Eur J Pharmacol [journal]
- Tenuigenin exhibits protective effects against LPS-induced acute kidney injury via inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 18.
Tenuigenin (TNG) has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effects of TNG on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of TGN on LPS-induced AKI in mice. The kidney histological change, levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine were measured to assess the protective effects of TNG on LPS-induced AKI. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and kidney tissues were detected by ELISA. The extent of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 and the expression of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that TNG markedly attenuated the histological alterations, BUN and creatinine levels in kidney. TNG also suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production. Furthermore, the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB activation induced by LPS were markedly inhibited by TNG. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TNG protected against LPS-induced AKI by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
- Diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by decreasing NFATc1 and c-Fos expression via MAPK pathway. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 11.
Osteoporosis is caused by a functional imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The increased activation of osteoclasts that is a hallmark of osteoporosis results in the progressive loss of bone mass and therefore in an increased susceptibility to bone fractures. Diarylheptanoids are a group of phytoestrogens that have been isolated from a number of plant species, including the rhizomes of Curcuma comosa Roxb. In this study, the effect of one of diarylheptanoids, (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-heptene (DHPH), was investigated for anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic activity. DHPH significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cell line following their activation by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ, with no cytotoxicity. In primary mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophage precursors, DHPH suppressed osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand at an inhibitory concentration 50 of 325±1.37nM. DHPH treatment delayed and reduced the expression of master regulators of osteoclast differentiation, NFATc1 and c-Fos. Consistent with this result, the mRNA level of cathepsin K, associated with osteoclast differentiation, was decreased whereas the reduction in the mRNA of irf8, a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation, was similar to that measured in the vehicle-treated control cells. DHPH reduced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK (p44/42). Furthermore, DHPH suppressed the bone absorption activity of osteoclasts and enhanced osteoblast differentiation. Taken together, DHPH interrupts the immediate downstream signaling cascade of RANK and interferes with osteoclast differentiation and its function while enhances osteoblast differentiation. These results demonstrate the potential of this diarylheptanoid as a new therapeutic agent in osteoporosis.
- Differential effects of R-isovaline and the GABAB agonist, baclofen, in the guinea pig ileum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 10.
R-isovaline is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which produces analgesia in a range of nociceptive assays. Mediation of this effect by metabotropic receptors for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, demonstrated by previous work, may depend on the type of tissue or receptor system. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of R-isovaline acting at GABAB and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in guinea pig ileum, which is known to exhibit well-defined responses to GABAB agonists such as baclofen. The effects of bath-applied R-isovaline and RS-baclofen were examined on electrically evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum and during GABAB antagonism by CGP52432. In separate experiments, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740 was applied to determine the functional presence of these receptors. R-isovaline (1-100mM) decreased the amplitude of ileal muscle contractions and increased tension. RS-baclofen reduced contraction amplitude, but decreased tension. CGP52432 did not prevent the effects of R-isovaline on contraction amplitude, but antagonized effects of RS-baclofen on contraction amplitude. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740, produced no detectable effects on evoked contractions. R-isovaline differed significantly from RS-baclofen in its actions in the guinea pig ileum, indicated in particular by the finding that CGP52432 blocked only the effects of RS-baclofen. The ileal tissue did not respond to a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, previously shown to co-mediate R-isovaline analgesia. These findings raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic target at unknown receptors for R-isovaline-like compounds in the guinea pig ileum.
- Glucose uptake stimulatory potential and antidiabetic activity of the Arnebin-1 from Arnabia nobelis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 9.:449-457.
The enhanced disposal of glucose by the peripheral tissue is an important mechanism to regulate hyperglycemia. Here, we investigated the effect of Arnebin-1 from Arnebia nobilis, on glucose disposal in skeletal muscle cells and explored its in vivo antihyperglycemic potential. In L6 myotubes, Arnebin-1 stimulated glucose uptake, mediated through the enhanced translocation of the glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) to plasma membrane, without changing the amount of GLUT4 or GLUT1. These effects of Arnebin-1 were synergistic with that of insulin. The effect of Arnebin-1 on glucose uptake was abolished in presence of wortmannin, and Arnebin-1 significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and downstream marker GSK-3β. Moreover, treatment with Arnebin-1 lowered postprandial blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and improved glucose tolerance and suppressed the rises in the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol in db/db mice, associated with enhanced expression of the major marker of the PI-3-Kinase-mediated signaling cascade in skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that Arnebin-1 exert antihyperglycemic activity through stimulating glucose disposal in peripheral tissues via PI-3-Kinase-dependent pathway.
