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Environmental research [journal]
- Perfluorooctane sulfonate effects on the reproductive axis in adult male rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 26.:158-168.
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a neurotoxic agent and it can disrupt the endocrine system activity. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in adult male rats, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in the endocrine tissues of this axis. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic noradrenaline concentration increased in the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence, not changing in the mediobasal hypothalamus. PFOS treated rats presented a decrease of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression, increasing the mRNA levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats treated with all doses administered except with the dose of 6mg/kg/day. PFOS also induced a raise of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the animals exposed to 0.5 and 1.0mg of PFOS/kg/day. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic GnRH concentration was modified, LH and testosterone release was inhibited and FSH secretion was stimulated. Moreover, PFOS induced several histopathological alterations in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testis. The results obtained in the present study suggest in general terms that PFOS can inhibit the physiological activity of the reproductive axis in adult male rats, which could be explained, at least in part, by the structural alterations showed in the animals exposed to this chemical: very dense chromatin, condensed ribosomes and a loss of the morphology in the hypothalamus; a degeneration of the gonadotrophic cells, as well as a loss and degeneration of the spermatozoids and a very marked edema in the testis.
- Organophosphate pesticide exposure, PON1, and neurodevelopment in school-age children from the CHAMACOS study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 26.:149-157.
Organophosphate (OP) pesticides remain widely used in agriculture. Previously, we reported that PON1 genotype was directly associated with neurodevelopment at age two, and that PON1 genotype may increase susceptibility to OP exposure.We examined the relationships of maternal and child PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels and neurodevelopment at school age and examined their interaction with maternal dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite levels to investigate differential susceptibility to OP-related neurotoxicity.Participants were from the CHAMACOS longitudinal birth cohort of Latino families in an agricultural region of California. We measured DAP metabolites of OP pesticides in maternal and child urine samples, and analyzed PON1192 and PON1-108 genotypes and enzyme activity [arylesterase (ARYase), paraoxonase (POase)] in maternal and child blood. We examined their association with children׳s performance on the Conners׳ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 5 years (n=296) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) at 7 years (n=327).Maternal and child PON1 genotype was not related to performance on K-CPT or WISC, although WISC scores tended to be lowest in children and children of mothers who carried the PON-108TT genotype. Pregnancy ARYase levels were positively associated with all WISC subscales (e.g., 4.0 point increase in Full Scale IQ per standard deviation increase in ARYase, 95% CI=1.6, 6.4), while pregnancy POase levels were positively associated with WISC Processing Speed only. Maternal PON1-108 weakly modified the relationship of maternal DAPS and K-CPT scores (pinteraction=0.21) and WISC verbal IQ (pinteraction=0.71). The association between DAPs and Full-Scale IQ was strongest for children of mothers with lowest-tertile ARYase levels (pinteraction=0.27). This relationship held for both diethyl and dimethyl DAPs and for all subscales of the WISC.We extend our previous findings that PON1 genotype and enzyme levels may be directly related to performance on certain domains of neurodevelopment in school-age children. Lower maternal PON1 enzyme levels during pregnancy may also increase susceptibility of children to neurotoxicity from OP pesticide exposure.
- Nonylphenol in pregnant women and their matching fetuses: Placental transfer and potential risks of infants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 12.:143-148.
As the predominant environmental biodegradation product of nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates and with proven estrogenic effects, NP is formed during the alkylation process of phenols. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine maternal and prenatal exposure to NP in Taiwan, (2) to determine the level of placental protection against NP exposure as well as the level of NP in breast milk, and (3) to assess the potential risk for breastfed newborns exposed to NP through the milk. Thirty pairs of maternal and fetal blood samples, placenta, and breast milk during the 1st and the 3rd months of lactation were collected. External NP exposures of these specimens were then analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detection. Next, the socio-demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history were collected using a questionnaire. In addition, the daily intake of NP from consuming breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months for newborns was studied through deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, placenta, and breast milk in the 1st and 3rd months were 14.6 (1.7) ng/ml, 18.8 (1.8) ng/ml, 19.8 (1.9) ng/g, 23.5 (3.2) ng/ml, and 57.3 (1.4) ng/ml, respectively. The probabilistic percentiles (50th, 75th, and 95th) of daily intake NP in breast milk were 4.33, 7.79, and 18.39μg/kg-bw/day in the 1st month, respectively, and were 8.11, 10.78, 16.08μg/kg-bw/day in the 3rd month, respectively. The probabilistic distributions (5th, 25th, and 50th) of risk for infants aged 1 month old were 0.27, 0.64, and 1.15, respectively, and that for infants aged 3 month old were 0.31, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively. Through repeated exposure from the dietary intake of expectant mothers, fetuses could encounter a high NP exposure level due to transplacental absorption, partitioning between the maternal and fetal compartments. Daily NP intake via breast milk in three month-old babies exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 5µg/kg bw/day indicated a potential risk for Taiwan infants.
- Temporal trends of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday environments across European cities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 12.:134-142.
