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Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg [journal]
- Commentary on 'a decision aid regarding treatment options for patients with an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm: a randomised clinical trial'. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Sep; 48(3):284.
- Type II Endoleak: Conservative Management Is a Safe Strategy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jul 17.
Type II endoleak is the most common complication after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, its natural history is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and outcomes of type II endoleak, at a single institution after EVAR.A total of 904 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR between September 1995 and July 2013 at a single centre were entered onto a prospective database. All patients were followed up by duplex ultrasound (DUSS). Patients who developed type II endoleak were compared for preoperative demographics, mortality, and sac expansion.A total of 175(19%) patients developed type II endoleak over a median follow-up of 3.6 years (1.5-5.9 years); 54% of type II endoleaks spontaneously resolved within 6 months (0.25-1.2 years). No difference was found in preoperative demographics or choice of endograft between the two groups. Survival was significantly higher in the group with type II endoleak (94.1% vs. 85.6%; p = .01) and this effect was most pronounced in those with late type II endoleaks (97.7% vs. 85.6% p = .004). No difference was seen in aneurysm-related mortality or rate of type I endoleak between the two groups. Freedom from sac expansion (>5 mm from preoperative diameter) was significantly lower in the group of patients with type II endoleak (82.5% vs. 93.2%, p = .0001); however, at a threshold of >10 mm from preoperative diameter no difference was seen.Patients with isolated type II endoleak demonstrate equivalent aneurysm-related mortality and an improved survival.
- Impact of Hybrid Rooms with Image Fusion on Radiation Exposure during Endovascular Aortic Repair. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jul 17.
To evaluate exposure to radiation during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) performed with intraoperative guidance by preoperative computed tomographic angiogram fusion.All consecutive patients who underwent standard bifurcated (BIF) or thoracic (THO), and complex fenestrated (FEN) or branched (BR) EVAR were prospectively enrolled. Indirect dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and contrast medium volume were recorded. These data were compared with a previously published prospective EVAR cohort of 301 patients and to other literature. Direct DAP and peak skin dose were measured with radiochromic films. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range).From December 2012 to July 2013, 102 patients underwent standard (56.8%) or complex (43.2%) EVAR. The indirect DAP (Gy.cm(2)) was as follows: BIF 12.2 (8.7-19.9); THO 26.0 (11.9-34.9); FEN 43.7 (24.7-57.5); and BR 47.4 (37.2-108.2). The FT (min) was as follows: BIF 10.6 (9.1-14.7); THO 8.9 (6.0-10.5); FEN 30.7 (20.2-40.5); and BR 39.5 (34.8-51.6). The contrast medium volume (mL) was as follows: BIF 59.0 (50.0-75.0); THO 80.0 (50.0-100.0); FEN 105.0 (70.0-136.0); and BR 120.0 (100.0-170.0). When compared with a previous cohort, there was a significant reduction in DAP during BIF, FEN, and BR procedures, and a significant reduction of iodinated contrast volume during FEN and BR procedures. There was also a significant reduction in DAP during BIF procedures when compared with the literature (p < .01). DAP measurement on radiochromic films was strongly correlated with indirect DAP values (r(2) = .93).The exposure of patients and operators to radiation is significantly reduced by routine use of image fusion during standard and complex EVAR.
- Could Four-dimensional Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound Replace Computed Tomography Angiography During Follow up of Fenestrated Endografts? Results of a Preliminary Experience. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jul 9.
