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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Preparation and in vitro characterization of pluronic-attached polyamidoamine dendrimers for drug delivery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Apr 18.
Abstract Context: Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have attracted lots of interest as drug carriers. And little study about whether pluronic-attached PAMAM dendrimers could be potential drug delivery systems has been carried on. Objective: Pluronic F127 (PF127) attached PAMAM dendrimers were designed as novel drug carriers. Methods: Two conjugation ratios of PF127-attached PAMAM dendrimers were synthesized. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), element analysis and ninhydrin assay were used to characterize the conjugates. Size, zeta potential and critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were also detected. And DOX was incorporated into the hydrophobic interior of the conjugates. Studies on their drug loading and drug release were carried on. Furthermore, hemolysis and cytotoxicity assay were used to evaluate the toxicity of the conjugates. Results and discussion: PF127 was successfully conjugated to the fifth generation PAMAM dendrimer at two molar ratios of 19% and 57% (PF127 to surface amine per PAMAM dendrimer molecular). The conjugates showed an increased size and a reduced zeta potential. And higher CMC values were obtained than pure PF127. Compared with unconjugated PAMAM dendrimer, PF127 conjugation significantly reduced the hemolytic toxicity and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimer in vitro. The encapsulation results showed that the ability to encapsulate DOX by the conjugate of 19% conjugation ratio was better than that of 57% conjugation ratio. And the maximum is ∼12.87 DOX molecules per conjugate molecule. Moreover, the complexes showed a sustained release behavior compared to pure DOX. Conclusion: Findings from the in vitro study show that the PF127-attached PAMAM dendrimers may be potential carriers for drug delivery.
- Investigation of the potential for direct compaction of a fine ibuprofen powder dry-coated with magnesium stearate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Apr 16.
Abstract Intensive dry powder coating (mechanofusion) with tablet lubricants has previously been shown to give substantial powder flow improvement. This study explores whether the mechanofusion of magnesium stearate (MgSt), on a fine drug powder can substantially improve flow, without preventing the powder from being directly compacted into tablets. A fine ibuprofen powder, which is both cohesive and possesses a low-melting point, was dry coated via mechanofusion with between 0.1% and 5% (w/w) MgSt. Traditional low-shear blending was also employed as a comparison. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion. For the low-shear blended powders, only marginal improvement in flowability was obtained. However, after mechanofusion, substantial improvements in the flow properties were demonstrated. Both XPS and ToF-SIMS demonstrated high degrees of a nano-scale coating coverage of MgSt on the particle surfaces from optimized mechanofusion. The study showed that robust tablets were produced from the selected mechanofused powders, at high-dose concentration and tablet tensile strength was further optimized via addition of a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) binder (10% w/w). The tablets with the mechanofused powder (with or without PVP) also exhibited significantly lower ejection stress than those made of the raw powder, demonstrating good lubrication. Surprisingly, the release rate of drug from the tablets made with the mechanofused powder was not retarded. This is the first study to demonstrate such a single-step dry coating of model drug with MgSt, with promising flow improvement, flow-aid and lubrication effects, tabletability and also non-inhibited dissolution rate.
- An ultra-high performance chromatographic method for the determination of artemisinin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Apr 16.
Abstract Objective: The goal of this study is to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of artemisinin at very low concentrations using selective ion mass spectroscopic detection. Materials and methods: Separation was conducted using a C4 100 mm× 2.1 mm column, and the mobile phase consisted of an isocratic two-component system consisting of 60% of a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid and 40% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The drug was detected by means of an electrospray mass spectrometer with selective ion monitoring of the [M-H2O+H](+) with m/z of 265.3 in positive ion mode. Results: The calibration curves of artemisinin obtained from the UPLC/MS system were linear in the three ranges analyzed, with a correlation coefficient of no less than 0.9996 for all sets of standards. The peak tailing factor for all measurements were ≤1.7. The method proved to have good repeatability and linearity. Discussion: The described analytical method reached a LOQ of 0.010 µg/ml with an isocratic system and enables an analysis rate of 20 samples per hour. The linearity of the standards was excellent for all sets of standards analyzed. Conclusion: The method presented in this study provides a rapid and suitable means for the determination of artemisinin at very low concentrations. This is especially significant when performing dissolution studies where, due to the low solubility of artemisinin, a method that can measure the drug at nanogram levels is necessary.
- Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets. [Journal Article]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 May; 40(5):604-10.
Abstract The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55 ± 5 and 35 ± 5 min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets.
- Expression of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 along the porcine oral-gastrointestinal tract: implications on oral mucosal drug delivery. [Journal Article]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 May; 40(5):599-603.
Objectives:To characterize the expression of Pgp and CYP3A4 along the oral-gastrointestinal (GI) tract for understanding the potential roles of CY3A4 and Pgp in oral mucosal drug delivery.
Design:Porcine buccal mucosa, sublingual mucosa, esophagus and jejunum, ileum and colon tissues were used for studying the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 and Pgp. mRNA and protein were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot, respectively. The expression levels of CYP3A4 and Pgp in different segments of oral-GI tract were compared.
Results:Levels of Pgp mRNA were significantly lower (14-40 times lower) in buccal and sublingual mucosa than that in intestine. In contrast, higher levels of CYP3A4 mRNA were observed in the oral mucosa as compared to that in intestine, but the difference was not statistically different. The levels of Pgp protein along the oral-GI tract followed the order: sublingual ∼buccal ∼esophagus < jejunum ∼ileum ∼ colon while the expression of CYP3A4 protein in the oral mucosa was similar to that in intestine.
Conclusion:Expression of Pgp in oral mucosa is lower than that in intestine, while the expression of CYP3A4 in oral mucosa is similar to that in intestine. Because of lower Pgp in oral mucosa, oral mucosal drug delivery can be used as an alternative strategy to avoid the coordination of Pgp and CYP3A4 metabolism in drug absorption. However, CYP3A4-dependent metabolism may play a role in oral mucosal drug delivery as in per oral-GI absorption.
- Preformulation characterization and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs of JFD, a novel anti-obesity drug for oral delivery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Apr 2.
Abstract JFD (N-isoleucyl-4-methyl-1,1-cyclopropyl-1-(4-chlorine)phenyl-2-amylamine·HCl) is a novel investigational anti-obesity drug without obvious cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to characterize the key physicochemical properties of JFD, including solution-state characterization (ionization constant, partition coefficient, aqueous and pH-solubility profile), solid-state characterization (particle size, thermal analysis, crystallinity and hygroscopicity) and drug-excipient chemical compatibility. A supporting in vivo absorption study was also carried out in beagle dogs. JFD bulk powders are prismatic crystals with a low degree of crystallinity, particle sizes of which are within 2-10 μm. JFD is highly hygroscopic, easily deliquesces to an amorphous glass solid and changes subsequently to another crystal form under an elevated moisture/temperature condition. Similar physical instability was also observed in real-time CheqSol solubility assay. pKa (7.49 ± 0.01), log P (5.10 ± 0.02) and intrinsic solubility (S0) (1.75 μg/ml) at 37 °C of JFD were obtained using potentiometric titration method. Based on these solution-state properties, JFD was estimated to be classified as BCS II, thus its dissolution rate may be an absorption-limiting step. Moreover, JFD was more chemically compatible with dibasic calcium phosphate, mannitol, hypromellose and colloidal silicon dioxide than with lactose and magnesium stearate. Further, JFD exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profiling in beagle dogs and the pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t and absolute bioavailability were 1.60 ± 0.81 h, 0.78 ± 0.47 μg/ml, 3.77 ± 1.85 μg·h/ml and 52.30 ± 19.39%, respectively. The preformulation characterization provides valuable information for further development of oral administration of JFD.
- The development of dimple-shaped chitosan carrier for ethambutol dihydrochloride dry powder inhaler. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Apr 2.
