- Best Paper of Year 2015. [Editorial]
- EREnviron Res 2017; 152:A1
- Does exposure to phthalates influence thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis? The Taiwan Environmental Survey for Toxicants (TEST) 2013. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 28; 153:63-72
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to phthalates influences thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis.
- Potential human exposure to halogenated flame-retardants in elevated surface dust and floor dust in an academic environment. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 26; 153:55-62
- Most households and workplaces all over the world possess furnishings and electronics, all of which contain potentially toxic flame retardant chemicals to prevent fire hazards. Indoor dust is a recog...
Most households and workplaces all over the world possess furnishings and electronics, all of which contain potentially toxic flame retardant chemicals to prevent fire hazards. Indoor dust is a recognized repository of these types of chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (non-PBDEs). However, no previous U.S. studies have differentiated concentrations from elevated surface dust (ESD) and floor dust (FD) within and across microenvironments. We address this information gap by measuring twenty-two flame-retardant chemicals in dust on elevated surfaces (ESD; n=10) and floors (FD; n=10) from rooms on a California campus that contain various concentrations of electronic products. We hypothesized a difference in chemical concentrations in ESD and FD. Secondarily, we examined whether or not this difference persisted: (a) across the studied microenvironments and (b) in rooms with various concentrations of electronics. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that the ESD was statistically significantly higher than FD for BDE-47 (p=0.01), BDE-99 (p=0.01), BDE-100 (p=0.01), BDE-153 (p=0.02), BDE-154 (p=0.02), and 3 non-PBDEs including EH-TBB (p=0.02), BEH-TEBP (p=0.05), and TDCIPP (p=0.03). These results suggest different levels and kinds of exposures to flame-retardant chemicals for individuals spending time in the sampled locations depending on the position of accumulated dust. Therefore, further research is needed to estimate human exposure to flame retardant chemicals based on how much time and where in the room individuals spend their time. Such sub-location estimates will likely differ from assessments that assume continuous unidimensional exposure, with implications for improved understanding of potential health impacts of flame retardant chemicals.
- Diverging temporal trends of human exposure to bisphenols and plastizisers, such as phthalates, caused by substitution of legacy EDCs? [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 26; 153:48-54
- Phthalates and phenolic substances were investigated in urine samples from first-time mothers in Uppsala, Sweden, collected between 2009 and 2014. These substances have a comparably fast metabolism a...
Phthalates and phenolic substances were investigated in urine samples from first-time mothers in Uppsala, Sweden, collected between 2009 and 2014. These substances have a comparably fast metabolism and urinary metabolites are predominantly analysed. The main aim was to investigate if measures to decrease production and use of certain phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have resulted in decreased human exposure, and to determine if exposures to replacement chemicals have increased. Temporal trends were evaluated for metabolites (n=13) of seven phthalates, a phthalate replacer, four different bisphenols, triclosan, one organophosphate-based flame retardant, and for two pesticides. The results showed downward trends of several phthalates which are in the process of being regulated and phased out. Concomitantly, an increasing trend was seen for a metabolite of the phthalate replacer Di-iso-nonylcyclohexane 1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH). Bisphenol A (BPA) showed a downward trend, whereas bisphenol F, identified as one of the substitutes for BPA, showed an increasing trend. The decreasing trend of triclosan is likely due to declining use within the EU. Temporal trend studies of urine samples make it possible to investigate human exposure to rapidly metabolised substances and study how measures taken to regulate and replace problematic chemicals affect human exposure.
- Towards a threshold climate for emergency lower respiratory hospital admissions. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 24; 153:41-47
- Identification of 'cut-points' or thresholds of climate factors would play a crucial role in alerting risks of climate change and providing guidance to policymakers. This study investigated a 'Climat...
Identification of 'cut-points' or thresholds of climate factors would play a crucial role in alerting risks of climate change and providing guidance to policymakers. This study investigated a 'Climate Threshold' for emergency hospital admissions of chronic lower respiratory diseases by using a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM). We analysed a unique longitudinal dataset (10 years, 2000-2009) on emergency hospital admissions, climate, and pollution factors for the Greater London. Our study extends existing work on this topic by considering non-linearity, lag effects between climate factors and disease exposure within the DLNM model considering B-spline as smoothing technique. The final model also considered natural cubic splines of time since exposure and 'day of the week' as confounding factors. The results of DLNM indicated a significant improvement in model fitting compared to a typical GLM model. The final model identified the thresholds of several climate factors including: high temperature (≥27°C), low relative humidity (≤ 40%), high Pm10 level (≥70-µg/m(3)), low wind speed (≤ 2 knots) and high rainfall (≥30mm). Beyond the threshold values, a significantly higher number of emergency admissions due to lower respiratory problems would be expected within the following 2-3 days after the climate shift in the Greater London. The approach will be useful to initiate 'region and disease specific' climate mitigation plans. It will help identify spatial hot spots and the most sensitive areas and population due to climate change, and will eventually lead towards a diversified health warning system tailored to specific climate zones and populations.
- Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 23; 153:35-40
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that PM2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts.
