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Environ Mol Mutagen [journal]
- Measuring the exposome: A powerful basis for evaluating environmental exposures and cancer risk. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 May 16.
Advances in laboratory sciences offer much in the challenge to unravel the complex etiology of cancer and to therefore provide an evidence-base for prevention. One area where improved measurements are particularly important to epidemiology is exposure assessment; this requirement has been highlighted through the concept of the exposome. In addition, the ability to observe genetic and epigenetic alterations in individuals exposed to putative risk factors also affords an opportunity to elucidate underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis, which in turn may allow earlier detection and more refined molecular classification of disease. In this context the application of omics technologies to large population-based studies and their associated biobanks raise exciting new avenues of research. This review considers the areas of genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics and metabolomics and the evidence to date that people exposed to well-defined factors (for example, tobacco, diet, occupational exposures, environmental pollutants) have specific omics profiles. Although in their early stages of development these approaches show promising evidence of distinct exposure-derived biological effects and indicate molecular pathways that may be particularly relevant to the carcinogenic process subsequent to environmental and lifestyle exposures. Such an interdisciplinary approach is vital if the full benefits of advances in laboratory sciences and investments in large-scale prospective cohort studies are to be realized in relation to cancer prevention. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Phenolphthalein induces centrosome amplification and tubulin depolymerization in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 May 16.
Aneuploidy is a major cause of human reproductive failure and plays a large role in cancer. Phenolphthalein (PHT) induces tumors in rodents but its primary mechanism does not seem to be DNA damage. In heterozygous TSG-p53(®) mice, PHT induces lymphomas and also micronuclei (MN), many containing kinetochores (K), implying chromosome loss (aneuploidy). The induction of aneuploidy would be compatible with the loss of the normal p53 gene seen in the lymphomas. In this study, we confirm PHT's aneugenicity and determine the aneugenic mechanism of PHT by combining traditional genetic toxicology assays with image and flow cytometry methods. The data revealed that PHT induces tubulin polymerization abnormalities and deregulates the centrosome duplication cycle causing centrosome amplification. We also show that one of the consequences of these events is apoptosis. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- A role for Myh1 in DNA repair after treatment with strand-breaking and crosslinking chemotherapeutic agents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 May 16.
The highly conserved DNA glycosylase MutY is implicated in repair of oxidative DNA damage, in particular in removing adenines misincorporated opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G). The MutY homologues (MutYH) physically associate with proteins implicated in replication, DNA repair, and checkpoint signaling, specifically with the DNA damage sensor complex 9-1-1 proteins. Here, we ask whether MutYH could have a broader function in sensing and repairing different types of DNA damage induced by conventional chemotherapeutics. Thus, we examined if deletion of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe MutY homologue, Myh1, alone or in combination with deletion of either component of the 9-1-1 sensor complex, influences survival after exposure to different classes of DNA damaging chemotherapeutics that do not act primarily by causing 8-oxoG lesions. We show that Myh1 contributes to survival on genotoxic stresses induced by the oxidizing, DNA double strand break-inducing, bleomycins, or the DNA crosslinking platinum compounds, particularly in a rad1 mutant background. Exposure of cells to cisplatin leads to a moderate overall accumulation of Myh1 protein. Interestingly, we found that DNA damage induced by phleomycin results in increased chromatin association of Myh1. Further, we demonstrate that Myh1 relocalizes to the nucleus after exposure to hydrogen peroxide or chemotherapeutics, most prominently seen after phleomycin treatment. These observations indicate a wider role of Myh1 in DNA repair and DNA damage-induced checkpoint activation than previously thought.Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Gender-specific transcriptomic response to environmental exposure in flemish adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 May 8.
Flanders, Belgium, is one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. The Flemish Environment and Health Survey (2002-2006) aimed at determining exposure to pollutants of neonates, adolescents, and older adults and to assess associated biological and health effects. This study investigated genome wide gene expression changes associated with a range of environmental pollutants, including cadmium, lead, PCBs, dioxin, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE, benzene, and PAHs. Gene expression levels were measured in peripheral blood cells of 20 adults with relatively high and 20 adults with relatively low combined internal exposure levels, all non-smokers aged 50-65. Pearson correlation was used to analyze associations between pollutants and gene expression levels, separately for both genders. Pollutant- and gender-specific correlation analysis results were obtained. For organochlorine pollutants, analysis within genders revealed that genes were predominantly regulated in opposite directions in males and females. Significantly modulated pathways were found to be associated with each of the exposure biomarkers measured. Pathways and/or genes related to estrogen and STAT5 signaling were correlated to organochlorine exposures in both genders. Our work demonstrates that gene expression in peripheral blood is influenced by environmental pollutants. In particular, gender-specific changes are associated with organochlorine pollutants, including gender-specific modulation of endocrine related pathways and genes. These pathways and genes have previously been linked to endocrine disruption related disorders, which in turn have been associated with organochlorine exposure. Based on our results, we recommend that males and females be considered separately when analyzing gene expression changes associated with exposures that may include chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Catalase has a key role in protecting cells from the genotoxic effects of monomethylarsonous acid: A highly active metabolite of arsenic. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 May 3.
