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Drug Dev Ind Pharm [journal]
- Novel oral amphotericin B formulation (iCo-010) remains highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis following exposure to tropical temperature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 29.:1-6.
Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the antifungal activity of amphotericin B (AmB) in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis following administration of a novel oral AmB formulation (iCo-010) that has been pre-exposed to tropical temperatures. Methods: Amphotericin B (AmB) was prepared as a 5 mg/mL dispersion in a mixture of Peceol, Gelucire 44/14 and VitE-TPGS 2,3 (iCo-010). The formulation was protected from light and incubated in a sealed container at 43 °C for 60 days. Mice infected with Candida albicans were treated with either iCo-010 formulation pre-incubated at 43 °C for 60 days or freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg once daily for five consecutive days. Single intravenous 5 mg/kg dose of AmBisome® was used as a positive control group. Seven days following the last dose, the kidney, liver, spleen, lung, heart and brain were removed and the number of colony forming units (CFUs) was determined as a measure of tissue fungal load. In addition, the concentration of AmB within each tissue was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: There were no significant differences in the reduction of CFUs and the concentration of AmB recovered in all organs at all iCo-010 doses tested between the freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation compared to the formulation that was incubated at 43 °C for 60 days. Conclusions: A novel oral AmB formulation, iCo-010, incubated at 43 °C for 60 days to simulate the exposure of the formulation to tropical temperatures remained highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis.
- Investigation of factors affecting in vitro doxorubicin release from PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin for the development of in vitro release testing conditions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 29.:1-11.
Abstract Establishing appropriate drug release testing methods of liposomal products for assuring quality and performance requires the determination of factors affecting in vitro drug release. In this study, we investigated the effects of test conditions (human plasma lot, pH/salt concentration in the test media, dilution factor, temperature, ultrasound irradiation, etc.), and liposomal preparation conditions (pH/concentration of ammonium sulfate solution), on doxorubicin (DXR) release from PEGylated liposomal DXR. Higher temperature and lower pH significantly increased DXR release. The evaluation of DXR solubility indicated that the high DXR release induced by low pH may be attributed to the high solubility of DXR at low pH. Ultrasound irradiation induced rapid DXR release in an amplitude-dependent manner. The salt concentration in the test solution, human plasma lot, and dilution factor had a limited impact on DXR-release. Variations in the ammonium sulfate concentration used in solutions for the formation/hydration of liposomes significantly affected DXR release behavior, whereas differences in pH did not. In addition, heating condition in phosphate-buffered saline at lower pH (<6.5) exhibited higher discriminative ability for the release profiles from various liposomes with different concentrations of ammonium sulfate than did ultrasound irradiation. These results are expected to be helpful in the process of establishing appropriate drug release testing methods for PEGylated liposomal DXR.
- Effect of surface capping on targeting potential of folate decorated poly (propylene imine) dendrimers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 28.:1-7.
Abstract Objective: The objective of the present investigation was to assess and compare the effect of surface capping by different groups (-OH, -COOH and -NH2) on tumor targeting potential of folate conjugated poly (propylene imine) (PPI) (F-PPI) dendrimers using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Materials and methods: The synthesized nanoconjugates (F-PPI, F-COOH-PPI, F-OH-PPI and F-CONH-PPI) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The formulations were evaluated for drug entrapment, in vitro drug release and hemolytic toxicity, and cytotoxicity was evaluated on HeLa and SiHa cell line using MTT assay. Results: In case of all surface capped formulation, Methotrexate (MTX) loading was found to increased; however MTX release rate was found to decrease as compared to unmodified formulation. Further, F-COOH-PPI displayed highest tumor targeting potential as compared to other formulations. This is the first study to explore the effect of surface capping on the targeting potential of folate-conjugated fifth generation (5.0 G) PPI dendrimer. Conclusions: In conclusion, the targeting potential of all the formulations (anticancer activity) for both HeLa and SiHa cells follows in the following order: F-COOH-PPI > F-OH-PPI > F-CONH-PPI > F-PPI.
- Preparation, physical characterization and pharmacokinetic study of paclitaxel nanocrystals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 26.:1-10.