- 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the viral infection. [Review]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 21; 153:27-34
- Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread highly toxic environmental contaminant, suppresses immune response and leads to an increased susceptibility to infectious agents. ...
Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread highly toxic environmental contaminant, suppresses immune response and leads to an increased susceptibility to infectious agents. In particular, several studies have provided evidence that TCDD decreases resistance to numerous viruses. Indeed, in vivo and in vitro investigations showed that the presence of TCDD is able to interfere with the replication of both human and animal viruses, such as influenza A viruses, coxsackie virus B3, immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex II, and bovine herpesvirus 1. Moreover, TCDD could induce an exacerbation of latent infection produced by HIV-1, CMV or Epstein-Barr virus. In this review, we first describe the general effects of TCDD exposure on mammalian cells, then we focus on its influence on the viral infections. Overall, the available data support the concept that TCDD exposure may act as an additional risk factor in promoting of viral diseases.
- Association between dengue fever incidence and meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China, 2005-2014. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 22; 153:17-26
- This study aims to (1) investigate the associations between climatic factors and dengue; and (2) identify the susceptible subgroups. De-identified daily dengue cases in Guangzhou for 2005-2014 were o...
This study aims to (1) investigate the associations between climatic factors and dengue; and (2) identify the susceptible subgroups. De-identified daily dengue cases in Guangzhou for 2005-2014 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Weather data were downloaded from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) were used to graphically demonstrate the three-dimensional temperature-dengue association. Generalised estimating equation models (GEE) with piecewise linear spline functions were used to quantify the temperature-dengue associations. Threshold values were estimated using a broken-stick model. Middle-aged and older people, people undertaking household duties, retirees, and those unemployed were at high risk of dengue. Reversed U-shaped non-linear associations were found between ambient temperature, relative humidity, extreme wind velocity, and dengue. The optimal maximum temperature (Tmax) range for dengue transmission in Guangzhou was 21.6-32.9°C, and 11.2-23.7°C for minimum temperature (Tmin). A 1°C increase of Tmax and Tmin within these ranges was associated with 11.9% and 9.9% increase in dengue at lag0, respectively. Although lag effects of temperature were observed for up to 141 days for Tmax and 150 days for Tmin, the maximum lag effects were observed at 32 days and 39 days respectively. Average relative humidity was negatively associated with dengue when it exceeded 78.9%. Maximum wind velocity (>10.7m/s) inhibited dengue transmission. Climatic factors had significant impacts on dengue in Guangzhou. Lag effects of temperature on dengue lasted the local whole epidemic season. To reduce the likely increasing dengue burden, more efforts are needed to strengthen the capacity building of public health systems.
- Arsenic levels among pregnant women and newborns in Canada: Results from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 20; 153:8-16
- Arsenic is a common environmental contaminant from both naturally-occurring and anthropomorphic sources and human exposure can be detected in various tissues. Its toxicity depends on many factors inc...
Arsenic is a common environmental contaminant from both naturally-occurring and anthropomorphic sources and human exposure can be detected in various tissues. Its toxicity depends on many factors including the chemical form, valence state, bioavailability, metabolism and detoxification within the human body. Of paramount concern, particularly with respect to health effects in children, is the timing of exposure as the prenatal and early life periods are more susceptible to toxic effects. The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort was established to obtain national-level biomonitoring data for approximately 2,000 pregnant women and their infants between 2008 and 2011 from 10 Canadian cities. We measured total arsenic (As) in 1st and 3rd trimester maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and infant meconium and speciated arsenic in 1st trimester maternal urine. Most pregnant women had detectable levels of total arsenic in blood (92.5% and 87.3%, respectively, for 1st and 3rd trimester); median difference between 1st and 3rd trimester was 0.1124µg/L (p&$2lt;0.0001), but paired samples were moderately correlated (Spearman r=0.41, p&$2lt;0.0001). Most samples were below the LOD for umbilical cord blood (50.9%) and meconium (93.9%). In 1st trimester urine samples, a high percentage (&$2gt;50%) of arsenic species (arsenous acid (As-III), arsenic acid (As-V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)) were also below the limit of detection, except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). DMA (&$2gt;85% detected) ranged from &$2lt;LOD to 64.42 (95th percentile: 11.99)µgAs/L. There was a weak but significant correlation between total arsenic in blood and specific gravity-adjusted DMA in urine (Spearman r=0.33, p&$2lt;0.0001). Among this population of pregnant woman and newborns, levels of arsenic measured in blood and urine were lower than national population figures for Canadian women of reproductive age (20-39 years). In general, higher arsenic levels were observed in women who were older, foreign-born (predominantly from Asian countries), and had higher education. Further research is needed to elucidate sources of exposure and factors that may influence arsenic exposure in pregnant women and children.
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- Urinary phthalate and phthalate alternative metabolites and isoprostane among couples undergoing fertility treatment. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2016 Nov 19; 153:1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exposure to phthalates and phthalate replacements are associated with higher levels of oxidative stress in a sex-specific manner. Additional studies are needed to replicate our findings and to examine the potential health implications of the use of phthalates and alternative phthalates in consumer end products.