- Anti-cancer synergy of dichloroacetate and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cell lines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 8.:458-467.
Glycolysis has been observed as a predominant process for most cancer cells to utilize glucose, which was referred to as "Warburg Effect". Targeting critical enzymes, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) that inversely regulating the process of glycolysis could be a promising approach to work alone or in combination with other treatments for cancer therapy. EGFR inhibitors for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) treatment have been applied for decades in clinical practices with great success, but also their clinical benefits were somewhat hampered by the rising acquired-resistance. Combination drug therapy is an effective strategy to cope with the challenge. In this study, we utilized Dichloroacetate (DCA), a widely regarded PDK inhibitor, together with Erlotinib and Gefitinib, two well-known EGFR inhibitors, and demonstrated that the applications of DCA in combination with either Erlotinib or Gefitinib significantly attenuated the viability of EGFR mutant NSCLC cells (NCI-H1975 and NCI-H1650) in a synergistic manner. This synergistic outcome appears to be a combination effect in promoting apoptosis, rather than co-suppression of either EGFR or PDK signaling pathways. Moreover, we have shown that the combination treatment did not exhibit synergistic effect in other NSCLC cell lines without EGFR mutations (A549 or NCI-H460). Together, these observations suggested that combined targeting of EGFR and PDK in NSCLC cells exerted synergistic effects in an EGFR mutation-dependent fashion.
- Characterization of a selective inverse agonist for estrogen related receptor α as a potential agent for breast cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 4.:439-448.
The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is an orphan nuclear receptor that plays a primary role in the regulation of cellular energy homeostasis and osteogenesis. It is reported that ERRα is widely expressed in a range of tissues and accumulating evidence has supported that the high expression of ERRα correlates with poor prognosis of various human malignancies, including breast, endometrium, colon, prostate and ovary cancers. Herein is described the discovery of a novel selective inverse agonist (HSP1604) of ERRα, but not of ERRβ and ERRγ, as determined using transient transfection luciferase reporter assay and a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) co-activator assay. HSP1604 potently inhibits ERRα transcriptional activity with IC50=1.47±0.17μM in cell-based luciferase reporter assay and also decreases the protein level of ERRα and the mRNA levels of its downstream target genes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), pS2 and osteopontin. HSP1604 has also suppressed the proliferation of different human cancer cell lines and the migration of breast cancer cells with high expression of ERRα. Representative in vivo results show that HSP1604 suppresses the growth of human breast cancer xenograft in nude mice as doses at 30mg/kg or 100mg/kg administered every other day during 28-day period. HSP1604 thus has the potential both as a new agent to inhibit the growth of tumors and as a chemical probe of ERRα biology.
- Potent ameliorating effect of Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) antagonist YC-1 on combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) in Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 4.:343-350.
Recent studies have implicated that Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and asthma. In the present study, we showed that HIF-1α antagonist YC-1, 3-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, elicited a potent allergy-ameliorating effect in a rat model of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS). We revealed that YC-1 administration markedly impaired the total number and percentage of eosinophil in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL Fluid) of the rats, suggesting that YC-1 might attenuate lung and nasal mucosal inflammation in OVA-sensitized rats. Moreover, histological examination found that OVA-induced pathological alterations were evidently attenuated following YC-1 administration. In addition, immunohistochemistrial analysis indicated that YC-1 treatment decreased the expression of HIF-1α in rat lungs and nasal mucosa. Notably, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), two important regulators of inflammatory responses, were also significantly down-regulated following YC-1 administration. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed that YC-1 impaired the expression of HIF-1α, NF-κB and PPARα in CARAS model. These findings together indicated that YC-1 exerted remarkable anti-allergic effects through the modulation of inflammatory pathways, implying that YC-1 may potentially serve as a novel anti-CARAS medicine in clinical patients.