Although it is widely known that arsenic-contaminated drinking water causes many diseases, arsenic's exact mode of action (MOA) is not fully understood. Induction of oxidative stress has been proposed as an important key event in the toxic MOA of arsenic. The authors' studies are centered on identifying a reactive species involved in the genotoxicity of arsenic using a catalase (CAT) knockout mouse model that is impaired in its ability to breakdown hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). The authors assessed the induction of DNA damage using the Comet assay following exposure of mouse Cat(+/) (+) and Cat(-) (/) (-) primary splenic lymphocytes to monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III) ) to identify the potential role of H2 O2 in mediating cellular effects of this metalloid. The results showed that the Cat(-) (/) (-) lymphocytes are more susceptible to MMA(III) than the Cat(+/) (+) lymphocytes by a small (1.5-fold) but statistically significant difference. CAT activity assays demonstrated that liver tissue has approximately three times more CAT activity than lymphocytes. Therefore, Comet assays were performed on primary Cat(+/) (+) , Cat(+/) (-) , and Cat(-) (/) (-) hepatocytes to determine if the Cat(-) (/) (-) cells were more susceptible to MMA(III) than lymphocytes. The results showed that the Cat(-) (/) (-) hepatocytes exhibit higher levels of DNA strand breakage than the Cat(+/) (+) (approximately fivefold) and Cat(+/) (-) (approximately twofold) hepatocytes exposed to MMA(III) . Electron spin resonance using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as the spin-trap agent detected the generation of ·OH via MMA(III) when H2 O2 was present. These experiments suggest that CAT is involved in protecting cells against the genotoxic effects of the ·OH generated by MMA(III) . Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- An assessment of the genetic toxicology of novel boron-containing therapeutic agents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 Apr 26.
Boron-containing compounds are being studied as potential therapeutic agents. As part of the safety assessment of these therapeutic agents, a battery of genetic toxicology studies was conducted. The battery included a bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, an in vitro chromosome aberration assay in peripheral human lymphocytes, and an in vivo rat micronucleus study. The following compounds represent some of the boron-containing compounds that have been advanced to human clinical trials in various therapeutic areas. The borinic picolinate, AN0128, is an antibacterial compound with anti-inflammatory activity that has been studied in clinical trials for acne and the treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. AN2690 (tavaborole) is a benzoxaborole in Phase 3 clinical trials for the topical treatment of onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the toenails and fingernails. Another benzoxaborole derivative, AN2728, a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor, is in Phase 2 clinical trials for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. AN2898, also a PDE4 inhibitor, has been studied in clinical trials for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. AN3365 is a leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor that has been in clinical development for the treatment of various Gram-negative bacterial infections. These five representative compounds were negative in the three genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, AN2690 has been studied in mouse and rat 2-year bioassays and was not found to have any carcinogenic potential. These results demonstrate that it is possible to design boron-based therapeutic agents with no genetic toxicology liabilities. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Making sense of OMICS data in population-based environmental health studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 Apr 26.
Although experience from the application of OMICS technologies in population-based environmental health studies is still relatively limited, the accumulated evidence shows that it can allow the identification of features (genes, proteins, and metabolites), or sets of such features, which are targeted by particular exposures or correlate with disease risk. Such features or profiles can therefore serve as biomarkers of exposure or disease risk. Blood-based OMIC profiles appear to reflect to some extent events occurring in target tissues and are associated with toxicity or disease and therefore have the potential to facilitate the elucidation of exposure-disease relationships. Further progress in this direction requires better understanding of the significance of exposure-induced network perturbations for disease initiation and progression and the development of a framework that combines agnostic searches with the utilization of prior knowledge, taking account of particular elements which characterize the structure and evolution of complex systems and brings in principles of systems biology. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Diethylhexyl phthalate exposure impairs follicular development and affects oocyte maturation in the mouse. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 Apr 26.
Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an estrogen-like compound widely used as a commercial plasticizer and present in medical devices, tubing, food containers and packaging. It is considered an endocrine disruptor and studies on experimental animals showed that exposure to DEHP can alter the function of several organs including liver, kidneys, lungs and reproductive system, particularly the developing testes of prenatal and neonatal males. Exposure to DEHP has been proposed as a potential human health hazard. This study assessed the effects of DEHP on folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation using the mouse as the experimental model. Newborn female mice were hypodermically injected with DEHP at doses of 20 and 40 μg/kg per body weight following different exposure regimens during the weaning period. We found that DEHP altered both folliculogenesis and oocyte development. In particular, DEHP exposure significantly decreased the number of the primordial follicles at pubertal and adult age by possibly accelerating the rate of follicle recruitment dynamics, reduced and/or delayed the level of imprinted gene methylation in the oocytes and increased metaphase II spindle abnormalities in oocytes matured in vitro. Furthermore, the weight of pups and litter size of mothers exposed to DEHP were significantly lower than controls. Finally, the number of primordial follicles appeared significantly reduced also in the F1 offspring at the adult age. These results show that DEHP may have a number of adverse effects on oogenesis, especially when exposure occurs during early postnatal age, arising concerns about the exposure of human female infants and children to this compound. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Toxic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effects of a glyphosate formulation (roundup®SL-cosmoflux®411F) in the direct-developing frog eleutherodactylus johnstonei. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 Apr 26.
The aerial spraying of glyphosate formulations in Colombia to eradicate illegal crops has generated great concern about its possible impact on nontarget organisms, particularly amphibians. This study evaluated the toxic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effects of a glyphosate formulation (Roundup®SL-Cosmoflux®411F) in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei by estimating the median lethal application rate (LC50 ), median hemolytic application rate (HD50 ), and extent of DNA damage using the in vitro and in vivo Comet assays. Toxicity results indicated that the application rate [37.4 µg acid equivalent (a.e.)/cm(2) ] equivalent to that used in aerial spraying (3.74 kg a.e./ha) is not lethal in male and female adult frogs, whereas neonates are highly sensitive. Glyphosate formulation at application rates above 5.4 µg a.e./cm(2) (in vivo) and concentrations above 95 µg a.e./mL (in vitro) showed clear evidence of cytotoxicity. In vivo and in vitro exposure of E. johnstonei erythrocytes to the glyphosate formulation induced DNA breaks in a dose-dependent manner with statistically significant values (P < 0.05) at all doses tested. DNA damage initially increased with the duration of exposure and then decreased, suggesting that DNA repair events were occurring during in vivo and in vitro exposures. These results are discussed from the perspective of possible ecotoxicological risks to anuran species from exposure to glyphosate formulation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- The stress response resolution assay. I. Quantitative assessment of environmental agent/condition effects on cellular stress resolution outcomes in epithelium. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Environ Mol Mutagen 2013 May; 54(4):268-80.
The events or factors that lead from normal cell function to conditions and diseases such as aging or cancer reflect complex interactions between cells and their environment. Cellular stress responses, a group of processes involved in homeostasis and adaptation to environmental change, contribute to cell survival under stress and can be resolved with damage avoidance or damage tolerance outcomes. To investigate the impact of environmental agents/conditions upon cellular stress response outcomes in epithelium, a novel quantitative assay, the "stress response resolution" (SRR) assay, was developed. The SRR assay consists of pretreatment with a test agent or vehicle followed later by a calibrated stress conditions exposure step (here, using 6-thioguanine). Pilot studies conducted with a spontaneously-immortalized murine mammary epithelial cell line pretreated with vehicle or 20 µg N-ethyl-N-nitrososurea/ml medium for 1 hr, or two hTERT-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell lines pretreated with vehicle or 100 µM zidovudine/lamivudine for 12 days, found minimal alterations in cell morphology, survival, or cell function through 2 weeks post-exposure. However, when these pretreatments were followed 2 weeks later by exposure to calibrated stress conditions of limited duration (for 4 days), significant alterations in stress resolution were observed in pretreated cells compared with vehicle-treated control cells, with decreased damage avoidance survival outcomes in all cell lines and increased damage tolerance outcomes in two of three cell lines. These pilot study results suggest that sub-cytotoxic pretreatments with chemical mutagens have long-term adverse impact upon the ability of cells to resolve subsequent exposure to environmental stressors.