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Environmental research [journal]
- Aerosol and bioaerosol particles in a dental office. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 11.:405-409.
This study reports comprehensive aerosol and bioaerosol measurements in a dental office. The highest submicrometer particle concentrations were observed during dental grinding and they were on average 16 times higher than the indoor background. Certain metallic trace elements and total carbon concentrations were significantly elevated (>10 times) in the particles deposited in the operating room. Dental procedures also contributed to increased bacterial contamination that may pose a health risk both for dental personnel and patients.
- Is Helicobacter Pylori an endogenous source of diethyl phthalate in humans? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 11.:402-404.
Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) is a metabolite used to assess exposure to diethyl phthalate (DEP). Helicobacter Pylori (HP) has been shown to produce DEP in laboratory studies. We used NHANES 1999-2000 data for 1623 adults to investigate whether HP seropositivity was associated with MEP levels. MEP levels were higher in individuals with HP seropositivity (p=0.0237), however the association differed by race. These results suggest that HP may be an endogenous source of DEP in some populations.
- Infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via consumption of homemade baby food in Korea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 11.:396-401.
Limited data are available on the residue levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in baby food. In this study, 24 PBDE congeners were determined in 147 homemade baby food samples collected from 97 households for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and from 24 to 27-month-old infant groups during the period of 2012-2013. The concentrations of total PBDEs (ΣPBDE) ranged from 24.5 to 6000 (mean: 263)pg/g fresh weight, higher than those found in commercial formulae from the United States. The predominant congeners were BDEs 209 and 47, accounting for 92% of the ΣPBDE concentrations, reflected by high deca-BDE consumption in Korea. The residue levels and detection rates of BDE 47 in the baby food samples showed a gradual increasing trend with an increase in infant ages, due to changes in the food ingredients from hypoallergenic to greasy. The daily intakes of BDEs 47 and 209 via baby food consumption ranged from 0.04 to 0.58, 0.80 to 20.3, and 1.06 to 22.3ng/kg body weight/day for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 24-27-month-old infant groups, respectively; these intakes were lower than the oral reference doses proposed by the US EPA. Together with three exposure sources, baby food, breast milk and dust ingestion for 6-month-old infants, the daily intake of ΣPBDE was 25.5ng/kg body weight/day, which was similar to the intake via baby food consumption only for over 24-month-old infants in our study. This indicates that baby food is an important exposure pathway of PBDEs for over 24-month-old infants. This is the first study regarding the occurrence and exposure assessment of PBDEs via homemade baby food.
- Prevalence and psychiatric correlates of neighbourhood satisfaction and its impact on adolescent behaviours: UK understanding society cohort, 2011-2012. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 11.:390-395.
Studies looking into neighbourhood satisfaction including prevalence, risk correlates, and impacts are very scarce. Therefore, it was aimed to provide recent evidence on prevalence and psychiatric correlates of neighbourhood satisfaction and its impact on individual behaviours and life aspects in adolescents in a national and population-based setting.Data were retrieved and analysed in the UK Longitudinal Household Survey in 2011-2012. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, urbanisation level, and behavioural and emotional development was obtained by household interview. Analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square test and usual and multi-level logistic regression modelling.Of 491 (11.2%) out of 4427 adolescents were dissatisfied with their neighbourhoods and 6.8% (n=297) were classified as having abnormal psychiatric state. Smoking status (both current and past) and alcohol status (both current and past) were associated with neighbourhood dissatisfaction but not sex, urbanisation level or country of residence. Compared to people who were classified as normal, others with borderline or abnormal mental state tended to express dissatisfaction toward their current neighbourhoods. In addition, these people reported more "troublesome" individual behaviours for about 18 types out of 24 types in total and had poor perception toward life in many aspects including family, friends, school, and even personal appearance.One in five adolescents were dissatisfied with their current neighbourhoods leading to worrying individual behaviours and negative impacts on life. Neighbourhood renewal strategy or place-making to facilitate self-efficacy could be considered as priority to be integrated into future public health programs and/or put onto public health policy agenda.
- Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, occupational exposure to arsenic and sunlight, and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a European case-control study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 11.:382-389.
X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3) polymorphisms are relatively frequent in Caucasian populations and may have implications in skin cancer modulation. A few studies have evaluated their association with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but the results are inconsistent. In the current study, we aim to assess the impact of XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms on the risk of NMSC associated with sunlight and arsenic exposure. Study participants consist of 618 new cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls frequency matched on age, sex, and county of residence from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Adjusted effects are estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The results indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC1 R399Q (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.14-5.65) and a protective effect against basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC3 T241M (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.92), compared with the respective homozygous common genotypes. Significant interactions are detected between XRCC3 T241M and sunlight exposure at work, and between XRCC3 T241M and exposure to arsenic in drinking water (p-value for interaction <0.10). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that polymorphisms in XRCC genes may modify the associations between skin cancer risk and exposure to sunlight or arsenic. Given the high prevalence of genetic polymorphisms modifying the association between exposure to environmental carcinogens and NMSC, these results are of substantial relevance to public health.