Abstract Paclitaxel (PTX) is a natural broad-spectrum anticancer drug with poor aqueous solubility. PTX nanocrystals were formulated to improve the water solubility, and PTX nanosuspensions were prepared using anti-solvent precipitation, and then organic solvent and surfactants were removed by filtering through a vacuum system. The physical characterization of PTX nanocrystals were measured by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, saturation solubility, in vitro release, stability and pharmacokinetic characteristics were examined. The average particle size of PTX nanocrystals was ∼200 nm, and they had a stable potential and a uniform distribution. Paclitaxel nanocrystals can effectively improve drug solubility and in vitro release. PTX pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies were compared after intravenous administration of nanocrystals versus a commercial injection formulation. PTX nanocrystals were rapidly distributed with a longer elimination phase. Moreover, tissue distribution indicated that PTX nanocrystals are mainly absorbed by the liver and spleen and may offer reduced renal and cardiovascular toxicity which may reduce side effects.
- Development of β-cyclodextrin-based sustained release microparticles for oral insulin delivery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 26.:1-6.
Abstract Polymeric microparticles have been previously demonstrated to deliver various therapeutic agents efficiently to targeted regions by protecting the drug from harsh gastric milieu of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of β-cyclodextrin polymeric insulin microparticles in diabetic rats via the oral route of administration. β-cyclodextrin microparticles were prepared by a unique one-step spray-drying technique and stabilized by incorporating enteric retardant polymers in the formulation. The insulin-loaded microparticles had a mean size of 0.8 ± 0.25 μm with a zeta potential of 3.57 + 0.62 mV. As seen with the chromatographic analysis, the drug content in the microparticles was determined to be 94.9 ± 2.77%. RAW macrophage cells showed greater than 80% viability after 24 h of incubation with the insulin and blank microparticles. For the in vitro release study, the microparticles were able to protect the insulin in gastric fluid where no significant release was detected, followed by only 50% release in intestinal fluid for the first 8 h of the study. This was seen to correlate with the in vivo data where 50% glucose inhibition was seen after 8 h of oral administration in diabetic rats. This data suggest that the oral insulin microparticles were able to reduce glucose levels in disease conditions and would be a favorable route of administration to patients as an alternative to daily subcutaneous injections.
- Formulation, characterization and clinical evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride gel for transdermal treatment of superficial infantile hemangioma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 25.:1-11.
Abstract The objective of the present study is to formulate and characterize propranolol hydrochloride (PPL · HCl) gel, and to evaluate the efficacy of this formulation in transdermal treatment for superficial infantile hemangioma (IH). The transdermal PPL · HCl gel was prepared by a direct swelling method, which chose hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the matrix and used terpenes plus alcohols as permeation enhancer. Permeation studies of PPL · HCl were carried out with modified Franz diffusion cells through piglet skin. Our results pointed to that among all studied permeation enhancers, farnesol plus isopropanol was the most effective combination (Q24, 6027.4 ± 563.1 μg/cm(2), ER, 6.8), which was significantly higher than that of control gel (p < 0.05). High percutaneous penetration with related lower plasma drug level of PPL · HCl gel was confirmed by microdialysis technique in rats using the homemade PPL · HCl oral solution as a control. Clinical studies also confirmed the excellent therapeutic response and few side effects of the PPL · HCl gel. These results suggest that transdermal application of the PPL · HCl gel is an effective and safe formulation in treating superficial IH.
- Nanostructured lipid carriers based nanogel for meloxicam delivery: mechanistic, in-vivo and stability evaluation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 25.:1-8.
Abstract Aim: Our investigation was aimed to investigate the potential suitability of meloxicam-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (MLX-NLC) gel for topical application. Main methods: MLX-NLC gel was prepared and in vivo skin penetration ability of the NLC gel was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We studied the effect of MLX-NLC gel on the changes in lipid profile of skin to get an insight into its skin penetration enhancement mechanism. Acetic acid induced writhing test was performed to evaluate the analgesic effect. Drug concentration-time profile of MLX in rat plasma and skin after topical and oral treatment with MLX-NLC gel and oral MLX-solution, respectively, was observed. MLX-NLC gel was subjected to primary skin irritation test, sub-acute dermal toxicity study. Storage stability of MLX-NLC gel was also assessed for 90 days. Key findings: NLC gel was effective in permeating Rhodamine 123 to deeper layers of rat skin. Changes in skin lipid prolife were observed in the rat skin on treatment with MLX-NLC gel and the results supported skin lipid extraction as a possible penetration enhancement mechanism. MLX-NLC gel demonstrated sustained pain inhibitory effect. Pharmacokinetics study established that topical application of MLX-NLC gel had the potential to avoid systemic uptake and hence the risk of systemic adverse effects. MLX-NLC gel demonstrated good skin tolerability and biosafety. Excellent physical stability of nanogel was observed at 4 ± 2 °C. Significance: The study revealed that NLC gel is a promising carrier system for the topical application of MLX without side effects.
