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Environmental research [journal]
- Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 15.:93-99.
High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy.
- Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 15.:83-92.
The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008-2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations.
- Extracellular histones mediate the effects of metal-rich air particles on blood coagulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:76-82.
Epidemiological studies have shown associations of particulate matter (PM) exposure with hypercoagulability and thrombosis. Extracellular circulating histones have recently been identified as novel mediators of inflammatory and procoagulant responses. The potential roles of extracellular histones in PM-related hypercoagulability have yet not been investigated.In 63 steel workers, we evaluated the effects of exposure to PM and PM metal components on two extracellular histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K9ac); and the association of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac with coagulation markers.Extracellular H3K4me3 and H3K9ac were determined in plasma through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Coagulation markers included endogenous thrombin potentials (ETPs), tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA) and d-dimer. Exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameters <1μm (PM1) or <10μm (PM10) and PM10 metal components were estimated for each participant.The coagulation marker ETP, measured in the presence of soluble thrombomodulin (ETP TM+), showed significant positive associations with PM1 (β=107.84, p=0.03), PM10 (β=83.06, p=0.02), and zinc (β=75.14, p=0.03); and a marginal association with iron (β=122.58, p=0.07). Additional PM effects were observed on t-PA, D-dimer, and ETP TM+. PM1 exposure was associated with increased plasma H3K4me3 and H3K9ac (β=0.20, p=0.02; β=0.16, p=0.05, respectively). H3K4me3, but not H3K9ac, was associated with zinc (β=0.13, p=0.03) and iron (β=0.32, p=0.01) contained in PM. ETP TM+ was increased in association with higher plasma H3K4me3 (β=0.50, p=0.05) and H3K9ac (β=0.54, p=0.05).This observational study suggests potential roles of extracellular histones in PM-induced hypercoagulability. Experimental studies are warranted to further characterize these findings.
- Lead in new paints in Nepal. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:70-75.
Samples from 75 paint products made by 21 domestic and foreign manufacturers were purchased from retail stores in five major cities in Nepal and tested for lead content. Information provided on product labels were noted. Samples were selected to be representative of the large number of brands and colors available in retail shops. Although a majority of the products purchased were manufactured in Nepal, paints from four additional countries were tested. Out of a total of 75 samples, 57 (76%) of the tested paints contained lead at concentrations greater than 90ppm (ppm). Ninety-three percent of the paints that exceeded 90ppm had levels in excess of 600ppm. Lead concentrations in the tested paints ranged up to 200,000ppm (20%) lead by weight and the median concentration was 5100ppm. These results indicate that lead paint is commonly being sold for residential and other consumer applications in Nepal without any consumer warnings. Regulations are needed to specify the maximum concentration of lead allowed in paint products manufactured, imported, or distributed in the country to protect public health. Efforts must be made to get lead-containing paint products recalled from stores so that they are not used in homes, schools, and other child-occupied facilities.
- Early life perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and overweight and obesity risk in adulthood in a community with elevated exposure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:62-69.
Infants and young children may be susceptible to developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure. Two previous studies, one that examined a general population exposed to environmental PFOA levels and one conducted in mice exposed to experimental PFOA levels, found that early life exposure was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in adulthood and effects may be stronger in women than in men.Examine whether elevated early life PFOA exposure was associated with adult BMI among a group of mid-Ohio valley residents exposed to a wide range of early life PFOA levels due to emissions from a chemical plant.The cohort consisted of 8764 adults aged 20-40 years who reported height and weight on a survey between 2008 and 2011. Annual retrospective early life PFOA serum concentrations were estimated for each participant based on residential history and nearby chemical plant emissions as well as background exposure not originating from the facility. We defined early life exposure as the estimated average PFOA serum concentration over the first three years of life. We examined the association between early life PFOA exposure and adult overweight (BMI ≥25kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥30kg/m(2)) risk using logistic and linear regression models.Nearly half the participants (45%) had early life PFOA exposure serum concentration estimates above background levels. Using participants who were exposed only to background PFOA levels as the referent category with quintiles of exposure above background, adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for overweight risk by increasing exposure category for women were 1.0 (ref), 1.0 (0.8, 1.3), 1.0 (0.8, 1.2), 1.0 (0.8, 1.2), 0.9 (0.7, 1.1), and 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) and for men were 1.0 (ref), 0.9 (0.6, 1.1), 1.0 (0.7, 1.3), 1.0 (0.8, 1.4), 0.7 (0.5, 0.9), and 0.9 (0.7, 1.1). Odds ratios for adult obesity risk were similar. Regression coefficients from linear models using BMI as a continuous outcome showed no association between early life PFOA exposure and adult BMI.Elevated levels of PFOA exposure in early life were not associated with overweight and obesity risk in adulthood and results did not vary by sex.
