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East Mediterr Health J [journal]
- Implementing the essential medicine concept in the country with the highest GDP per capita in the world. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):94-6.
Qatar, an oil-exporting country with a population of about 1.7 million, achieved the highest gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in the world in 2010. Total health expenditure as a percentage of GDP in 2010 in Qatar was 2.0%, with the government's share at 75% of the total health care budget. Hamad Medical Corporation hospitals and the independent public Qatar Primary Health Care PHC) centres are the main public health care service providers. PHC consists of 24 centres providing a wide range of health services. The PHC medicines list is a subset of the Hamad Medical Corporation medicine list. However, the PHC list of medicines could be improved both in its selection procedures and medicines included to correlate more directly to type of medical services provided by the Qatar PHC system in its different types of centres.
- Salmonella spp. in patients suffering from enteric fever and food poisoning in Thamar city, Yemen. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):88-93.
Salmonella remains a public health concern around the world, including Yemen although data on its incidence are few. This study determined the incidence of Salmonella infection in 250 enteric fever and 210 food poisoning cases attending Thamar general hospital and Dar Alshafaa medical clinic in 2008. In total, 773 clinical specimens were taken: 250 blood, 187 urine and 336 stool samples. Of the patients with enteric fever and food poisoning, 16.4% and 15.2% respectively were infected with Salmonella. The serovars isolated were: Salmonella Typhi (45.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (24.4%), Salmonella Paratyphi B (14.4%), Salmonella Typhimurium (13.3%) and Salmonella Paratyphi A (2.2%). The distribution of somatic groups was: D (70%), B (727.7%)) and A (2.2%). None of the isolates was resistant to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftriaxone or moxifloxacin, while 71.1% were resistant to co-trimoxazole, 62.2% to gentamicin, 56.6% to ampicillin and 35.5% to nalidixic acid.
- Quality of the clinical laboratory department in a specialized hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):81-7.
Assessment and improvement of turnaround times (TAT) as well as customer satisfaction is essential for laboratory quality management. This study in a specialized hospital in Alexandria, Egypt measured the current TAT for outpatient department bilirubin samples and evaluated the satisfaction of physicians with aspects of clinical laboratory services. While the mean TAT for 110 bilirubin tests [58.1 (SD 31.8) min] was within the College of American Pathologists' benchmark, the 90th percentile was long (96.7 min); 62.7% of tests were reported within 60 min. The mean overall satisfaction score of physicians (range 1-5) was 3.46 (SD 0.49). The highest satisfaction rating was for staff courtesy while the lowest ratings were for laboratory management responsiveness, outpatient stat TAT and critical value notification. Quality or reliability of results was judged by physicians as the most important factor (32.3%), followed by routine test TAT (18.5%). Further analysis of the different steps of the TAT would be helpful and follow-up through examining outliers is recommended
- Epidemiological characterization of P. aeruginosa isolates of intensive care units in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):71-80.
This study aimed to characterize Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in 2 intensive care units in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. P. aeruginosa isolates from patients' and staff hands and environmental samples were typed using antibiotyping and ERIC-PCR. In Egypt, isolates from suction apparatus tubing and drainage containers (A7) and AV tubing (A8) were linked to those from patients who had these antibiotypes. In Saudi Arabia, isolates from suction apparatus tubing (A6) and AV tubing (A7) were linked to patients with the same antibiotypes. In Egypt, patients' isolates had ERIC VII, VIll and IX patterns linked to suction apparatus tubing, AV machine tubes and drainage containers. In Saudi Arabia, patients' isolates had ERIC VIII and XI patterns linked to suction apparatus tubing and AV machines. In Egypt and Saudi Arabia, ERIC typing gave higher discriminatory indices (0.801 and 0.785 respectively) than the antibiotyping (0.7123 and 0.728 respectively). ERIC was superior to antibiotyping and should be used in tracing sources of infection.
- Acute respiratory infection and malnutrition among children below 5 years of age in Erbil governorate, Iraq. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):66-70.
Malnutrition is an important risk factor for acute respiratory infection (ARI), which is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children aged < 5 years. This case-control study aimed to determine the relationship between nutritional status and ARI among young children aged < 5 years attending a teaching hospital in Erbil, Iraq. Children admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of ARI over a4-month period in 2006-2007 (n = 190) were compared with a control group without ARI (n = 192). Significantly more ARI cases were male (64.7% versus 53.1%) and the meanwas lower [15.6 (SD 15.4) versus 26.4 (SD 19.7) monthsl. Weight and height were lower in the ARI group but there was no significant difference in weight-for-age or in height-for-age. There was a significant association between ARI and indicators of malnutrition according to the Gomez and Welcome anthropometric criteria but not the Waterlow criteria.
- Trends of skin cancer incidence in 6 geographical regions of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2000-2005. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):59-65.
Data about the incidence of skin cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran are lacking. This study investigated trends in the incidence of skin cancer (lCD-10 category C44, other malignant neoplasms of skin) in 6 regions using data from the Iranian cancer registry from 2000 to 2005. The standardized incidence rates in each year were calculated by the direct method using the standard World Health Organization population and a Poisson regression model was applied to analyse trends. Over the study period, 30 701 cases of cancer were identified, rising from 2353 in 2000 to 8484 in 2005. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6. The age-standardized incidence rose significantly from 3.8 cases per 100 000 in 2000 to 13.0 in 2005 (slope = 0.26), and the same trend was seen in all regions except the region to the east of the Caspian Sea. This increasing incidence of skin cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran is similar to that reported in other countries.
- [Evaluation of the care for diabetes patients by general practitioners in the province of Khourigba, Morocco]. [English Abstract, Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):52-8.
Diabetes is a disease of concern due to its increasing frequency and high cost of care. This cross-sectional study evaluated the types of care provided to diabetes patients in primary care for management of the condition. Between December 2010 and March 2011, 54 general practitioners (CPs) in health centres in Khouribga province were asked to complete a pretested questionnaire on their care of diabetes patients. For type 2 diabetes, 46% of the CPs would prescribe diet and lifestyle treatment alone. The practice setting influenced how treatment was managed for typel diabetes patients: 88.5% of rural doctors prescribed premixed insulin versus 58.3% of urban GPs (P = 0.02). Insulin analogues were prescribed by 20.8% of urban GPs as against 3.8% of rural GPs (P = 0.09). There are several shortcomings in the quality of care for diabetes patients. Training GPs could be a solution, especially with the lack of specialists in our country.
- Study of the effect of dietary counselling on the improvement of end-stage renal disease patients. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):45-51.
Proper nutrition may help to reverse the wasting syndrome in dialysis patients with kidney disease on dialysis. This intervention study aimed to identify malnutrition problems and assess the effect of dietary counselling on improvement of health status of end-stage renal disease patients subjected to haemodialysis. Pre-intervention data were collected from 41 patients attending El Haram dialysis centre, Giza, Egypt; 97.5% of the patients were considered mildly to moderately malnourished and multiple malnutrition problems were detected (protein-energy malnutrition, hypocalcaemia, and anaemia and hyperphosphataemia). Nutritional counselling sessions resulted in statistically significant post-intervention improvements in Karnofsky performance scale scores, malnutrition inflammation scores and nutritional knowledge of the patients. Providing one-to-one nutrition counselling could be linked to improvements in the patients' nutritional knowledge and practices and to their health status and performance in activities of daily life.
- Pattern of psychiatric illnesses among long-stay patients at Mental Health Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia: a 10-year retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):37-44.
To identify the pattern and determinants of psychiatric illness and the predictors of long stay among long-stay patients at the Mental Health Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia, we examined a total of 430 records of patients who had been admitted during the period January 1999-January 2009 and had stayed for > 9 months. More than half these patients had a history of drug addiction (60.7%). The majority were diagnosed with schizophrenia (88.8%) and mental retardation was reported in 17.7%. Personality disorders and epilepsy were diagnosed in 3.7% and 1.9% of the participants respectively. The mean duration of hospital stay was 6.16 (standard deviation 2.32; range 1-10) years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia accompanied by mental retardation, those with lower education levels, and those with a history of co-morbid chronic diseases stayed for more than 2 years.
- Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities. [Journal Article]
- East Mediterr Health J 2013 Jan; 19(1):30-6.
The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.