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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 14.:1-7.
Abstract Context: Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. Objective: To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Materials and methods: Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Results: Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy.
- Fusogenic liposomal formulation of sirolimus: improvement of drug anti-proliferative effect on human T-cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 14.:1-8.
Abstract Context: Fusogenic liposomes are unique delivery vehicles capable of introducing their contents directly and efficiently into the cytoplasm. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of fusogenic liposomes containing Sirolimus to improve its anti-proliferative effect on T-lymphocyte cells. Materials and methods: Conventional liposomes containing Sirolimus were prepared from Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol using the modified ethanol injection method. To prepare fusogenic liposomes, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) was added to the conventional liposome formulation. The liposomes were characterized by their size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency percent (EE%) and chemical stability during 6 months. The in vitro release of liposomes, anti-proliferative effect and liposome uptake of both types of liposomes with optimized formulations were studied on human T-lymphocyte cells employing the MTT assay and fluorescein isothiocyanate-loaded liposomes. Results and discussion: The particle size of the liposomes was evaluated between 138 and 650 nm and mean zeta potential was in the range of -32.95 to -45.60 mV. The average EE% of the prepared conventional and fusogenic liposomes were 76.9% and 80.5%, respectively. Liposomal formulations released only 10-20% of encapsulated drug without any burst effect. In vitro immunosuppressive evaluation on T-cells showed that fusogenic liposomes have the best anti-proliferative effects and uptake on T-lymphocyte cell compared to the conventional liposomes. Conclusion: Our results indicated that fusogenic liposomes can be useful carriers for improving the inhibition of T-cell proliferation.
- Development of a solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for solubility enhancement of naproxen. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 13.:1-10.
Abstract Context: Comparative evaluation of liquid and solid self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) as promising approaches for solubility enhancement. Objective: The aim of this work was to develop, characterize, and evaluate a solid SMEDDS prepared via spray-drying of a liquid SMEDDS based on Gelucire® 44/14 to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of naproxen. Material and methods: Various oils and co-surfactants in combination with Gelucire® 44/14 were evaluated during excipient selection study, solubility testing, and construction of (pseudo)ternary diagrams. The selected system was further evaluated for naproxen solubility, self-microemulsification ability, and in vitro dissolution of naproxen. In addition, its transformation into a solid SMEDDS by spray-drying using maltodextrin as a solid carrier was performed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the physical characteristics of the solid SMEDDS obtained. Results: The selected formulation of SMEDDS was comprised of Miglyol 812®, Peceol™, Gelucire® 44/14, and Solutol® HS 15. The liquid and solid SMEDDS formed a microemulsion after dilution with comparable average droplet size and exhibited uniform droplet size distribution. In the solid SMEDDS, liquid SMEDDS was adsorbed onto the surface of maltodextrin and formed smooth granular particles with the encapsulated drug predominantly in a dissolved state and partially in an amorphous state. Overall, incorporation of naproxen in SMEDDS, either liquid or solid, resulted in improved solubility and dissolution rate compared to pure naproxen. Conclusion: This study indicates that a liquid and solid SMEDDS is a strategy for solubility enhancement in the future development of orally delivered dosage forms.
- Mixture design approach for early stage formulation development of a transdermal delivery system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 13.:1-9.
Abstract Transdermal delivery systems (TDS) consisting of mixtures of adhesives also named multiple polymer adhesive systems are rarely found in the market and research has only been performed on a few of them. Following the principles of ICH Q8, a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach was selected for the formulation development. For evaluation of the statistical method of "mixture design", blends of silicon adhesive, acrylic adhesive, oleyl alcohol as a surfactant and ibuprofen as a model drug were considered to be combined at different concentrations. A randomized design of 16 runs with five replicates and five runs to estimate the lack of fit (LOF) was generated. Samples were tested for adhesion properties, stability of the wet mixes, solubility of the API in the matrix and appearance of the matrix. After performing an ANOVA with the results, response surfaces of tack, shear adhesion, extent of creaming, crystallization behavior, droplet size and droplet size range were derived as contour plots. It could be shown that crystal growth of ibuprofen correlates well with droplet size and droplet size range, where lowest values for crystallization were found with mixtures containing small droplets. However, it was observed that oleyl alcohol showed no positive effect on the miscibility of the polymers and no improvement of the solubility of ibuprofen in the mixtures. With a reasonable number of experiments, the development of a design space for a TDS via mixture design gave valuable information on the product as well as on the interactions of the components.
- Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 13.:1-6.
Abstract Context: Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. Objective: The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. Materials and methods: We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. Results: We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. Conclusions: This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.
- Comparative permeability studies with radioactive and nonradioactive risedronate sodium from self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and solution. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Oct 6.:1-6.