- Association between hospital discharge rate for female breast cancer and residence in a zip code containing hazardous waste sites. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 8.:375-381.
Exposure to chemicals plays a role in risk of breast cancer. However, possible associations between risk of breast cancer and residential proximity to hazardous waste sites (HWSs) have not been reported.We determined rates of hospital discharge with a diagnosis of female breast cancer in relation to residence in a zip code containing HWSs in New York State (NYS) after adjustment for ethnicity, age, income and urbanicity. Waste exposure was assessed by both the number of waste sites and the type of contaminants. Negative binomial regression was used to test the associations.After controlling for confounders, the hospital discharge rate of breast cancer for women living in zip codes having four or more HWSs or in zip codes having one HWS increased significantly (at the 0.05 level) by 9.1% and 6.4%, as compared to those living in a zip code with no HWS. The association for women living in zip codes having two or three HWSs was not significant. This indicates that the extent of exposure cannot be assessed solely by the number of waste sites. The discharge rate for women living in zip codes containing at least one volatile organic compound (VOC) waste site was significantly increased 5.6% as compared to those living in a zip code without any HWS, while the increases were not significant for women living in zip codes containing waste sites with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) or other contaminants. The significant associations were stronger for African American than Caucasian women and stronger in more urbanized than in rural areas.Residence within a geographic area (defined by zip codes) that includes a hazardous waste site with VOCs is significantly associated with an increased rate of hospitalization for breast cancer, and the association is stronger for African American than Caucasian women and stronger in more urbanized than in rural areas after adjustment for the confounders.
- Metals and metalloids in hair samples of children living near the abandoned mine sites of Sulcis-Inglesiente (Sardinia, Italy). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 8.:366-374.
The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the oldest and most important polymetallic mining areas in Italy. Large outcrops of sulfide and oxide ores, as well as the products of the long-lasting mining activity, are present throughout the district releasing significant quantities of metals and metalloids into the surrounding environment. Here are reported concentrations of 21 elements determined in scalp hair samples from children (aged 11-13 years) living in different geochemical environments of southwestern Sardinia: Iglesias, hosting several abandoned mines, and the island of Sant׳Antioco, not affected by significant base metal mineralization events. Trace element determinations were performed by ICP-MS. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) in elemental concentration levels between the two study sites were found. Hair of children from Iglesias exhibited higher concentration values for Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, U, V, and Zn. Rubidium, V and U resulted more abundant at Sant׳Antioco. Hair samples from Iglesias showed gender-related differences for a larger number of elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) than at Sant׳Antioco, where only U was significantly different. The above elemental concentrations in females were always higher than in male donors. Robust Principal Component Analysis operated on log-transformed elemental concentrations showed components indicative of a) sulfides ore minerals (PC1) reflecting the influence of the diffuse mineralization covering the entire study area, b) the presence of some bioavailable As sources (PC2) as As-rich pyrite and Fe-containing sphalerite and c) other sources of metals overlapping the diffuse mineralizations, as carbonate rocks and coal deposits (PC3). The results provided evidence of a potential risk of adverse effects on the health of the exposed population, with children living at Iglesias being greatly exposed to several metals and metalloids originated in mining tailings, enriched soils, waters and food.
- Bioavailability, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity of pharmaceuticals bound to marine sediments. The use of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor as bioindicator species. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 6.:353-365.
A set of "early warning responses", measured as biomarkers of exposure and effect, was applied in the marine bioindicator Hediste diversicolor, in a way to assess the environmental quality of sediment affected by pharmaceutical contamination. Sublethal responses were determined in the sea-worms after 14-days of exposure to sediment spiked with some of the most representative pharmaceutical products found in the environment: carbamazepine (CBZ), ibuprofen (IBP), fluoxetine (FX), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and propranolol (PRO), including the environmental concentrations. Phases I (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase - EROD and dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase - DBF) and II (glutathione S-transferase - GST) of the metabolism, antioxidant system (glutathione peroxidase - GPX and glutathione reductase - GR), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase - AChE) and oxidative effects (lipid peroxidation - LPO and DNA damage strand breaks) were selected to evaluate the sublethal responses in the sea-worms. FX, EE2 and PRO were detoxified by the phase I of the metabolism (EROD activity). On the other hand, phase II (GST-activity) did not respond in sea-worms exposed to pharmaceutical products, except for the environmental concentrations of CBZ (activation) and PRO (deactivation). Neurotoxicity was induced in sea-worms exposed to EE2 (only the environmental concentrations), FX, IBP and CBZ. Oxidative effect determined as LPO increased in sea-worms exposed to environmental concentrations of IBP, EE2 and PRO. Genetic damage increased in sea-worms exposed to IBP and diminished for FX, EE2 and PRO. Our results indicated the toxicity of pharmaceutical products and recommended the battery of biomarkers and the bioindicator specie H. diversicolor for the environmental quality assessment of sediment affected by pharmaceutical contamination.
- Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 5.:345-352.
As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.
- Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Environ Res 2014 Sep 5.:339-344.
Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers.To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures.We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers׳ Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses.The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1°C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1°C increase in temperature).This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in colder temperate zones.