- Impairment of uterine smooth muscle contractions and prostaglandin secretion from cattle myometrium and corpus luteum in vitro is influenced by DDT, DDE and HCH. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:54-61.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane(DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (10ng/ml) on myometrial motility and the secretory function of the myometrium and corpus luteum (CL) collected from cows on days 8-12 of the estrous cycle. All of the xenobiotics increased (P<0.05) myometrial contractility. Moreover, the xenobiotics stimulated the secretion of the following prostaglandins (PGs) from myometrial strips: PGF2α, PGE2 and PGI2. DDT and DDE also increased (P<0.05) the release of PGF2α from CL strips, and HCH had the same effect (P<0.05) on the secretion of PGE2 and PGI2. The studied xenobiotics did not affect (P>0.05) PG synthesis, but DDT and DDE increased the mRNA expression levels of leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF), which can stimulate PG production. In summary, the xenobiotics affected PG secretion from cow myometrium and CL, which may contribute to the mechanism of uterine contraction disturbance.
- Indoor particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:46-53.
Despite the fact that precursors to reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prevalent indoors, the concentration of ROS inside buildings is unknown. ROS on PM2.5 was measured inside and outside twelve residential buildings and eleven institutional and retail buildings. The mean (±s.d.) concentration of ROS on PM2.5 inside homes (1.37±1.2nmoles/m(3)) was not significantly different from the outdoor concentration (1.41±1.0nmoles/m(3)). Similarly, the indoor and outdoor concentrations of ROS on PM2.5 at institutional buildings (1.16±0.38nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.68±1.3nmoles/m(3) outdoors) and retail stores (1.09±0.93nmoles/m(3) indoors and 1.12±1.1nmoles/m(3) outdoors) were not significantly different and were comparable to those in residential buildings. The indoor concentration of particulate ROS cannot be predicted based on the measurement of other common indoor pollutants, indicating that it is important to separately assess the concentration of particulate ROS in air quality studies. Daytime indoor occupational and residential exposure to particulate ROS dominates daytime outdoor exposure to particulate ROS. These findings highlight the need for further study of ROS in indoor microenvironments.
- Associations between personal exposure to air pollutants and lung function tests and cardiovascular indices among children with asthma living near an industrial complex and petroleum refineries. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:38-45.
The acute cardiorespiratory effects of air quality among children living in areas with considerable heavy industry have not been well investigated. We conducted a panel study of children with asthma living in proximity to an industrial complex housing two refineries in Montreal, Quebec, in order to assess associations between their personal daily exposure to air pollutants and changes in pulmonary function and selected indicators of cardiovascular health.Seventy-two children with asthma age 7-12 years in 2009-2010 participated in this panel study for a period of 10 consecutive days. They carried a small backpack for personal monitoring of sulphur dioxide (SO2), benzene, fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and underwent daily spirometry and cardiovascular testing (blood pressure, pulse rate and oxygen saturation). To estimate these associations, we used mixed regression models, adjusting for within-subject serial correlation, and for the effects of a number of personal and environmental variables (e.g., medication use, ethnicity, temperature).Children with asthma involved in the study had relatively good pulmonary function test results (mean FEV1 compared to standard values: 89.8%, mean FVC: 97.6%, mean FEF25-75: 76.3%). Median diastolic, systolic blood pressures and oxygen saturation were 60/94mmHg and 99%, respectively. Median personal concentrations of pollutants were NO2, 5.5ppb; benzene, 2.1µg/m(3); PM2.5, 5.7µg/m(3); and total PAH, 130µg/m(3). Most personal concentrations of SO2 were below the level of detection. No consistent associations were observed between cardio-pulmonary indices and personal exposure to PM2.5, NO2 and benzene, although there was a suggestion for a small decrease in respiratory function with total concentrations of PAHs (e.g., adjusted association with FVC: -9.9ml per interquartile range 95%CI: -23.4, 3.7).This study suggests that at low daily average levels of exposure to industrial emissions, effects on pulmonary and cardiovascular functions in children with asthma may be difficult to detect over 10 consecutive days.
- Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:33-37.
We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78-2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93-5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer.
- Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7-9 years. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Apr 14.:24-32.
The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002-2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p'-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7-9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p'-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p'-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old.