Abstract The purpose of this work is to prepare a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for risedronate sodium (RSD) and to compare the permeability with RSD solution. The solubility of RSD was determined in different vehicles. Phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimum concentration of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. RSD SMEDDS was prepared by using a mixture of soybean oil, cremophor EL, span 80, and transcutol (2.02:7.72:23.27:61.74, w/w, respectively). The prepared RSD SMEDDS was characterized by droplet size value. In vitro Caco-2 cell permeability studies were performed for SMEDDS and solution of radioactive ((99 m)Tc-labeled RSD) and nonradioactive RSD. The experimental results indicated that RSD SMEDDS has good stability and its droplet size is between 216.68 ± 3.79 and 225.26 ± 7.65 during stability time. In addition, RSD SMEDDS has higher permeability value than the RSD solution for both radioactive and nonradioactive experiments. The results illustrated the potential use of SMEDDS for delivery of poorly absorbed RSD.
- Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Sep 29.:1-8.
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. Results: PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60 min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Conclusion: Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics.
- The effect of clopidogrel on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its metabolite in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Sep 24.:1-6.
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clopidogrel (CLO) on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine (IVA) and its metabolite in rats and develop a reliable method to determine IVA and its metabolite N-demethyl ivabradine in serum. Healthy male SD rats were randomized to be given 0.8 mg/kg IVA or IVA combined with 8 mg/kg CLO. Blood samples were collected at 0.083, 0.16, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 h after administration. The serum concentrations of IVA and N-demethyl ivabradine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using DASver3.0 software. The parameters of AUC(0 - t), AUC(0 - ∞), and Cmax for IVA in the group of IVA + CLO were significantly higher than those in the group of IVA (p < 0.01); the half-time (t1/2) in the IVA + CLO group was extended compared to IVA (p < 0.01) and CL/F was dropped obviously (p < 0.01). The decreases in AUC(0 - t), AUC(0 - ∞), and Cmax for N-demethyl ivabradine in the group of IVA + CLO was significantly compared to the group of IVA (p < 0.01). CL/F was higher than IVA (p < 0.01) and the t1/2 was slightly increased. In this study, we find that CLO restrains the metabolism of IVA into N-demethyl ivabradine, which may be related to its competitive inhibition effect on cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4(CYP3A4).
- Formulation and evaluation of floating tablet of H2-receptor antagonist. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Sep 22.:1-13.
Abstract Context: Conventional sustained dosage form of ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl) does not prevent frequent administration due to its degradation in colonic media and limited absorption in the upper part of GIT. Objectives: Ranitidine HCl floating tablet was formulated with sublimation method to overcome the stated problem. Methods: Compatibility study for screening potential excipients was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning chromatography (DSC). Selected excipients were further evaluated for optimizing the formulation. Preliminary screening of binder, polymer and sublimating material was based on hardness and drug release, drug release with release kinetics and floating lag time with total floatation time, respectively. Selected excipients were subjected to 3(2) factorial design with polymer and sublimating material as independent factors. Matrix tablets were obtained by using 16/32" flat-faced beveled edges punches followed by sublimation. Results: FT-IR and DSC indicated no significant incompatibility with selected excipients. Klucel-LF, POLYOX WSR N 60 K and l-menthol were selected as binder, polymer and sublimating material, respectively, for factorial design batches after preliminary screening. From the factorial design batches, optimum concentration to release the drug within 12 h was found to be 420 mg of POLYOX and 40 mg of l-menthol. Stability studies indicated the formulation as stable. Conclusion: Ranitidine HCl matrix floating tablets were formulated to release 90% of drug in stomach within 12 h. Hence, release of the drug could be sustained within narrow absorption site. Moreover, the dosage form was found to be floating within a fraction of second independent of the pH of media ensuring a robust formulation.
- Nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel after topical administration: acute skin irritation, pharmacodynamics, and percutaneous absorption mechanism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Sep 18.:1-5.
Abstract In order to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel (FP NLC-gel), the acute irritation test, in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation and pharmacokinetic study were investigated after topical application. No dropsy and erythema were observed after continuous dosing 7 d of FP NLC-gel on the rabbit skin, and the xylene-induced ear drossy could be inhibited by FP NLC-gel at different dosages. The maximum concentration of FP in rats muscle was 2.03 μg/g and 1.55 μg/g after oral and topical administration, respectively. While the peak concentration in untreated muscle after topical administration was only 0.37 μg/mL. And at any time, following topical administration the mean muscle-plasma concentration ratio Cmuscle/CPlasma was obviously higher than that following oral administration. Results indicated that FP could directly penetrate into the subcutaneous muscle tissue from the administration site. Thus, the developed FP NLC-gel could be a safe and effective vehicle for topical delivery of FP.