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Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry [journal]
- Northern excess in adolescent male firearm suicides: a register-based regional study from Finland, 1972-2009. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 May 17.
There are more firearms in Northern Finland as compared to Southern Finland, and a positive association between suicide rates and the number of firearms in a given region has been demonstrated in previous literature. Accordingly, the authors compared firearm suicide rates of Finnish adolescent (under 18 years) males in the two geographic regions. Young adult (18-24 years) and adult (25-44 years) males were used as reference groups. National data on cases of suicide in Northern and Southern Finland between 1972 and 2009 were obtained from Statistics Finland. Firearm suicides (n = 5,423) were extracted according to ICD-classification (ICD-8/9: E955, ICD-10: X72-X75). The distribution of types of firearms (hunting gun, handgun, other) employed in suicides was also investigated. The adolescent male firearm suicide rate in Northern Finland was almost three times higher than that observed in Southern Finland, while there was no difference in rates of suicide by other methods. A northern excess in firearm suicide rates was also found among young adult and adult males. Hunting guns were the most common type of firearms employed in young male suicides, and their use was especially common in Northern Finland. Our results indicate that the use of firearms plays a major role in explaining the northern excess in young Finnish male suicide rates, and emphasize a need to advance suicide prevention according to specific regional characteristics.
- A Danish population-based twin study on autism spectrum disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 May 10.
Genetic epidemiological studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) based on twin pairs ascertained from the population and thoroughly assessed to obtain a high degree of diagnostic validity are few. All twin pairs aged 3-14 years in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry were approached. A three-step procedure was used. Five items from the "Child Behaviour Checklist" (CBCL) were used in the first screening phase, while screening in the second phase included the "Social and Communication Questionnaire" and the "Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire". The final clinical assessment was based on "gold standard" diagnostic research procedures including diagnostic interview, observation and cognitive examination. Classification was based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. The initial sample included 7,296 same-sexed twin pairs and, after two phases of screening and clinical assessment, the final calculations were based on 36 pairs. The probandwise concordance rate for ASD was 95.2 % in monozygotic (MZ) twins (n = 13 pairs) and 4.3 % in dizygotic (DZ) twins (n = 23 pairs). The high MZ and low DZ concordance rate support a genetic aetiology to ASDs.
- A case of rapid conversion to psychosis of delusional misidentification associated with derealisation, verbal memory impairment and FDG-PET imaging abnormalities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 May 8.
The delusional misidentification syndromes, occurring within the context of different nosological settings, such as schizophrenia, are psychopathological phenomena related to the experience of depersonalisation/derealisation. Extensive research indicates that individuals meeting specific "prodromal" criteria, such as attenuated psychotic symptoms, brief intermittent psychotic symptoms, or functional decline and family history of schizophrenia have increased risk for impending psychosis. Despite depersonalisation and/or derealisation often precede psychotic onset, they are not included among the prodromal criteria of the Australian-American approach. A 17-year-old boy with acute agitation, violent behaviour and aggression, and dissociative amnesia had a mild verbal memory impairment and temporo-limbic hypometabolism on the positron-emission tomography. The patient was assessed with both the ultra-high risk (UHR) and the basic symptom approaches and was not found to be prodromal with imminent risk of transition to psychosis. He was hospitalised briefly and 2 weeks after discharge he developed delusional misidentification. This case shows that even the integration of both UHR and basic symptoms criteria may give false negatives in the prediction of psychosis, especially in those cases in which a long prodromal phase is absent.
- Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children. [Journal Article]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 May; 22(5):309-18.
Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.
- Communications of the European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 Apr 26.
- Autistic traits in children with ADHD index clinical and cognitive problems. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 Apr 25.
Traits of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) occur frequently in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the significance of their presence in terms of phenotype and underlying neurobiology is not properly understood. This analysis aimed to determine whether higher levels of autistic traits, as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), index a more severe presentation in a large, rigorously phenotyped sample of children with ADHD (N = 711). Regression analyses were used to examine association of SCQ scores with core ADHD features, clinical comorbidities and cognitive and developmental features, with adjustment for putative confounders. For outcomes showing association with total SCQ score, secondary analyses determined levels of differential association of the three ASD sub-domains. Results suggest that increasing ASD symptomatology within ADHD is associated with a more severe phenotype in terms of oppositional, conduct and anxiety symptoms, lower full-scale IQ, working memory deficits and general motor problems. These associations persisted after accounting for ADHD severity, suggesting that autistic symptomatology independently indexes the severity of comorbid impairments in the context of ADHD. Sub-domain scores did not show unique contributions to most outcomes, except that social deficits were independently associated with oppositional symptoms and repetitive behaviours independently predicted hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and motor problems. It would be worthwhile for clinicians to consider levels of socio-communicative and repetitive traits in those with ADHD who do not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD, as they index higher levels of phenotypic complexity, which may have implications for efficacy of interventions.
- Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 Apr 12.
In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.
- Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 Apr 9.
A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD = 2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations.
- Core features and associated psychopathology of Tourette syndrome: modifications by cultural aspects? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 Apr 9.