The rapid development and increased use of wireless telecommunication technologies led to a substantial change of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in the general population but little is known about temporal trends of RF-EMF in our everyday environment.The objective of our study is to evaluate temporal trends of RF-EMF exposure levels in different microenvironments of three European cities using a common measurement protocol.We performed measurements in the cities of Basel (Switzerland), Ghent and Brussels (Belgium) during one year, between April 2011 and March 2012. RF-EMF exposure in 11 different frequency bands ranging from FM (Frequency Modulation, 88MHz) to WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network, 2.5GHz) was quantified with portable measurement devices (exposimeters) in various microenvironments: outdoor areas (residential areas, downtown and suburb), public transports (train, bus and tram or metro rides) and indoor places (airport, railway station and shopping centers). Measurements were collected every 4s during 10-50min per environment and measurement day. Linear temporal trends were analyzed by mixed linear regression models.Highest total RF-EMF exposure levels occurred in public transports (all public transports combined) with arithmetic mean values of 0.84V/m in Brussels, 0.72V/m in Ghent, and 0.59V/m in Basel. In all outdoor areas combined, mean exposure levels were 0.41V/m in Brussels, 0.31V/m in Ghent and 0.26V/m in Basel. Within one year, total RF-EMF exposure levels in all outdoor areas in combination increased by 57.1% (p<0.001) in Basel by 20.1% in Ghent (p=0.053) and by 38.2% (p=0.012) in Brussels. Exposure increase was most consistently observed in outdoor areas due to emissions from mobile phone base stations. In public transports RF-EMF levels tended also to increase but mostly without statistical significance.An increase of RF-EMF exposure levels has been observed between April 2011 and March 2012 in various microenvironments of three European cities. Nevertheless, exposure levels were still far below regulatory limits of each country. A continuous monitoring is needed to identify high exposure areas and to anticipate critical development of RF-EMF exposure at public places.
- Temperature-related mortality in 17 large Chinese cities: How heat and cold affect mortality in China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 12.:127-133.
Few multicity studies have been conducted to investigate the acute health effects of cold and hot temperatures in China. We aimed to examine the relationship between temperature and daily mortality in 17 large Chinese cities. We first calculated city-specific effect of temperature using time-series regression models combined with distributed lag nonlinear models; then we pooled the city-specific estimates with the Bayesian hierarchical models. The cold effects lasted longer than the hot effects. For the cold effects, a 1°C decrease from the 25th to 1st percentiles of temperature over lags 0-14 days was associated with increases of 1.69% [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.01%, 2.36%], 2.49% (95% PI: 1.53%, 3.46%) and 1.60% (95% PI: 0.32%, 2.87%) in total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For the hot effects, a 1°C increase from the 75th to 99th percentiles of temperature was associated with corresponding increases of 2.83% (95% PI: 1.42%, 4.24%), 3.02% (95% PI: 1.33%, 4.71%) and 4.64% (95% PI: 1.96%, 7.31%). The latitudes, number of air conditioning per household and disposable income per capita were significant modifiers for cold effects; the proportion of the elderly was a significant modifier for hot effects. This largest epidemiological study of temperature to date in China suggested that both cold and hot temperatures were associated with increased mortality. Our findings may have important implications for the public health policies in China.
- A new and sensitive method for measuring in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity in earthworm coelomocytes by flow cytometry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 12.:118-126.
This study describes a new and sensitive method for measuring the in vivo and in vitro cytotoxicity of 2 earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Perionyx excavatus, exposed to copper. Specifically, we measured the number of coelomocyte cells that were affected by copper following in vivo and in vitro exposure by flow cytometry, after calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) staining. We found that the coelomocyte viability of both earthworm species was noticeably reduced in the in vivo cytotoxicity test at concentrations of 100mg/kg copper in dry soil. However, pathological symptoms, such as mucous secretion and bleeding, swelling, thinning, and fragmentation, and burrowing symptoms were not evident following exposure to copper levels of <400mg/kg dry soil. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that calcein-AM is a more sensitive test of earthworm coelomocyte cytotoxicity compared to the traditional individual level toxicity test. Therefore, this test could be used to detect low levels of metal contamination in soils.
- Determinants of bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites in urine of Flemish adolescents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 12.:110-117.
As part of the second Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II), bisphenol-A (BPA) and different phthalate metabolites were analyzed, for the first time, in the urine of 210 adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. All chemicals had a detection frequency above 90%. For all compounds, except the sum of DEHP, highest levels were detected during spring. Average values for the Flemish adolescents were in an agreement with concentrations found in different international studies, all confirming the ubiquity of BPA and phthalate exposure. There was a significant correlation between BPA and the different phthalate metabolites (r between 0.26 and 0.39; p<0.01). Shared sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates, such as food packaging, were suggested to be responsible for this positive correlation. Different determinants of exposure were evaluated in relation to the urinary concentrations of these chemicals. For BPA, a significant association was observed with household income class, smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. For phthalates, the following significant associations were observed: age (MBzP), educational level of the adolescent (MBzP), equivalent household income (MnBP), use of personal care products (MnBP and MBzP), wall paper in house (MnBP and MBzP) and use of local vegetables (MnBP and MBzP).
