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Environmental research [journal]
- Incidence of type II diabetes in a cohort with substantial exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov 30.
Research suggests an increased type II diabetes mortality risk among workers occupationally exposed to PFOA. However, a cross-sectional study of highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley community residents did not demonstrate an association between PFOA and type II diabetes.We examined the relationship between exposure to PFOA over time and incidence of type II diabetes in a cohort of community residents and workers exposed to high levels of PFOA via contaminated drinking water.Community residents and workers were interviewed in 2008-2011 to obtain medical history and other demographic information. Cumulative serum PFOA exposure estimates were calculated based on residence and occupation locations, and a history of plant emissions. We estimated the risk of developing type II diabetes using Cox proportional hazard models, controlling for demographic characteristics and family history.Out of 32,254 survey respondents, there were 4434 cases of self-reported type II diabetes, of which 4129 were validated through medical record review. In analyses based on validated type II diabetes, there was no trend of increased risk with increased cumulative PFOA serum levels (HRs compared to lowest exposure decile: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.76-1.08), 1.18 (95% CI: 0.99-1.40), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81-1.15), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.87-1.24), 1.11 (95% CI: 0.93-1.32), 1.06 (95% CI: 0.89-1.26), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.85-1.19), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.86-1.23), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.84-1.20)). There was no association between fasting glucose level and cumulative serum levels of PFOA, after excluding diabetics.We do not find an association between PFOA exposure and incidence of type II diabetes.
- Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: Preliminary study and first evidence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov 29.
Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination.
- Suicidal ideation and occupational pesticide exposure among male farmers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov 20.
The occupation of farming has been reported to be associated with a high suicide rate, and suicidal ideation is an important risk factor for suicide. The objective of this study was to explore the association between occupational pesticide exposure or poisoning history and suicidal ideation among male farmers in South Korea.Through a nationwide sampling survey, a total of 1958 male farmers were interviewed in 2011 in South Korea. Detailed occupational pesticide exposure and pesticide poisoning information were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Suicidal ideation was defined as whether they had thought of harming themselves or trying to take their own lives over the preceding year. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of pesticide poisoning on suicidal ideation.Among all farmers, 8.7% (n=92) reported suicidal ideation in 2010. After controlling for potential confounders, lifetime hospitalization due to pesticide poisoning showed a 2.48-fold increase in risk (95% CI: 1.26, 4.91). Those with multiple poisonings showed more significant associations with suicidal ideation (OR=2.33 for once, OR=3.02 for more than once). Moderate- or severe-symptom severity of acute pesticide poisoning cases (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.21-4.11) also showed increased risks of suicidal ideation than the milder classes did. However, no significant association was identified with cumulative lifetime pesticide application and suicidal ideation.Our findings suggest that risk of suicidal ideation is related to occupational pesticide poisoning among male farmers.
- Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation in urothelial carcinomas of patients with and without arsenic exposure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov 22.
Arsenic is a well-documented carcinogen of human urothelial carcinoma (UC) with incompletely understood mechanisms.This study aimed to compare the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of arsenic-induced UC (AsUC) and non-arsenic-induced UC (Non-AsUC), and to assess associations between site-specific methylation levels and cumulative arsenic exposure.Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 14 AsUC and 14 non-AsUC were analyzed by Illumina Infinium methylation27 BeadChip and validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Mean methylation levels (β¯) in AsUC and non-AsUC were compared by their ratio (β¯ ratio) and difference (Δβ¯). Associations between site-specific methylation levels in UC and cumulative arsenic exposure were examined.Among 27,578 methylation sites analyzed, 231 sites had β¯ ratio >2 or <0.5 and 45 sites had Δβ¯ >0.2 or <-0.2. There were 13 sites showing statistically significant (q<0.05) differences in β¯ between AsUC and non-AsUC including 12 hypermethylation sites in AsUC and only one hypermethylation site in non-AsUC. Significant associations between cumulative arsenic exposure and DNA methylation levels of 28 patients were observed in nine CpG sites of nine gens including PDGFD (Spearman rank correlation, 0.54), CTNNA2 (0.48), KCNK17 (0.52), PCDHB2 (0.57), ZNF132 (0.48), DCDC2 (0.48), KLK7 (0.48), FBXO39 (0.49), and NPY2R (0.45). These associations remained statistically significant for CpG sites in CTNNA2, KLK7, NPY2R, ZNF132 and KCNK17 in 20 non-smoking women after adjustment for tumor stage and age.Significant associations between cumulative arsenic exposure and methylation level of CTNNA2, KLK7, NPY2R, ZNF132 and KCNK17 were found in smoking-unrelated urothelial carcinoma. Arsenic exposure may cause urothelial carcinomas through the hypermethylation of genes involved in cell adhesion, proteolysis, transcriptional regulation, neuronal pathway, and ion transport. The findings of this study, which are limited by its small sample size and moderate dose-response relation, remain to be validated by further studies with large sample sizes.
- Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov.:63-73.
The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13vol% of the bulk samples were <4µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5vol%<4µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7m(2)g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6m(2)g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples, despite substantial differences in the sample mineralogy and eruptive styles. The value of the pro-inflammatory profiles in differentiating the potential respiratory health hazard of volcanic ashes remains uncertain in a protocol designed to inform public health risk assessment, and further research on their role in volcanic crises is warranted.
- Association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder and learning disability in U.S. children, 6-15 years. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov 19.
This study investigates the association between urinary phthalate metabolite levels and attention deficit disorder (ADD), learning disability (LD), and co-occurrence of ADD and LD in 6-15-year-old children.We used cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2001-2004). Phthalate metabolites with ≥75% detection in urine samples were examined. The study population comprised 1493 children with parent-reported information on ADD or LD diagnosis and phthalate concentrations in urine. Phthalate concentrations were creatinine-adjusted and log10-transformed for analysis. All models controlled for child sex, age, race, household income, blood lead, and maternal smoking during pregnancy.There were 112 ADD cases, 173 LD cases, and 56 ADD and LD cases in the sample. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found increased odds of ADD with increasing urinary concentration of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalates (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9) and high molecular weight phthalates (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 6.1). In addition, dibutyl phthalates (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 0.9, 12.7) and high molecular weight phthalates (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 14.8) were marginally associated with increased odds of co-occurring ADD and LD. We did not find associations for any phthalate and LD alone. We observed stronger associations between phthalates and ADD and both ADD and LD in girls than boys in some models.We found cross-sectional evidence that certain phthalates are associated with increased odds of ADD and both ADD and LD. Further investigations with longitudinal data are needed to confirm these results.
- Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov 19.
Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs.A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18-3.98μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12-1.63μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=-0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=-0.278, P=0.001).This study investigated human mercury exposure and suggested elevated hair mercury concentrations in an e-waste recycling area, Guiyu, China. Living in Guiyu for a long time and work related to e-waste may primarily contribute to the high hair mercury concentrations.
- Multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from environmental waters in the Mediterranean area. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov.:56-62.
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are important animal-related waterborne pathogens that are distributed worldwide. To further understand Campylobacter populations in water from the Mediterranean area, the genetic diversity of environmental strains was analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). MLST was also used to determine the potential geographical differences between these bacterial strains and other campylobacters isolated worldwide. The typing study was conducted using 58 strains isolated from the Llobregat river and other water sources, such as urban sewage, animal wastewater and clinical samples. Thirty-nine different sequence types were obtained; eight of these sequences were described for the first time in this study, suggesting the presence of local strains. The identified C. jejuni strains were the most diverse population, whereas the identified C. coli strains showed a high clonal structure, which clustered most of the sequence types into a few clonal complexes. The strains were not exclusively related to specific water sources. However, comparing the identified strains with an international database showed that most of the Mediterranean strains that were exclusively isolated from environmental waters have previously been isolated from similar sources, particularly those obtained from river water. Additional studies, including those in different geographical areas using a wide range of Campylobacter sources, are required to improve the global knowledge concerning Campylobacter dissemination in the environment.
- Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2013 Nov.:16-21.
Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10-12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009-2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06)μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83-3.41ng/dL, 0.01-27.4μIU/mL and 16.4-54.4μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected.