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Endocrinol Nutr [journal]
- Thyrotropin reference values in the first trimester of pregnancy. [LETTER]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 10.
- Determining factors in body mass index of Spanish schoolchildren based on the National Health Surveys. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 9.
INTRODUCTION:Spanish National Health Surveys do not establish synergistic relations between variables. The purpose of this study was to perform a deeper historical analysis of body mass index (BMI) and its relation to other parameters included in the questionnaire for children.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:Data from interviews conducted (between 1987 and 2006) to parents and guardians of schoolchildren aged 9-15 years were analyzed. Height and weight reported by parents were selected and used to calculate BMI. Subjects were stratified by age, gender, time spent sleeping and watching television and, finally, frequency of physical activity. The historical trend of BMI and its dependence on the above factors were analyzed using ANOVA tests.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:Significant weight and height increases were seen, which were more marked in boys aged 12 to 15 years. Influence of physical activity on BMI was shown, but decreased (P<.001) as exercise time increased. By contrast, BMI increased (P<.001) as time spent watching television increased. On the other hand, the role of sleep as modulator of body size was confirmed, since schoolchildren aged 9-11 years who slept over 9h had lower BMIs (P<.001). In subjects aged 12 to 15, BMI decreased (P<.001) from 6h of sleep.
- Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 8.
OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers.
RESULTS:Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; P<.001) risk of having lower physical capacity values for VO2max (≤31.5mL/kg/min(-1)).
CONCLUSIONS:In sedentary adults, muscle strength is associated to early manifestations of CVR. It is suggested that muscle strength testing is added to routine measurement of VO2max and traditional risk factors for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk.
- Diabetes mellitus and depressive disorder, an undesirable association. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 7.
Type 2 diabetes and depressive disorder are 2 chronic diseases highly prevalent in developed countries and with a negative impact on quality of life and life expectancy. In recent years, both conditions have been shown to be strongly associated. Thus, diabetics have an increased risk of suffering depressive disorder, as well as impaired glucose homeostasis, if they experience depression. In diabetic patients, concurrent depression is associated to greater difficulties in disease management and metabolic control, increased risk of developing chronic complications, decreased quality of life, and higher healthcare expenses. As a result, the interest of diabetic scientific societies in this association has increased, and they recommend regular mood assessment in diabetic patients. However, the limited clinical experience available and the conflicting results reported to date make it difficult to draw conclusions.
- Iodine intake during pregnancy: Effects on thyroid function in mother and child. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 7.
INTRODUCTION:Recent studies in Spain have shown an inadequate iodine intake in a significant proportion of pregnant women. Pregnancy increases thyroid hormone requirements, and adequate iodine intake is therefore needed.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:One hundred and forty-seven women in their third trimester (week 37) of pregnancy provided a blood sample and a 24-hour urine sample to test serum and urine iodine levels and completed a food frequency questionnaire to assess iodine intake during pregnancy. Serum TSH levels were measured in the babies born to the 140 mothers in the postpartum group.
RESULTS:Only 10.9% of pregnant women consumed more than 250μg iodine daily, and 24.4% of them consumed less than 100μg daily. Mean free T4 levels were 9.37pmol/L, and 74 women (54.41%) had levels below the hypothyroxinemia threshold. TSH levels were normal in 135 newborns (96.4%), while 5 (3.6%) had levels higher than 5μU/mL.
- Normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism: Recommendations for management and follow-up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 6.
OBJECTIVE:To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and follow-up of patients with normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism.
PARTICIPANTS:Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology.
METHODS:A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (PubMed), using the terms normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism and primary hyperparathyroidism, for articles in English published before 22 November 2012. Literature was reviewed by 2 members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology, and after development of recommendations, the manuscript was reviewed by all other members of the Group, and their suggestions were incorporated.
CONCLUSIONS:The document provides practical recommendations for evaluation and follow-up of patients with normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism. There is however little evidence available about different aspects of this disease, mainly progression rate and clinical impact. More data are therefore needed before definite recommendations may be made.
- Improvement in functional capacity after levothyroxine treatment in patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 6.
AIM:To assess whether levothyroxine treatment improves functional capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association class i-iii) and subclinical hypothyroidism.
METHODS:One hundred and sixty-three outpatients with stable chronic heart failure followed up for at least 6 months were enrolled. A physical examination was performed, and laboratory tests including thyroid hormone levels, Doppler echocardiogram, radionuclide ventriculography, and Holter monitoring were requested. Functional capacity was assessed by of the 6-min walk test. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were detected and, after undergoing the s6-min walk test, were given replacement therapy. When they reached normal thyrotropin (TSH) levels, the 6-min walk test was performed again. The distance walked in both tests was recorded, and the difference in meters covered by each patient was analyzed.
RESULTS:Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart failure was 13%. These patients walked 292±63m while they were hypothyroid and 350±76m when TSH levels returned to normal, a difference of 58±11m (P<.011). Patients with normal baseline TSH levels showed no significant difference between the 2 6-min walk tests.
CONCLUSIONS:Patients with chronic heart failure and subclinical hypothyroidism significantly improved their physical performance when normal TSH levels were reached.
- Practical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 May 6.
Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH secretion, usually by a pituitary adenoma. It is an uncommon disease. Diagnosis is made by showing elevated GH and IGF-I levels in patients with a clinical picture suggesting the condition. Once excess GH is confirmed by biochemical tests, MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary area should be performed to ascertain the source of excess GH. Transsphenoidal surgery of the pituitary adenoma is the treatment of choice. However, introduction of new drugs has changed the treatment sequence in recent years. Medical treatment with somatostatin analogues may be indicated as primary treatment in patients in whom surgery is not expected to be curative or is contraindicated. The GH receptor antagonist should be use in patients not controlled after surgery who do not adequately respond to somatostatin analogues. Radiotherapy would be indicated in patients not controlled after surgery and medical treatment or with large tumor remnants after surgery.
- Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Endocrinol Nutr 2013 Apr 24.
Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for deteting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker.