Environmental research [journal]
- Placental biomarkers of PAH exposure and glutathione-S-transferase biotransformation enzymes in an obstetric population from Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 24.
Environmental exposures along the US-Mexico border have the potential to adversely affect the maternal-fetal environment. The purpose of this study was to assess placental biomarkers of environmental exposures in an obstetric population at the California-Baja California border in relation to detoxifying enzymes in the placenta and nutritional status. This study was conducted on consenting, full-term, obstetric patients (n=54), delivering in a hospital in Tijuana, Baja California (BC), Mexico. Placental polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were measured in addition to placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and genotype, maternal serum folate, and maternal and umbilical cord blood lead and cadmium levels. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers to determine maternal occupation in a maquiladora, other exposures, and obstetric indicators. In univariate analysis, maternal serum folate levels were inversely correlated with total PAH-DNA adducts (rho=-0.375, p=0.007); adduct #1 (rho=-0.388, p=0.005); and adduct #3 (rho =-0.430, p=0.002). Maternal lead levels were significantly positively correlated with cord blood lead levels (rho=0.512, p<0.001). Cadmium levels were generally very low but significantly higher in mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (either at work or at home, n=10). In multivariate analysis, only maternal serum folate levels remained as a significant negative predictor of total DNA-PAH adducts levels in placenta. These findings affirm that placental tissue is a valuable and readily available source of human tissue for biomonitoring; and indicate that further study of the role of nutrition in detoxification and mitigation of environmental exposures in pregnant women is warranted.
- First trimester phthalate exposure and male newborn genital anomalies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 18.
Anti-androgenic phthalates are environmental chemicals that affect male genital development in rodents leading to genitourinary birth defects. We examined whether first trimester phthalate exposure may exert similar effects in humans leading to an increased incidence of newborn male genital anomalies in a multi-center cohort study.We recruited first trimester pregnant women within The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES) from 2010 to 2012 from four study centers and limited analyses to all mother/male infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth exam data (N=371). We used multivariate logistic regression to determine the odds of having a genital anomaly in relation to phthalate exposure.Hydrocele was the primary abnormality observed in the cohort (N=30) followed by undescended testes (N=5) and hypospadias (N=3). We observed a statistically significant 2.5 fold increased risk (95% CI 1.1, 5.9) of having any anomaly and 3.0 fold increased risk (95% CI 1.2, 7.6) of isolated hydrocele in relation to a one log unit increase in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites.First trimester urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations were associated with increased odds of any newborn genital anomaly, and this association was primarily driven by isolated hydrocele which made up the majority of anomalies in newborn males. The association with hydrocele has not been previously reported and suggests that it may be an endpoint affected by prenatal phthalate exposures in the first trimester of development. Future human studies should include hydrocele assessment in order to confirm findings.
- Variability and exposure classification of urinary phenol and paraben metabolite concentrations in reproductive-aged women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 24.:513-520.
Human exposure to phenols and parabens is widespread. Within-person variability of urinary concentrations in healthy women is not well characterized.To characterize the variability of urinary phenol and paraben concentrations across two months and evaluate the ability of a single spot urine sample to characterize exposure.143 women provided 509 spot urine samples collected across two months of study (3-5 samples/woman). We measured urinary concentrations of 8 phenols: bisphenol A (BPA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-1 (BP-1), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), triclosan (TCS); and 8 parabens and their metabolites (benzyl (BzP), butyl (BuP), ethyl (EtP), heptyl (HeP), methyl (MeP), propyl (PrP), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB)). Biomarker variability was characterized using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and surrogate category analyses were conducted.ICCs ranged from very low for BPA (0.04) to moderate for BP-3, BP-1, TCS, BzP, and MeP (0.66, 0.58, 0.55, 0.54, and 0.62, respectively). Surrogate analyses suggested that BP-1, BP-3, TCS, 2,4-DCP, BuP, and PrP may be characterized by a single spot sample (sensitivity range 0.76-0.86) but that additional samples were necessary for BPA, HeP, 4-HB, and 3,4-DHB (sensitivity range 0.47-0.61).Urinary phenol and paraben metabolite concentrations were variable across two months in healthy women but the degree of reliability differed by the specific biomarker. A small number of samples may sufficiently characterize typical concentrations for BP-3, BP-1, TCS, BuP, and PrP; but additional biospecimens may be necessary to characterize exposure for other compounds, including BPA.
- Impacts of geocoding uncertainty on reconstructed PFOA exposures and their epidemiological association with preeclampsia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 24.:505-512.
Many epidemiology studies have investigated associations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposures with a variety of adverse health outcomes for participants in the C8 Health Project. The exposure concentrations (i.e., air and groundwater) used in these studies were determined primarily based on participant's residential locations. However, for residential addresses that could not be geocoded to the street level, the exposure concentrations were assigned based on population-weighted ZIP code centroid, which may result in exposure mischaracterization. The aim of this current study is to evaluate the potential impact of mischaracterized exposure concentrations due to geocoding uncertainty on the predicted serum PFOA concentrations and the epidemiological association between PFOA exposure and preeclampsia. For both workplace addresses and incompletely geocoded residential addresses, we used Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assign alternate geographic locations within the reported ZIP code (instead of population-weighted ZIP code centroids) and the corresponding exposure concentrations. We found that mischaracterization of residential exposure due to population-weighted ZIP code centroid assignment had no significant impact on the serum PFOA concentration predictions and the epidemiological association of PFOA exposure with preeclampsia. In contrast, the uncertainty in workplace exposure moderately impacted the rank exposure among the participants. We observed a 41% increase in the average adjusted odds ratio of preeclampsia occurrence that may be due to differing proportions of cases (64.3%) and controls (54.5%) with workplace address geocodes during pregnancy. This finding suggests that differential exposure mischaracterization can be reduced by obtaining accurate exposure information such as street addresses and tap water consumption, for both workplaces and residences. The analysis we present is one approach for estimating the potential impacts of positional errors in a geocoding-based exposure assessment on exposure estimates and epidemiological study results.
- The role of phthalate esters in autism development: A systematic review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 24.:493-504.
Available evidence implicates environmental factors in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the role of specific environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters that influence ASD risk remains elusive. This paper systematically reviews published evidences on association between prenatal and/or childhood exposure to phthalate and ASD.Studies pertaining to systematic literature search from Scopus, PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science prior to December 2015 were identified. The authors included studies which assessed the effect of exposure to phthalates on occurrence of ASD. This comprehensive bibliographic search identified five independent studies. Each eligible paper was summarized with respect to its methods and results with particular attention to study design and exposure assessment. Because of the heterogeneity in the type of included studies, different methods of assessing exposure to phthalates and the use of different statistics for summarizing the results, meta-analysis could not be used to combine the results of included studies.The results of this systematic review have revealed the limited number of studies conducted and assessed phthalate exposure. Seven studies were regarded as relevant to the objectives of this review. Two of them did not measure phthalate exposure directly and did not result in quantitative results. Out of the five studies in which phthalate exposure was mainly measured by the examining biomarkers in biological samples, two were cohort studies (one with positive results and another one with not clear association). Among the three case control studies, two of them showed a significant relation between exposure to phthalate and ASD and the last case control study had negative results. Indeed, this case control studies showed a compromised phthalate metabolite glucuronidation pathway, as a probable explanation of mechanism of the relation between phthalate exposure and ASD.This review reveals evidence showing a connection between exposure to phthalates and ASD. Nevertheless, further research is needed with appropriate attention to exposure assessment and relevant pre and post-natal cofounders.
- Integrated in silico strategy for PBT assessment and prioritization under REACH. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 24.:478-492.
Chemicals may persist in the environment, bioaccumulate and be toxic for humans and wildlife, posing great concern. These three properties, persistence (P), bioaccumulation (B), and toxicity (T) are the key targets of the PBT-hazard assessment. The European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) requires assessment of PBT-properties for all chemicals that are produced or imported in Europe in amounts exceeding 10 tonnes per year, checking whether the criteria set out in REACH Annex XIII are met, so the substance should therefore be considered to have properties of very high concern. Considering how many substances can fall under the REACH regulation, there is a pressing need for new strategies to identify and screen large numbers fast and inexpensively. An efficient non-testing screening approach to identify PBT candidates is necessary, as a valuable alternative to money- and time-consuming laboratory tests and a good start for prioritization since few tools exist (e.g. the PBT profiler developed by US EPA). The aim of this work was to offer a conceptual scheme for identifying and prioritizing chemicals for further assessment and if appropriate further testing, based on their PBT-potential, using a non-testing screening approach. We integrated in silico models (using existing and developing new ones) in a final algorithm for screening and ranking PBT-potential, which uses experimental and predicted values as well as associated uncertainties. The Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) theory was used to integrate the different values. Then we compiled a new set of data containing known PBT and non-PBT substances, in order to check how well our approach clearly differentiated compounds labeled as PBT from those labeled as non-PBT. This indicated that the integrated model distinguished between PBT from non-PBT compounds.
- Associations of maternal o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE levels with birth outcomes in a Bolivian cohort. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 23.:469-477.
