- Assessing the impact of geogenic chromium uptake by carrots (Daucus carota) grown in Asopos river basin. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Oct 17; 152:96-101
- A methodology was developed to assess the impact of geogenic origin hexavalent chromium uptake by carrots, and the risk of human consumption of carrots grown in Asopos River basin in Greece. A field ...
A methodology was developed to assess the impact of geogenic origin hexavalent chromium uptake by carrots, and the risk of human consumption of carrots grown in Asopos River basin in Greece. A field scale experiment was conducted with carrots cultivated in treatment plots, with and without compost amendment, in order to assess the impact of carbon in the mobility and uptake of chromium by plants. The results suggested that there is a trend for chromium mobilization and uptake in the surface and the leaves of the carrots cultivated in the treatment plot with the higher carbon addition, but not in the core of the carrots. Limited mobility of hexavalent chromium in the soil-plant-water system is presented due to the affinity of chromium to be retained in the solid phase and be uptaken by plants. Hexavalent chromium tolerant bacterial strains were isolated from the carrots. These endophytic bacteria, present in all parts of the plant, were able to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent form to levels below the detection limit. Finally, a site-specific risk assessment analysis suggested no adverse effects to human health due to the consumption of carrots. These findings are of particular importance since they confirm that carrots grown in soils with geogenic origin chromium does not pose any adverse risk for human consumption, but could also have the beneficial effect of the micronutrient trivalent chromium.
- Physical activity, black carbon exposure and airway inflammation in an urban adolescent cohort. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:756-762
- CONCLUSIONS: Children that live in an urban environment and are physically active on a daily basis have higher personal exposure to BC. High BC offsets the protective relationship between physical activity and airway inflammation.
- Fine particulate matter exposure and olfactory dysfunction among urban-dwelling older US adults. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:797-803
- CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that air pollution exposure is associated with poor olfaction among urban-living, older US adults.
- Road traffic noise, blood pressure and heart rate: Pooled analyses of harmonized data from 88,336 participants. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:804-813
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that road traffic noise may be related to increased heart rate. No consistent evidence for a relation between noise and blood pressure was found.
- Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes Near Parks in Los Angeles. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:742-755
- CONCLUSIONS: Planners should consider the higher risks of active travel near parks and the socioeconomic modification of these risks. Additional traffic calming and safety infrastructure may be needed to provide safe routes to parks.
- Residential road traffic noise exposure and survival after breast cancer - A cohort study. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:814-820
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests no association between residential road traffic noise and concurrent mortality. As it is the first study of its kind, with relatively limited power, further studies are warranted.
- Hazard identification of exhausts from gasoline-ethanol fuel blends using a multi-cellular human lung model. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:789-796
- Ethanol can be produced from biomass and as such is renewable, unlike petroleum-based fuel. Almost all gasoline cars can drive with fuel containing 10% ethanol (E10), flex-fuel cars can even use 85% ...
Ethanol can be produced from biomass and as such is renewable, unlike petroleum-based fuel. Almost all gasoline cars can drive with fuel containing 10% ethanol (E10), flex-fuel cars can even use 85% ethanol (E85). Brazil and the USA already include 10-27% ethanol in their standard fuel by law. Most health effect studies on car emissions are however performed with diesel exhausts, and only few data exists for other fuels. In this work we investigated possible toxic effects of exhaust aerosols from ethanol-gasoline blends using a multi-cellular model of the human lung. A flex-fuel passenger car was driven on a chassis dynamometer and fueled with E10, E85, or pure gasoline (E0). Exhausts obtained from a steady state cycle were directly applied for 6h at a dilution of 1:10 onto a multi-cellular human lung model mimicking the bronchial compartment composed of human bronchial cells (16HBE14o-), supplemented with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, cultured at the air-liquid interface. Biological endpoints were assessed after 6h post incubation and included cytotoxicity, pro-inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Filtered air was applied to control cells in parallel to the different exhausts; for comparison an exposure to diesel exhaust was also included in the study. No differences were measured for the volatile compounds, i.e. CO, NOx, and T.HC for the different ethanol supplemented exhausts. Average particle number were 6×10(2) #/cm(3) (E0), 1×10(5) #/cm(3) (E10), 3×10(3) #/cm(3) (E85), and 2.8×10(6) #/cm(3) (diesel). In ethanol-gasoline exposure conditions no cytotoxicity and no morphological changes were observed in the lung cell cultures, in addition no oxidative stress - as analyzed with the glutathione assay - was measured. Gene expression analysis also shows no induction in any of the tested genes, including mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammation, as well as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1), transcription factor NFE2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1). Finally, no DNA damage was observed with the OxyDNA assay. On the other hand, cell death, oxidative stress, as well as an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed for cells exposed to diesel exhaust, confirming the results of other studies and the applicability of our exposure system. In conclusion, the tested exhausts from a flex-fuel gasoline vehicle using different ethanol-gasoline blends did not induce adverse cell responses in this acute exposure. So far ethanol-gasoline blends can promptly be used, though further studies, e.g. chronic and in vivo studies, are needed.
