapsulated within anionic acrylic resin (Eudragit S 100) microspheres by water in oil in oil (w/o/o) double emulsion solvent diffusion method. Dichloromethane and corn oil were chosen primary and secondary oil phases, respectively. The presence of internal water phase was necessary to form stable emulsion droplets and it accelerated the hardening of microspheres. Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants to stabilize the water and corn oil phases, respectively. The optimum concentration of Tween 80 was 0.25% (v/v) and Span 80 was 0.02% (v/v). The volume of the continous phase was affected the size of the microspheres. As the volume of the continous phase increased, the size of microspheres decreased. All microsphere formulations were evaluated with the help of in vitro characterization parameters. Microsphere formulations (P1-P5) exhibited entrapment efficiency ranged between 57.00 ± 0.72 and 69.70 ± 0.49%; yield ranged between 80.95 ± 1.21 and 93.05 ± 1.42%; and mean particle size were between 136.09 ± 2.57 and 279.09 ± 1.97 µm. Pregabalin microspheres having better results among all formulations (Table 3) were chosen for further studies such as differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared analysis and dissolution studies. In the last step, the best pregabalin microsphere formulation (P3) was chosen for in vivo animal studies. The pregabalin-loaded microspheres (P3) and conventional pregabalin capsules were applied orally in rats for three days, resulted in clinical improvement of cold allodynia, an indicator of peripheral neuropathy. This result when evaluated together with the serum pregabalin levels and in vitro release studies suggests that the pregabalin microspheres prepared with w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion method can be an alternative form for neuropathic pain therapy. Conclusively, a drug delivery system successfully developed that showed modified release up to 10 h and could be potentially useful to overcome the frequent dosing problems associated with pregabalin conventional dosage form.
- Enhancement of the oral bioavailability of breviscapine by nanoemulsions drug delivery system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 12.:1-6.
Abstract Aim to design an effective breviscapine nanoscale drug delivery system to realize the improvement of its oral bioavailability. Based on the investigations of the stabilities in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), permeation and efflux across the cell membrane, the breviscapine nanoemulsion (NE) was formulated and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The globule size and polydispersity index of the NE was 45.6 nm and 0.105, and the efficient encapsulation was 95.2%. In vitro, the drug release from NEs in pH 6.8 PBS fit to the first-order kinetics. The Caco-2 cell transport experiments showed that the breviscapine NE facilitated the improvement of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) from the apical side to basilar side compared with the free drug. In vivo, the relative bioavailability of breviscapine NE reached to 249.7%. All the studies implicated that the NE carrier contributed to the enhancement of the oral absorption of breviscapine due to the improved stability and permeation in the GIT. The nanoemulsions technology is better for the poor permeable and unstable active agents in GIT as well as helps the industrial scale process.
- Development of ocular drug delivery systems using molecularly imprinted soft contact lenses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 12.:1-11.
Abstract Recently, significant advances have been made in order to optimize drug delivery to ocular tissues. The main problems in ocular drug delivery are poor bioavailability and uncontrollable drug delivery of conventional ophthalmic preparations (e.g. eye drops). Hydrogels have been investigated since 1965 as new ocular drug delivery systems. Increase of hydrogel loading capacity, optimization of drug residence time on the ocular surface and biocompatibility with the eye tissue has been the main focus of previous studies. Molecular imprinting technology provided the opportunity to fulfill the above-mentioned objectives. Molecularly imprinted soft contact lenses (SCLs) have high potentials as novel drug delivery systems for the treatment of eye disorders. This technique is used for the preparation of polymers with specific binding sites for a template molecule. Previous studies indicated that molecular imprinting technology could be successfully applied for the preparation of SCLs as ocular drug delivery systems. Previous research, particularly in vivo studies, demonstrated that molecular imprinting is a versatile and effective method in optimizing the drug release behavior and enhancing the loading capacity of SCLs as new ocular drug delivery systems. This review highlights various potentials of molecularly imprinted contact lenses in enhancing the drug-loading capacity and controlling the drug release, compared to other ocular drug delivery systems. We have also studied the effects of contributing factors such as the type of comonomer, template/functional monomer molar ratio, crosslinker concentration in drug-loading capacity, and the release properties of molecularly imprinted hydrogels.
- Targeted SLNs for management of HIV-1 associated dementia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 12.:1-7.
Abstract Context: HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD) is an evolving disease in the category of neurological disorders. Objective: Nifedipine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed and coated with Tween 80 to facilitate enhanced brain drug delivery for the treatment of HAD. Materials and methods: SLNs were prepared using solvent injection method. Lipids consisted of tristearin, hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) (1.5:1 w/w). Nifedipine was model drug in this study. Tween 80 (0.5% v/v) was taken as key modulator. SLNs were characterized for particle shape, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, DNA fragmentation, cytotoxicity potential and in vivo studies. Results: The SLNs (plain and coated) were found to be in nanometric in size (∼120 nm) with more than 70% entrapment efficiency. In vitro drug release profile reflected sustained release up to 48 h. Tween 80-coated SLNs showed higher percentage of DNA fragmentation in vitro and enhanced cell viability in sulforhodamine assay (rat cortical cells) as compared to plain drug and uncoated SLNs due to facilitated uptake of SLNs and reversal of P-gp efflux by virtue of Tween 80. Biodistribution study performed on vital organs, i.e. brain, heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidney showed increased accumulation of Tween 80-coated SLNs in the brain. Discussion and conclusion: Tween 80 enhanced localization of SLNs in the brain as compared to uncoated SLNs. This approach can be employed effectively to transport chemotherapeutics across the BBB for management of HIV-1 associated dementia and other ailments.
- In vivo evaluation of a mucoadhesive polymeric caplet for intravaginal anti-HIV-1 delivery and development of a molecular mechanistic model for thermochemical characterization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 11.:1-14.
Abstract Context and objective: The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and evaluate a mucoadhesive caplet resulting from a polymeric blend (polymeric caplet) for intravaginal anti-HIV-1 delivery. Materials and methods: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, ethylcellulose, poly(vinylalcohol), polyacrylic acid and modified polyamide 6, 10 polymers were blended and compressed to a caplet-shaped device, with and without two model drugs 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and microscopic analysis were carried out on the caplets employing temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer and scanning electron microscope, respectively. In vitro and in vivo drug release analyses as well as the histopathological toxicity studies were carried out on the drug-loaded caplets. Furthermore, molecular mechanics (MM) simulations were carried out on the drug-loaded caplets to corroborate the experimental findings. Results and discussion: There was a big deviation between the Tg of the polymeric caplet from the Tg's of the constituent polymers indicating a strong interaction between constituent polymers. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of specific ionic and non-ionic interactions within the caplet. A controlled near zero-order drug release was obtained for AZT (20 d) and PSS (28 d). In vivo results, i.e. the drug concentration in plasma ranged between 0.012-0.332 mg/mL and 0.009-0.256 mg/mL for AZT and PSS over 1-28 d. Conclusion: The obtained results, which were corroborated by MM simulations, attested that the developed system has the potential for effective delivery of anti-HIV-agents.
- Alginate drug delivery systems: application in context of pharmaceutical and biomedical research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 11.:1-9.
Abstract Alginates are natural polymers widely used in the food industry because of their biocompatible, biodegradable character, nontoxicity and easy availability. The bioadhesive character of alginates makes them useful in the pharmaceutical industry as well. The application areas of sodium alginate-based drug delivery systems are many and these systems can be formulated as gels, matrices, membranes, nanospheres, microspheres, etc. Worldwide researchers are exploring possible applications of alginates as coating material, preparation of controlled-release drug delivery systems such as microspheres, beads, pellets, gels, fibers, membranes, etc. In the present review, such applications of alginates are discussed.
- Encapsulation of albumin in self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules: comparison of co-precipitation and adsorption techniques. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 8.:1-9.
Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to prepare and characterize polymeric self-assembled layer-by-layer microcapsules (LbL-MC) to deliver a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The aim is to compare the BSA encapsulation in LbL-MC using co-precipitation and adsorption methods. Materials and methods: In co-precipitation method, BSA was co-precipitated with growing calcium carbonate particles to form a core template. Later, poly(styrene sulfonate) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were sequentially adsorbed onto the CaCO3 templates. In adsorption method, preformed LbL-MC were incubated with BSA and encapsulation efficiency is optimized for pH and salt concentration. Free and BSA-encapsulated LbL-MC were characterized using Zetasizer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. Later, in vitro release studies were performed using dialysis membrane method at pH 4, 7.4 and 9. Results and discussion: Results from Zetasizer and SEM showed free LbL-MC with an average size and zeta-potential of 2.0 ± 0.6 μm and 8.1 ± 1.9 mV, respectively. Zeta-potential of BSA-loaded LbL-MC was (-)7.4 ± 0.7 mV and (-)5.7 ± 1.0 mV for co-precipitation and adsorption methods, respectively. In adsorption method, BSA encapsulation in LbL-MC was found to be greater at pH 6.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Co-precipitation method provided four-fold greater encapsulation efficiency (%) of BSA in LbL-MC compared with adsorption method. At pH 4, the BSA release from LbL-MC was extended up to 120 h. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that BSA encapsulated in LBL-MC through co-precipitation is stable toward trypsin treatment. Conclusion: In conclusion, co-precipitation method provided greater encapsulation of BSA in LbL-MC. Furthermore, LbL-MC can be developed as carriers for pH-controlled protein delivery.