Abstract Objective: In this study, a dimple-shaped chitosan carrier was developed for delivering the antituberculosis drug ethambutol dihydrochloride (EDH) from a dry powder inhaler (DPI) to the lungs. Materials and methods: Nanosized drug particles were prepared using nanospray drying. The microsized carrier was developed from a chitosan solution by spray drying. Five formulations were prepared by physically mixing the drug and carrier in different ratios. The physico-chemical properties of the formulations were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultracentrifugation and a cascade impactor. Result and discussion: The EDH size was 222 nm and the chitosan carrier size was 1.2 µm. Five formulations, i.e. 1:2, 1:2.5, 1:3.3, 1:5 and 1:10 w/w of the EDH to chitosan carrier were prepared by physical mixing. The chitosan carrier was spherical in shape with a dimpled surface and this provided shallow cavities to which the drug was bound, both within its grooves as well as on its surface. The median adhesion force (50% of drug detachment) for formulations #1 to #5 was between 122 and 993 µN. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the EDH was between 2.3 and 2.7 μm, with the fine particle fractions (aerosolized particles less than 4.4 μm) of 32-42% of the nominal dose. Conclusion: We suggest that ethambutol dihydrochloride mixed with a chitosan carrier was suitable for use in a dry powder inhaler for controlling tuberculosis especially in minimizing the risk of multidrug resistant tuberculosis and the possible side effects from EDH.
- Erratum. [Journal Article]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 May; 40(5):699.
- Enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of grapefruit flavonoid Naringenin by solid dispersion utilizing fourth generation carrier. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 26.
Abstract Context: Naringenin (NRG), the aglycone flavonoid present in grapefruits, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-lipid peroxidation and hepato-protective effects. However, it is poorly soluble in water and exhibits slow dissolution after oral ingestion, thus restricting its therapeutic efficacy. Objective: With the aim to enhance the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of NRG, solid dispersion technique has been applied using Soluplus® as carrier. Methods: Solid dispersions of NRG were prepared by solvent evaporation and kneading methods using various ratios (1:4, 3:7, 2:3 and 1:1) of NRG:Carrier. Characterization of the optimized formulations was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The in vivo behavior of the optimized formulations was also investigated in Wistar Albino rats. Results: NRG solid dispersion showed a significantly higher solubility and drug dissolution rate than pure NRG (p < 0.001) and it followed the Higuchi model. Among the different methods employed for the preparation of solid dispersions, solvent evaporation showed better drug release profile. DSC analysis indicated reduced crystallinity of NRG as no discrete peaks of NRG were observed. This was further substantiated by XRD analysis. Furthermore, area under the drug concentration time-curve (AUC) of NRG from solid dispersion revealed a significant increase in NRG absorption compared to NRG alone. Conclusion: Based on these results, it was concluded that solid dispersion technique markedly enhances the in vitro drug release and in vivo behavior of the grapefruit flavonoid NRG.
- Co-administration with cell penetrating peptide enhances the oral bioavailability of docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 26.
Abstract This study proposes a novel docetaxel (DTX) cyclodextrin inclusion-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (D-CNPs) system with cell penetrating peptide (CPP), and evaluates its potential for oral administration of DTX. Heptaarginine (R7) was used as the CPP. D-CNPs were prepared by the double-emulsification method. The mean particle size and zeta potential of the resulting D-CNPs were 198.7 ± 12.56 nm and -27.25 ± 4.62 mV, respectively, and their mean encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 80.35 ± 6.37% and 1.02 ± 0.15%, respectively. The morphology of the D-CNPs was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The release behavior of the D-CNPs was studied by using the dialysis method. The relative bioavailability of D-CNPs and D-CNPs co-administered with R7 was enhanced about 5.57- and 9.43-fold, respectively, compared with the free DTX suspension. Furthermore, D-CNPs with R7 displayed maximum cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells in MTT assay. D-CNPs co-administered with R7 showed markedly higher fluorescence intensity than D-CNPs without CPP. The results suggest that the D-CNPs co-administered with R7 could be a potential delivery system with excellent therapeutic efficacy for targeting the drugs to cancer cells.