- New EGFR inhibitor, 453, prevents renal fibrosis in angiotensin II-stimulated mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 4.:421-430.
Chronic activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) greatly contributes to renal fibrosis through the over expression of angiotensin (Ang) II, ultimately leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD). As the main peptide in the RAS, Ang II is a key regulator of nephrotic inflammation, fibrogenic destruction and hypertensive nephropathy. Controlled by growth factors such as TGF-β, Ang II is thought to be affected by other such growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF) due to its ability to stimulate growth, regulate angiogenesis, and desensitize cells from apoptotic stimuli. Here we show that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a key role in Ang II induced renal fibrosis and its inhibition for the use as an effective treatment of CKD. 453, an AG1478 analog, was used to block the EGF-EGFR interaction in vivo in 4-week old mice treated with Ang II and 453. Along with the inhibition of EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways (AKT and ERK), 453 also prevented the activation of fibrotic (collagen, CFGF, TGF-β), inflammatory (COX2, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α), apoptosis and oxidative stress pathways. These findings suggest the use of 453 as a novel EGFR-inhibitor for therapeutic use in CKD kidney dysfunction.
- Neuroprotective effects of Kaempferide-7-O-(4″-O-acetylrhamnosyl)-3-O-rutinoside on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 4.:335-342.
In the present study, we aim to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanism of Kaempferide-7-O-(4″-O-acetylrhamnosyl)-3-O-rutinoside (A-F-B) against cerebral I/R injury. Adult male rats were pretreated with A-F-B by intragastric administration once a day for 3 days. One hour after the third day administration, animals were subjected to 2h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24h of reperfusion. Neurological deficit, infarct volume, histopathological changes, oxidative stress-related biochemical parameters, neuronal apoptosis, apoptosis-related proteins and the expression of pro-inflammator cytokines genes were measured. A-F-B significantly decreased neurological and histological deficits, reduced the infarct volume, and decreased neuroapoptosis. Meanwhile, A-F-B inhibited the expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and promoted Bcl-2 expression. In addition, the expression of pro-inflammator cytokines, including phospho-NF-kBp65, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were also suppressed by A-F-B pretreatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-F-B could significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, but decrease the content of malondiadehyde in blood serum. These results suggest that A-F-B has the neuroprotective effect in ischemic stroke by suppressing neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species and neuroapoptosis.
- Nitric oxide and Kir6.1 potassium channel mediate isoquercitrin-induced endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation in the mesenteric arterial bed of rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Aug 3.:328-334.
The vascular effect of flavonoid isoquercitrin was investigated in the perfused mesenteric vascular bed of rats. In preparations with functional endothelium isoquercitrin (100, 300 and 1000nmol) dose-dependently reduced the perfusion pressure by 13±2.2, 33±3.9, and 58±3.7mm Hg, respectively. Endothelium removal or inhibition of the nitric oxide synthase enzymes by l-NAME did not change the effects of 100 and 300 nmol isoquercitrin, but reduced by 30-40% the vasodilation induced by 1000 nmol isoquercitrin. Perfusion with nutritive solution containing 40mM KCl abolished the vasodilatory effect of all isoquercitrin doses. Treatment with glibenclamide, a Kir6.1 (ATP-sensitive) potassium channel blocker, inhibited vasodilation induced by 100 and 300 nmol isoquercitrin, but only partially reduced the effect of 1000 nmol isoquercitrin. The non-selective KCa (calcium-activated) potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the selective KCa1.1 channel blocker iberiotoxin, reduced by around 60% vasodilation induced by all isoquercitrin doses. In addition, association of tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide, or l-NAME and glibenclamide, fully inhibited isoquercitrin-induced vasodilation. Our study shows that isoquercitrin induces vasodilation in resistance arteries, an effect mediated by K(+) channel opening and endothelial nitric oxide production.