- Association between ambient air pollution and proliferation of umbilical cord blood cells. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:783-788
- It has been established as a common knowledge that ambient air pollution (AAP) has an adverse effect on human health. The pathophysiological mechanism of this impact is likely to be related to the ox...
It has been established as a common knowledge that ambient air pollution (AAP) has an adverse effect on human health. The pathophysiological mechanism of this impact is likely to be related to the oxidative stress. In the current study we estimate the association between AAP and cell proliferation (CP) of umbilical cord blood cells, representing maternal organism most proximal to the fetal body. Blood samples were tested for proliferation in 292 enrolled Arab-Bedouin women at delivery (July 2012-March 2013). The estimates of AAP were defined by a hybrid satellite based model predicting both PM2.5 (particles<2.5µm in diameter) and PM10 (particles<10µm in diameter) as well as monitoring stations for gaseous air pollutants. Risk estimates of pollution exposure were adjusted to medical history, household risk factors and meteorological factors on the day of delivery or one week prior. Ambient ozone (O3) levels on 1, 2, 3and 4 days prior to delivery were associated with lower CP (Prevalence ratio (PR)=0.92, 0.92, 0.93, 0.93, respectively). Increase in inter-quartile range (IOR) of PM2.5 one day before delivery was associated with 9% increase in CP levels (PR=1.09). The positive direction in association was changed to negative association with CP for PM2.5 levels measured at more distant time periods (PR=0.90 and 0.93 for lags 5 and 6 days, respectively). Investigation of PM10 levels indicated a similar pattern (PR=1.05 for pollution values recorded one day before delivery and 0.93 and 0.95 for lags of 5 and 6 days, respectively). Carbon monoxide (CO) levels were associated with lower CP on the day of delivery and 1day prior (PR=0.92 and PR=0.94). To conclude, the levels of cell proliferation of umbilical cord blood cells appear to be associated with the AAP. More studies are needed to support our findings.
- Comprehensive influence of environmental factors on the emission rate of formaldehyde and VOCs in building materials: Correlation development and exposure assessment. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:734-741
- Temperature and relative humidity can simultaneously change in indoor environment, which significantly affect the emission rate of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building mat...
Temperature and relative humidity can simultaneously change in indoor environment, which significantly affect the emission rate of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials. Prior studies generally focus on the single effect of temperature or relative humidity, and the combined effect is not considered. This paper investigates the comprehensive influence of temperature and relative humidity on the emission rate of pollutants from building materials. Correlation between the emission rate and the combined environmental factors is derived theoretically. Data in literature are applied to validate the effectiveness of the correlation. With the correlation, the indoor formaldehyde concentration in summer is predicted to be 1.63 times of that in winter in Beijing, which is approximately consistent with surveyed data. In addition, a novel approach is proposed to assess the human health impact due to pollutants emitted from building materials at varied temperature and relative humidity. An association between the human carcinogenic potential (HCP) and the environmental factors is obtained. By introducing a reference room model developed previously, it is calculated that the HCP of bedroom at high relative humidity (70%, 25°C) for formaldehyde exceeds 10(-)(4) cases, meaning high cancer health risk. This study should prove useful for evaluating the emission behaviors and the associated exposure of pollutants from building materials at varied environmental conditions.
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- Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016; 151:728-733
- Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the ...
Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea.