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Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg [journal]
- Mural Thrombus and the Progression of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Large Population-based Prospective Cohort Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 23.
To investigate whether the relative size of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is associated with AAA growth.This large observational study was based on a randomised population-based screening trial. Six hundred and fifteen AAAs were diagnosed in men aged 65-74 years. The relative cross-sectional area covered by the mural thrombus was estimated by a semiautomatic method using ultrasound equipment to measure the area of the ellipses, and adapting the inner ellipse (IA) to the luminal border of the thrombus and the outer ellipse to the area inside the media border (OA). The relative thrombus area was then calculated as ((OA-IA)/OU) × 100%. Four hundred and sixteen of the patients with AAA were eligible for analysis.The mean size of the AAA was 40.6 mm, and the mean observation time was 1.78 years. In the group with AAAs measuring 30-34 mm, 42% had ILT, with a mean relative size of 12% of the outer area. In the group with AAAs measuring >64 mm, the presence of ILT increased to 100%, with a mean relative size of 70% of the outer area. Univariate analysis showed relative ILT size, aortic diameter, smoking history, and diastolic blood pressure were significantly positively associated with growth rate, while the presence of diabetes mellitus and peripheral arterial disease were significantly negatively associated with growth rate. The relative ILT size remained significantly positively associated with the growth rate after a multivariate linear regression adjusting for potential confounders.These findings suggest that ILT may play a part in the progression of AAAs.
- Pathology Specific Early Outcome after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 21.
Endovascular intervention is established for treatment of thoracic aortic dissection and aneurysm. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of all-cause and aortic-related in-hospital mortality, stroke, spinal cord ischaemia, and major adverse event rate for patients undergoing thoracic aortic endovascular intervention to see if there is a pathology-specific effect.Data were collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively for a cohort of 309 consecutive patients with either thoracic aortic dissection or aneurysm over a 14-year period.There were 209 men and 100 women with a median age of 72 years (interquartile range [IQR] 63-78 years). Aneurysm affected 62% (193/309) of patients and 37% (116/309) had complicated type B aortic dissection, of whom 43% (50/116) had acute and 57% (66/116) chronic presentations. In patients with aortic dissection compared to aneurysm, there was no significant difference in all-cause in-hospital mortality (6.9% vs. 8.3% respectively, p = 0.827, relative risk [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-1.88), stroke (6.0% vs 6.2%, p = 1.00, RR 0.971, CI 0.39-2.39), spinal cord ischaemia (6.0% vs 6.2%, p = 1.00, RR 1.030, CI 0.42-2.54), or major adverse event rate (16.4% vs. 16.6%, p = 1.00, RR 0.988, CI 0.59-1.66). The rate of aortic related death was four times greater in the dissection than in the aneurysm group (4/8 = 50% vs 2/16 = 12.5%, p = 0.06, RR 6.99, CI 0.92-52.5) although this did not reach statistical significance.There was no difference in the incidence of in-hospital mortality, stroke, and spinal cord ischaemia between aneurysm and dissection. The higher rate of aortic related death in the dissection group may indicate the need to refine the clinical management of these patients, including procedural planning, endograft design, and operative technique.
- Endovascular Repair of Acute Uncomplicated Aortic Type B Dissection Promotes Aortic Remodelling: 1 Year Results of the ADSORB Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 21.
Uncomplicated acute type B aortic dissection (AD) treated conservatively has a 10% 30-day mortality and up to 25% need intervention within 4 years. In complicated AD, stent grafts have been encouraging. The aim of the present prospective randomised trial was to compare best medical treatment (BMT) with BMT and Gore TAG stent graft in patients with uncomplicated AD. The primary endpoint was a combination of incomplete/no false lumen thrombosis, aortic dilatation, or aortic rupture at 1 year.The AD history had to be less than 14 days, and exclusion criteria were rupture, impending rupture, malperfusion. Of the 61 patients randomised, 80% were DeBakey type IIIB.Thirty-one patients were randomised to the BMT group and 30 to the BMT+TAG group. Mean age was 63 years for both groups. The left subclavian artery was completely covered in 47% and in part in 17% of the cases. During the first 30 days, no deaths occurred in either group, but there were three crossovers from the BMT to the BMT+TAG group, all due to progression of disease within 1 week. There were two withdrawals from the BMT+TAG group. At the 1-year follow up there had been another two failures in the BMT group: one malperfusion and one aneurysm formation (p = .056 for all). One death occurred in the BMT+TAG group. For the overall endpoint BMT+TAG was significantly different from BMT only (p < .001). Incomplete false lumen thrombosis, was found in 13 (43%) of the TAG+BMT group and 30 (97%) of the BMT group (p < .001). The false lumen reduced in size in the BMT+TAG group (p < .001) whereas in the BMT group it increased. The true lumen increased in the BMT+TAG (p < .001) whereas in the BMT group it remained unchanged. The overall transverse diameter was the same at the beginning and after 1 year in the BMT group (42.1 mm), but in the BMT+TAG it decreased (38.8 mm; p = .062).Uncomplicated AD can be safely treated with the Gore TAG device. Remodelling with thrombosis of the false lumen and reduction of its diameter is induced by the stent graft, but long term results are needed.
- Prognostic Impact of Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 21.
Arterial stiffness (AS) is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor in different high-risk populations. Whether changes in AS can predict prognosis in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AS is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with symptomatic PAD.A cohort of 117 symptomatic PAD patients (aged 62.3 ± 7.7 years) were prospectively recruited from the Department of Vascular Surgery, Tartu University Hospital, between 2002 and 2010. The AS was measured using pulse wave analysis and assessment of pulse wave velocity (PWV).During the follow-up period (mean 4.1 ± 2.2 years) there were 32 fatal events. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the probability of all-cause and CVD mortality decreased with increasing small artery elasticity (SAE), as estimated by the log-rank test (p = .004; p = .005, respectively). By contrast, large artery elasticity, augmentation index, and aortic and brachial PWV were not significantly related to mortality. In a Cox proportional hazard model, SAE above the median was associated with decreased all-cause and CVD mortality after adjustment for confounding factors: relative risk (RR), 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.81; p = .01; RR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.01-0.86; p = .04, respectively).This study provides the first evidence, obtained from an observational study, that decreased small artery elasticity is an independent predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality in patients with symptomatic PAD.
- Commentary on "The Effect of Deep Venous Stenting on Healing of Lower Limb Venous Ulcers" [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 21.
- Selective Intra-arterial Dual-energy CT Angiography (s-CTA) in Lower Extremity Arterial Occlusive Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 20.
In patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease, renal impairment is a common contraindication to iodine and gadolinium contrast media, which limits the utility of conventional computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). It is proposed that selective intra-arterial dual-energy CT-angiography (s-CTA), that is CTA with intra-arterial injection of an ultra-low dose iodine contrast media, is a feasible, safe and accurate alternative imaging method to conventional non-invasive contrast enhanced vascular imaging in this patient group. The aim of this study was to report a preliminary experience of s-CTA in patients with critical limb ischemia and renal insufficiency with respect to safety, feasibility, and diagnostic accuracy.Ten non-consecutive patients with ischemic foot ulcers underwent s-CTA of one leg. Procedure related complications were recorded and imaging results were compared with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA).A median 17 mL (range 10-19 mL) contrast media (400 mg I/mL) was used. The median baseline plasma creatinine was 163 μmol/L (range 105-569) pre s-CTA versus 153 μmol/L (range 105-562) post s-CTA (p = .24). There was no puncture site complication. Among the patients selected for intervention (n = 6 with 30 arterial segments) the s-CTA findings correlated well with the DSA findings; the diagnostic sensitivity was 100%, the specificity 89%, and the accuracy 93%.In this pilot study, a novel imaging method (s-CTA) is presented that provides high-quality arterial phase images with ultra-low dose iodine contrast media useful also for patients unsuitable for conventional contrast enhanced imaging methods because of renal insufficiency.
- The Effect of Deep Venous Stenting on Healing of Lower Limb Venous Ulcers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 18.