- Is air quality index associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents? The CASPIAN-III Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Aug 12.:105-109.
This study aims to evaluate the association of air quality index (AQI) with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of healthy adolescents.This nationwide survey was conducted among a stratified multi-stage probability sample of students, aged 10-18 years, from 27 provinces of Iran. Those students with history of any acute or chronic diseases, any medication use, as well as active or passive smoking were not included to the current study. Dietary and physical activity habits were documented by valid questionnaires. Physical examination and blood sampling were conducted under standard protocols. AQI data were obtained from air pollution monitoring sites from the entire country by considering air pollutants concentration, which includes all provincial counties containing different clusters.The study participants consisted of 1413 students (48.8% boys) with a mean (SD) age of 14.81±2.48 years. The mean AQI level was 285.37±30.11 at national levels. After adjustment for confounding factors including age, sex, and anthropometric measures, as well as for dietary and physical activity habits, multiple linear regressions based on correlation of coefficients of the AQI with cardiometabolic risk factors showed significant positive correlations of AQI with systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as significant negative correlations with HDL-cholesterol. After adjustment for abovementioned confounding factors, binary logistic regressions analyses showed that AQI increased the risk of abnormal levels of some risk factors as elevated levels of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglycerides.The associations of low air quality with some cardiometabolic factors in the current survey, although not strong, might be considered as an evidence of the adverse cardiometabolic consequences of exposure to air pollutants in the pediatric age group, and predisposing them to earlier development of non-communicable diseases.
- In utero exposure to mixtures of xenoestrogens and child neuropsychological development. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Jul 31.:98-104.
To date, no epidemiological studies have explored the impact and persistence of in utero exposure to mixtures of xenoestrogens on the developing brain. We aimed to assess whether the cumulative effect of xenoestrogens in the placenta is associated with altered infant neuropsychological functioning at two and at four years of age, and if associations differ among boys and girls.Cumulative prenatal exposure to xenoestrogens was quantified in the placenta using the biomarker Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden (TEXB-alpha) in 489 participants from the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) Project. TEXB-alpha was split in tertiles to test its association with the mental and psychomotor scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 1-2 years of age, and with the McCarthy Scales of Children׳s Abilities (MSCA) general cognitive index and motor scale assessed at 4-5 years of age. Interactions with sex were investigated.After adjustment for potential confounders, no association was observed between TEXB-alpha and mental scores at 1-2 years of age. We found a significant interactions with sex for the association between TEXB-alpha and infant psychomotor development (interaction p-value=0.029). Boys in the third tertile of exposure scored on average 5.2 points less than those in the first tertile on tests of motor development at 1-2 years of age (p-value=0.052), while no associations were observed in girls. However, this association disappeared in children at 4-5 years of age and no association between TEXB-alpha and children׳s cognition was found.Our results suggest that boys' early motor development might be more vulnerable to prenatal exposure to mixtures of xenoestrogens, but associations do not persist in preschool children.
- Extremely cold and hot temperatures increase the risk of diabetes mortality in metropolitan areas of two Chinese cities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Jul 31.:91-97.
Numerous studies have reported the association between ambient temperature and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the effects of extreme temperatures on diabetes mortality, particularly in China. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of extremely cold and hot temperatures on diabetes mortality in urban areas of Harbin and Chongqing in China to provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementation to respond to challenges in diabetes mortality because of extreme temperature events.A double threshold B-spline distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to investigate the effects of extremely cold and hot temperatures on diabetes mortality from lag 0 to 30 days, after controlling for potential confounders including air pollutants. The unit risk, which is the elevated cumulative risk of diabetes mortality caused by each 1°C change in extremely cold and hot temperatures during certain lag days, was estimated for extreme cold and heat using simple regression analysis.Significant associations between both extreme hot and cold temperatures and diabetes mortality were observed in Harbin and Chongqing for different lag lengths. In Harbin, the extreme cold effects on diabetes mortality were delayed by three days and lasted for six days (lag 3-8), with the highest risk (RR 95% CI: 1.223,1.054-1.418 for -23°C) at lag 5. The hot effects were delayed one day and lasted for three days (lag 1-3), with the peak RR (1.343: 1.080-1.670 for 37°C) at lag 2. In Chongqing, the cold effects on diabetes mortality were delayed by seven days and lasted for four days (lag 7-10), with the highest risk (1.201: 1.006-1.434 for 4°C) at lag 7. The hot effects peaked (1.811: 1.083-3.027 for 41°C) at lag 0 and lasted for 2 days (lag 0-1). The unit risk for cold and hot effects was 12.9% (95% CI: 2.5-33.7%) and 16.5% (95% CI: 3.8-39.1%) in Harbin and 12.5% (95% CI: -4.7 to 47.5%) and 19.7% (95% CI: 3.9-48.5%) in Chongqing, respectively.The results indicate that both extremely cold and hot temperatures increase diabetes mortality in different manners in Harbin and Chongqing. Diabetes education programs should include information on either managing or combating the effects of extreme hot and cold weather.