(Environmental research[TA]) articles in PubMed
- Comprehensive influence of environmental factors on the emission rate of formaldehyde and VOCs in building materials: Correlation development and exposure assessment. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 20; 151:734-741ER
- Temperature and relative humidity can simultaneously change in indoor environment, which significantly affect the emission rate of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building mat...
Temperature and relative humidity can simultaneously change in indoor environment, which significantly affect the emission rate of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials. Prior studies generally focus on the single effect of temperature or relative humidity, and the combined effect is not considered. This paper investigates the comprehensive influence of temperature and relative humidity on the emission rate of pollutants from building materials. Correlation between the emission rate and the combined environmental factors is derived theoretically. Data in literature are applied to validate the effectiveness of the correlation. With the correlation, the indoor formaldehyde concentration in summer is predicted to be 1.63 times of that in winter in Beijing, which is approximately consistent with surveyed data. In addition, a novel approach is proposed to assess the human health impact due to pollutants emitted from building materials at varied temperature and relative humidity. An association between the human carcinogenic potential (HCP) and the environmental factors is obtained. By introducing a reference room model developed previously, it is calculated that the HCP of bedroom at high relative humidity (70%, 25°C) for formaldehyde exceeds 10(-)(4) cases, meaning high cancer health risk. This study should prove useful for evaluating the emission behaviors and the associated exposure of pollutants from building materials at varied environmental conditions.
- Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 16; 151:728-733ER
- Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the ...
Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea.
- Spatial variation in nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 16; 151:721-727ER
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory and cardiovascular causes in areas with higher levels of NO2. Our findings add to the currently limited evidence of a long-term effect of air pollution on hospitalization. The ecological design of our study is a limitation and more studies with individual data are needed to confirm our findings.
- Gene-environment interactions linking air pollution and inflammation in Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 15; 151:713-720ER
- Both air pollution exposure and systemic inflammation have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the PASIDA study, 408 incident cases of PD diagnosed in 2006-2009 and their 495 population contr...
Both air pollution exposure and systemic inflammation have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the PASIDA study, 408 incident cases of PD diagnosed in 2006-2009 and their 495 population controls were interviewed and provided DNA samples. Markers of long term traffic related air pollution measures were derived from geographic information systems (GIS)-based modeling. Furthermore, we genotyped functional polymorphisms in genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, namely rs1800629 in TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and rs16944 in IL1B (interleukin-1β). In logistic regression models, long-term exposure to NO2 increased PD risk overall (odds ratio (OR)=1.06 per 2.94μg/m(3) increase, 95% CI=1.00-1.13). The OR for PD in individuals with high NO2 exposure (≧75th percentile) and the AA genotype of IL1B rs16944 was 3.10 (95% CI=1.14-8.38) compared with individuals with lower NO2 exposure (<75th percentile) and the GG genotype. The interaction term was nominally significant on the multiplicative scale (p=0.01). We did not find significant gene-environment interactions with TNF rs1800629. Our finds may provide suggestive evidence that a combination of traffic-related air pollution and genetic variation in the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1B contribute to risk of developing PD. However, as statistical evidence was only modest in this large sample we cannot rule out that these results represent a chance finding, and additional replication efforts are warranted.
- Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and gestational diabetes mellitus in primiparous women. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 15; 151:706-712ER
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that exposure to certain POPs (PCBs and PBDEs) could be a potential modifying risk factor for GDM.
- Effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on sludge aggregation and the role of extracellular polymeric substances - Explanation based on extended DLVO. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 15; 151:698-705ER
- The extended DLVO (XDLVO) theory was applied to elucidate the potential effects of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on sludge aggregation and the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In thi...
The extended DLVO (XDLVO) theory was applied to elucidate the potential effects of CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on sludge aggregation and the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In this study, seven different concentrations of CeO2 NPs were added to activated sludge cultured in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and compared with a control test that received no CeO2 NPs. After exposure to 50mg/L CeO2 NPs, a negligible change (p>0.1) occurred in the sludge volume index (SVI), whereas the flocculability and aggregation of the sludge decreased by 18.8% and 11.2%, respectively, resulting in a high effluent turbidity. The XDLVO theory demonstrated that the adverse effects of the CeO2 NPs on sludge aggregation were due to an enhanced barrier energy. Compared to the van der Waals energies (WA) and the electric double layer (WR), the acid-base interaction (WAB) markedly changed for the various concentrations of CeO2 NPs. The EPS played a decisive role in the sludge surface characteristics, as the removal of EPS equals to the negative effects induced by 5-10mg/L CeO2 NPs on the sludge flocculability and aggregation. The presence of CeO2 NPs induced negative contributions to the tight boundary EPS (TB-EPS) and core bacteria while positive contributions to the total interaction energy of the loose boundary EPS (LB-EPS).
- Urinary bisphenol A is associated with dysregulation of HPA-axis function in pregnant women: Findings from the APrON cohort study. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 15; 151:689-697ER
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first human evidence suggesting that BPA exposure is associated with dysregulation of HPA-axis function during pregnancy.
- Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants. [Review]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 10; 151:671-688ER
- Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the p...
Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks.
- Non-lethal heat shock increases tolerance to metal exposure in brine shrimp. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 9; 151:663-670ER
- Pollution and temperature increase are two of the most important stressors that aquatic organisms are facing. Exposure to elevated temperatures and metal contamination both induce heat shock proteins...
Pollution and temperature increase are two of the most important stressors that aquatic organisms are facing. Exposure to elevated temperatures and metal contamination both induce heat shock proteins (HSPs), which may thus be involved in the induced cross-tolerance in various organisms. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that exposure to a non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) causes an increased tolerance to subsequent metal exposure. Using gnotobiotic cultures of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, the tolerance to Cd and Zn acute exposures was tested after a prior NLHS treatment (30min exposure to 37°C). The effects of NLHS and metal exposure were also assessed by measuring 70kDa-HSPs production, along with the analysis of epigenetic markers such as DNA methylation and histone H3 and histone H4 acetylation. Our results showed that heat-shocked Artemia had increased acute tolerance to Cd and Zn. However, different patterns of HSPs were observed between the two metal compounds and no epigenetic alterations were observed in response to heat shock or metal exposure. These results suggest that HSP production is a phenotypically plastic trait with a potential role in temperature-induced tolerance to metal exposure.
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- The impacts of As accumulation under different pH levels: Comparing Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum biochemical performance. [Journal Article]
- Environ Res 2016 Sep 10; 151:653-662ER
- Marine bivalves have been used to assess environmental As contamination and the effects of seawater acidification when both factors are acting alone, but limited information is available regarding th...
Marine bivalves have been used to assess environmental As contamination and the effects of seawater acidification when both factors are acting alone, but limited information is available regarding the impacts of both factors acting in combination. The aim of this study was to compare physiological (glycogen) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and alkaline phosphatase) responses in both native (Ruditapes decussatus) and introduced (R. philippinarum) clams, when exposed to the combined effects of pH (7.8, control; 7.3) and As concentrations (0 and 4mg/L). The combined effect of As and pH on the health risks associated with clam consumption was also analyzed. Results revealed that both species were able to accumulate As under both pH levels, although higher As concentrations where observed under low pH. Thus, predicted pH decrease will potentiate health risks associated with the consumption of such species, since less amount of clams exposed to As is needed for an adult to exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Low pH, As exposure and the combination of both factors did not negatively affect the native species, since clams were able to maintain their physiological and biochemical performance among all conditions. On the other hand, R. philippinarum was negatively affected by As exposure at control pH (7.8), inducing biotransformation and antioxidant defense mechanisms against As toxicity. R. philippinarum exposed and non-exposed to As presented similar responses under low pH although at this condition the introduced species accumulated twice the amount of As than R. decussatus.