To evaluate four-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound (4D-CEUS) as an alternative imaging method to computed tomography angiography (CTA) during follow up of fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) for juxta- and para-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).Between October 2011 and March 2012, all consecutive patients who underwent FEVAR follow up were included in the study and evaluated with both 4D-CEUS and CTA. The interval between the two examinations was always ≤30 days. Endpoints were the comparison of postoperative AAA diameter, AAA volume, presence of endoleaks, revascularized visceral vessel (RVV) visualization, and patency. Comparative analysis was performed using Bland-Altman plots and McNemar's Chi-square test.Twenty-two patients (96% male, 4% female; mean age 74 ± 7 years; American Society of Anesthesiologists grade III/IV 82%/18%) were enrolled. Seventy-eight RVV (fenestrations: 60; scallops: 17; branches: 1) were analyzed. The mean AAA diameter evaluated by 4D-CEUS and CTA was 45 ± 10 mm (range 30-69 mm) and 48 ± 9 mm (range 32-70 mm), respectively. The mean difference was 3 ± 3 mm. The mean AAA volume evaluated by 4D-CEUS and CTA was 150 ± 7 cc (range 88-300 cc) and 159 ± 68 cc (range 80-310 cc), respectively. The mean difference was 7 ± 4 cc; a Bland-Altman plot revealed agreement in AAA diameter and volume evaluation (p < .01) between 4D-CEUS and CTA. The observed agreement for the detection of endoleaks was 95%. McNemar's Chi-square test confirmed that 4D-CEUS and CTA were equivalent (p > .05) at detecting endoleaks. The first segment of six (8%) RVVs (four renal and two superior mesenteric arteries) was not directly visualized by 4D-CEUS owing to obesity, but the contrast enhancement into the distal part of vessel or into the relative parenchyma gave indirect information about their patency. McNemar's Chi-square test demonstrated the superiority of CTA (p = .031) in visualizing RVVs. The patency of 77/78 RVVs was confirmed with both techniques. McNemar's Chi-square test confirmed that 4D-CEUS and CTA were equivalent in their ability to detect visceral vessel patency.The data suggest that 4D-CEUS is as accurate as CTA in the evaluation of postoperative AAA diameter and volume, endoleak detection, and RVV patency after FEVAR. Four-dimensional CEUS could provide hemodynamic information regarding RVVs, and reduce radiation exposure and renal impairment during follow up. Obesity limits the diagnostic accuracy of 4D-CEUS.
- Temporary Aneurysm Sac Perfusion as an Adjunct for Prevention of Spinal Cord Ischemia After Branched Endovascular Repair of Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jul 2.
To report experience with the concept of temporary aneurysm sac perfusion (TASP) and second stage side branch completion to prevent severe spinal cord ischemia (SCI) after branched endovascular aortic repair (bEVAR) for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA).Patients were treated for TAAA with bEVAR between January 2009 and September 2012. TASP was performed by non-completion of side branches to one of the reno-visceral arteries, distal aortic or iliac extensions with secondary side branch completion. Primary endpoints of the study were overall technical success, side branch patency, perioperative mortality, and the rate of severe SCI.Eighty-three patients were treated for TAAA with branched aortic stent grafts with (n = 40) or without (n = 43) TASP. Overall technical success, including aneurysm exclusion, absence of persistent type I or III endoleak, TASP side branch patency, and secondary side branch completion was 35/40 (88%). Secondary TASP side branch completion was performed after a median of 48 days (range 1-370 days). The rate of early re-interventions for reno-visceral side branch complications was 8/283 (3%) and 6/83 (7%) for perioperative mortality, with three patients in both groups. Severe SCI or paraplegia was observed in 11/83 (13%) of the patients and reduced in the TASP group (2/40) compared with the non-TASP group (9/43; p = .03), especially in Crawford I-III aneurysms (1/29 vs. 7/24; p = .01). However, one TASP patient died 4 months after bEVAR during the TASP interval from suspected aorto-bronchial fistula.The concept of TASP after bEVAR for TAAA is feasible and seems to reduce the risk of SCI. Early side TASP branch completion within 4 weeks is recommended to reduce the risk of rupture, although, according to the individual clinical presentation, a longer TASP interval might improve neurological rehabilitation from SCI.
- Effect of Systemic Urokinase Infusion After Lower Limb Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty on Limb Salvage Rate in Patients with Late-stage Critical Limb Ischemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 28.