To report the outcomes of endovascular interventions on deep veins in patients with venous ulcers (C6).This was a retrospective review of a case series. All patients with active venous ulceration who underwent endovascular interventions to the deep venous system from February 2011 to June 2013 were included. Patients with C6 disease who failed a trial of adequate compression therapy or superficial vein interventions were considered for evaluation of the deep veins. Patients with deep vein reflux or without significant venous reflux or with a previous history of deep vein thrombosis underwent computed tomographic venogram or ascending venogram. In the absence of intravenous ultrasound trial ballooning to look for a "waist" to identify subtle lesions was used. Lesions were stented with long Nitinol stents.Thirty-eight patients underwent deep vein stenting of 44 limbs with venous ulcers. The lesions were considered to be post-thrombotic in 31 limbs and non-thrombotic iliac vein lesions in 13 limbs. A mean of 1.8 stents were used per patient. There were no significant complications associated with the interventions. At a median follow-up of 15 months, the primary and assisted primary patency rates were 94% and 97%, respectively. Sustained ulcer healing was achieved in 60% of limbs. A further 20% of ulcers had reduced in size. Recurrent ulcers developed in 13% of limbs, and half of these healed with interventions for newly developed incompetence in superficial veins.Endovascular interventions to the deep veins appear to be an effective adjunct in achieving the healing of recalcitrant ulcers.
- Mid-term Outcomes and Aortic Remodelling After Thoracic Endovascular Repair for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Aortic Dissection: The VIRTUE Registry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 18.
The VIRTUE Registry describes the mid-term clinical and morphological results of thoracic endovascular repair (TEVR) in patients with type B aortic dissection.This was a prospective cohort study. The VIRTUE Registry is a prospective, multicentre clinical trial that enrolled patients with complicated acute (<15 days), subacute (15-92 days), and chronic (>92 days) type B aortic dissections treated with the Valiant endograft. One hundred patients were enrolled and the clinical outcomes described at the 3-year follow-up. Analysis of the aortic area and false lumen thrombosis rates defined the morphological response to TEVR in the three clinical groups.Three-year all-cause mortality (18%, 4%, and 24%), dissection related mortality (12%, 4%, and 9%), aortic rupture (2%, 0%, and 4%), retrograde type A dissection (5%, 0%, and 0%), and aortic reintervention rates (20%, 22%, and 39%) were, respectively, defined for patients with acute (n = 50), subacute (n = 24), and chronic (n = 26) dissections. Analysis of aortic morphology observed that patients with subacute dissection demonstrated a similar degree of aortic remodelling to patients with acute dissection. Patients with acute and subacute dissection exhibited greater aortic plasticity than patients with chronic dissection.The principle clinical findings suggest that TEVR is able to provide good protection from aortic-related death in the mid-term, but with a high rate of aortic reintervention. Analysis of aortic morphology suggested that aortic remodelling in subacute patients is similar to the acute group. Retention of aortic plasticity in the subacute group lengthens the therapeutic window for the treatment of uncomplicated type B dissection.
- Efficacy and Safety of the New Oral Anticoagulants Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, Apixaban, and Edoxaban in the Treatment and Secondary Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Phase III Trials. [REVIEW]
- Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2014 Jun 17.
The aim was to perform a review of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants (NOAs) in the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE).This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. On March 26, 2014, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane trial register were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the NOAs dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in VTE treatment and secondary prevention. Two investigators assessed the methodological quality of the RCTs. The main study outcomes (efficacy, safety and net clinical benefit) were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).Ten RCTs, mostly with low risk of bias, with nearly 38,000 patients, were identified. In six trials of treatment, NOAs were equally effective as VKAs in preventing recurrent symptomatic VTE (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05), but major bleeding occurred less often (1.08% vs. 1.73% for VKAs, RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.51-0.77), leading net clinical benefit to favor NOAs (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.90). Fatal bleeding occurred less often with NOAs (0.09% vs. 0.18% for VKAs), a difference that approached statistical significance (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-1.01). In three secondary prevention trials, NOAs reduced VTE recurrence rates to 1.32% (vs. 7.24% with placebo, RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.12-0.24) and fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) (including unexplained deaths) to 0.1% (vs. 0.29% for placebo, RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10-1.38) at the expense of clinically relevant non-major bleeding (4.3% vs. 1.8% for placebo, RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.65-3.35), but not major bleeding. All-cause mortality rate was reduced to 0.41% with NOAs (vs. 0.86% with placebo, RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.79). Net clinical benefit favored NOAs (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.15-0.29), and NNT was 18.Compared to VKAs, NOAs are not only effective in treating VTE but also safer in terms of bleeding, thereby conferring clinical benefit. Their safety and efficacy was confirmed further in secondary prevention trials.