- Effect of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism on the metabolism of flurbiprofen in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 21.:1-5.
Abstract CYP2C9 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme superfamily, and 57 cytochrome P450 2C9 alleles have been previously reported. To examine the enzymatic activity of the CYP2C9 alleles, kinetic parameters for 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen were determined using recombinant human P450s CYP2C9 microsomes from insect cells Sf21 carrying wild-type CYP2C9*1 and other variants. The results showed that the enzyme activity of most of the variants decreased comparing with the wild type as the previous studies reported, while the enzyme activity of some of them increased, which were not in accordance with the previous researches. Of the 36 tested CYP2C9 allelic isoforms, two variants (CYP2C9*53 and CYP2C9*56) showed a higher intrinsic clearance value than the wild-type protein, especially for CYP2C9*56, exhibited much higher intrinsic clearance (197.3%) relative to wild-type CYP2C9*1, while the remaining 33 CYP2C9 allelic isoforms exhibited significantly decreased clearance values (from 0.6 to 83.8%) compared to CYP2C9*1. This study provided the most comprehensive data on the enzymatic activities of all reported CYP2C9 variants in the Chinese population with regard to the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flurbiprofen (FP). The results indicated that most of the tested rare alleles decreased the catalytic activity of CYP2C9 variants toward FP hydroxylation in vitro. This is the first report of all these rare alleles for FP metabolism providing fundamental data for further clinical studies on CYP2C9 alleles for FP metabolism in vivo.
- Analysis of curing of a sustained release coating formulation by application of NIR spectroscopy to monitor changes associated with glyceryl monostearate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 20.:1-11.
Abstract For controlled release, latex or pseudolatex coatings to function as designed, it must be cured at temperatures at or slightly above the polymer's glass transition temperature. The focus of this study is to develop an understanding of the curing process and to develop near infrared spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring curing. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were used to determine how the thermal properties of glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and its polymorphic forms relate to the extent of Eudragit® polymer coat curing at different curing temperatures. The different GMS melting endotherms were used to monitor the extent of curing and as references for model development. The calculated melting peak areas for the GMS were plotted versus time and found to be dependent on time and temperature used for curing. Principal component analysis and parallel factor analysis were used to investigate the effect of curing on the films and showed that spectral changes could be could be directly related to the changes associated with the GMS during curing. Partial least square models developed could predict the extent of curing and the final state of GMS post curing.
- Preparation and evaluation of SEDDS of simvastatin by in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo technique. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Aug 20.:1-5.
Abstract The objective of this work was to formulate a Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) of simvastatin, a poorly soluble drug and to evaluate by in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo techniques. Oils and surfactants were screened out depending upon their solubilizing capacity. Among all of the solvents, Capryol 90 showed good solubilizing capacity. It dissolved 105 mg/ml of simvastatin. Tween-80 also showed good solubilizing capacity which was 117 mg/ml. The two excipients were used to prepare simvastatin SEDDS. Formulations were initially checked for the color, clarity and sedimentation. The SEDDS formulations were transparent and clear. Formulation F2 containing 7:3 (m/m) mixture of Capryol 90/Tween-80 produced smallest micro-emulsion with particles size of 0.074 µm and drug release was higher than other formulation (102% within 20 min). Ex vivo study of the SEDDS formulation was evaluated using guinea pig intestinal sac. Drug diffused from F2 formulation was significantly higher than pure drug (p < 0.001). In vivo study of SEDDS was performed in albino mice using plasma cholesterol level as a pharmacodynamic marker parameter. The test formulation (F2) appeared remarkable reduction in plasma cholesterol level, after oral administration which showed that SEDDS may be an effective technique for the oral administration of simvastatin.