To evaluate the effect of systemically administered urokinase (UK) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stent (PTA ± stent) on the reduction in the rate and level of amputation in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) with tissue loss.This was an observational, nonrandomized, retrospective study of 183 Taiwanese patients with Rutherford stage 5 or 6, and Fontaine stage 4 lower extremity CLI. Patients received either PTA ± stent or PTA ± stent + UK infusion (250,000 IU, daily for 5 days). PTA of the iliac, femoral, anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery, and peroneal arteries was included. Amputation was classified as minor, with direct wound healing, and minor amputation or surgical debridement of toes and major, with below- (BKA) and above-knee amputation (AKA).In groups of patients with comparable baseline characteristics, 85 and 90 patients received PTA ± stent and PTA ± stent + UK, respectively. There were 24 major limb amputations performed. A significant majority (20/24 (83.3%) were performed in patients who did not receive adjuvant urokinase, compared with 4/24 (16.7%) of patients who did receive urokinase (p = 0.000287). There was a significant increase in the limb salvage rate for infrapopliteal lesions in patients treated with PTA + UK (12/72 with UK; 60/72 without UK; p ≤ .0001). Intracranial hemorrhage (n = 1) and bleeding at the inguinal puncture site (n = 2) were reported in the PTA ± stent + UK group. Eight deaths (one in the PTA ± stent + UK group; seven in the PTA ± stent) occurred during the study.Systemic administration of UK with the PTA ± stent procedure may reduce the requirement for major amputation in patients with CLI with tissue loss (Rutherford 5 or 6). The difference is more pronounced in patients undergoing infrapopliteal interventions. However, these findings need to be confirmed in a randomized prospective study.
- Influence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 26.
To evaluate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).Aortic samples were collected from patients who underwent AAA repair (n = 89). Patients were stratified according to the maximum transverse aorta diameter: small diameter (<55 mm), moderate diameter (55-69.9 mm) and large diameter (≥70 mm). Aortic walls were studied using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. MMP-2, MMP-9, α-actin, CD45, and CD68 transcript levels were determined relative to β-actin. Quantitative data were expressed as median (IQ-range).No differences were found in MMP-2 expression between the patient groups, which was mainly associated with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC); however, MMP-9 displayed the maximum level in the moderate-diameter group, associated with infiltrating macrophages. Current smoking (CS) and renal insufficiency (RI) significantly increased local levels of MMP-2 (CS 349.5 [219.5-414.1] vs. no-CS 184.4 [100.0-320.5]; p < .008; RI 286.8 [189.6-410.8] vs. no-RI 177.3 [99.3-326.9]; p = .047). Nevertheless, after stepwise linear regression analysis only CS remained as an independent variable predicting local levels of MMP-2 (p = .002). No risk factors influenced local levels of MMP-9.The results show that local levels of MMP-2, an important factor for AAA development, were increased in current smoking AAA patients. MMP-2 was mainly associated with VSMC. It is suggested that MMP-2 could contribute significantly to the increased AAA growth rate observed in current smoking patients. These findings support inclusion of smokers in screening for aneurysmal disease, and emphasize the need for more aggressive monitoring of aneurysmal disease outside the surgical range in patients who smoke at the time of diagnosis and in those who continue to smoke during follow-up.
- Efficacy of Revascularization for Critical Limb Ischemia in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 26.
To evaluate the outcomes of surgical revascularization for critical limb ischemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).From 2004 to 2010, 184 patients with 213 critically ischaemic limbs caused by arteriosclerosis were admitted to The University of Tokyo Hospital. The outcomes of primarily surgical revascularization-based treatments were retrospectively compared in patients with ESRD (ESRD group: 79 patients, 101 limbs) and without ESRD (non-ESRD group: 105 patients, 112 limbs) during the same period.Arterial reconstruction was performed on 56 limbs in 46 patients in the ESRD group and 78 limbs in 73 patients in the non-ESRD group (55% vs. 70%; p = .03). Major amputation was performed in 6 of 48 limbs with patent grafts in the ESRD group because of uncontrolled infection or progression of necrosis. The limb salvage rate after arterial reconstruction was significantly lower in the ESRD group than in the non-ESRD group (p = .0019). The postoperative survival rate was lower in the ESRD group than in the non-ESRD group, although this difference was not significant (p = .052). Associated cardiovascular disease and systemic infection were the most frequent causes of death in the ESRD group. There was no significant difference in graft patency between the two groups after distal bypass surgery; however, the limb salvage rate was significantly lower in the ESRD group than in the non-ESRD group (p = .03).Critical limb ischemia associated with ESRD has a poor prognosis. Infection control is particularly important for achievement of good treatment outcomes.
- Superficial Femoral Vein is Superior to Cryopreserved Allografts for in situ Aortic Reconstruction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 26.