This study examined the potential association of maternal serum levels of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with gestation time and with anthropometric measurements and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of newborns in a Bolivian birth cohort. Two hundred mothers were consecutively recruited between January and March 2013 at the "Hospital de la Mujer Dr. Percy Boland" in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Potential confounders were derived from an ad hoc questionnaire. o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were quantified in cord serum by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed, with POP concentrations as independent variables and log-transformed newborn birth outcomes (newborn weight, gestational age, head circumference, birth height, ponderal index, and TSH levels) as dependent variables. o,p'-DDT was detected in 82.5% of samples at median concentration of 0.22ng/mL and p,p'-DDE in 86.5% of samples at median concentration of 1.01ng/mL. Opposite associations with birth weight were found for p,p'-DDE (β=0.012, p=0.006) and o,p'-DDT (β=-0.014, p=0.039), and these associations were stronger when both chemicals were entered in the same model. p,p'-DDE was negatively associated with gestation time (β=-0.004, p=0.012), and o,p'-DDT was borderline negatively associated with newborn head circumference (β=-0.004, p=0.054). We observed no relevant changes in the magnitude of the coefficients or in statistical significance after adjustment for newborn TSH levels. This study indicates a possible impact of prenatal exposure to o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE on newborn anthropometric measurements in a population showing evidence of recent exposure to the pesticide DDT.
- Panel studies of air pollution in patients with COPD: Systematic review and meta-analysis. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 23.:458-468.
Epidemiological studies have shown an increase in morbidity and mortality rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following exposure to elevated levels of air pollution. Panel studies have been used to assess short-term effects of air pollution which are not detected by registry studies, specifically lung function and symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence of panel studies on acute effects of air pollution among patients with COPD.We searched the PubMed database, and identified additional studies by inspecting reference lists and literature reviews. We identified and summarized 25 panel studies that were published between 1993 and February 2016. Results were presented in forest plots and effect estimates of sufficiently comparable outcomes and pollutants were summarized by a random-effects meta-analysis.Meta-analysis showed that a 10µg/m(3) increase in ambient levels of particles less than 10µm in diameter (PM10) had a small, but statistically significant impact on FEV1 (-3.38mL, 95% CI -6.39 to -0.37) and PEF (-0.61L/min, -1.20 to -0.01). There was significant heterogeneity across the included studies. A forest plot showing associations between PM10 and respiratory symptoms was also suggestive of an adverse effect of particulate air pollution, but this was not formally tested in a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of outcomes. Results for gaseous pollutants were inconsistent for lung function or symptoms.Evidence from the identified panel studies indicated statistically significant associations of particulate matter air pollution with lung function in patients with COPD.
- Mortality and morbidity due to exposure to outdoor air pollution in Mashhad metropolis, Iran. The AirQ model approach. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 23.:451-457.
In the past two decades, epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality. In this study the effect of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 pollutants on human health among the inhabitants of Mashhad has been evaluated. To evaluate the health effects due to air pollution, the AirQ model software 3.3.2, developed by WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, was used. The daily data related to the pollutants listed above has been used for the short term health effects (total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, hospitalization due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute myocardial infarction). PM2.5 had the most health effects on Mashhad inhabitants. With increasing in each 10μg/m3, relative risk rate of pollutant concentration for total mortality due to PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and O3 was increased of 0.6%, 1.5%, 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.46% respectively and, the attributable proportion of total mortality attributed to these pollutants was respectively equal to 4.24%, 4.57%, 0.99%, 2.21%, 2.08%, and 1.61% (CI 95%) of the total mortality (correct for the non-accident) occurred in the year of study. The results of this study have a good compatibly with other studies conducted on the effects of air pollution on humans. The AirQ software model can be used in decision-makings as a useful and easy tool.
- Dietary micronutrient intake and its relationship with arsenic metabolism in Mexican women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2016 Aug 23.:445-450.
Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolites in urine present intra- and interindividual variations, which are determined not only by the magnitude of exposure to iAs, but also by differences in genetic, environmental and dietary factors.To evaluate whether differences in dietary intake of selected micronutrients are associated with the metabolism of iAs.The intake of 21 micronutrients was estimated for 1027 women living in northern Mexico using a food frequency questionnaire. Concentration of urinary metabolites of iAs was determined by high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and the proportion of iAs metabolites was calculated (%iAs, monomethylarsonic acid [%MMA] and dimethylarsinic acid [%DMA]), as well as ratios corresponding to the first (MMA/iAs), second (DMA/MMA) and total methylation (DMA/iAs).After adjustment for covariates, it was found that methionine, choline, folate, vitamin B12, Zn, Se and vitamin C favor elimination of iAs mainly by decreasing the %MMA and/or increasing %DMA in urine.Our results confirm that diet contributes to the efficiency of iAs elimination. Further studies are needed to assess the feasibility of dietary interventions that modulate the metabolism of iAs and the consequent risk of diseases related to its exposure.