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European journal of medical research [journal]
- Characteristics of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1-A20-NF-κB expression in T cell-acute lymphocytic leukemia. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Med Res 2014; 19(1):62.
Knowledge of the oncogenic signaling pathways of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains limited. Constitutive aberrant activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway has been detected in various lymphoid malignancies and plays a key role in the development of these carcinomas. The zinc finger-containing protein, A20, is a central regulator of multiple NF-κB-activating signaling cascades. A20 is frequently inactivated by deletions and/or mutations in several B-and T-cell lymphoma subtypes. However, few A20 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in T-ALL. Thus, it is of interest to analyze the expression characteristics of A20 and its regulating factors, including upstream regulators and the CBM complex, which includes CARMA1, BCL10, and MALT1.The expression levels of CARMA1, BCL10, MALT1, A20, and NF-κB were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 21 patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL using real-time PCR, and correlations between the aberrant expression of these genes in T-ALL was analyzed. Sixteen healthy individuals, including 10 males and 6 females, served as controls.Significantly lower A20 expression was found in T-ALL patients (median: 4.853) compared with healthy individuals (median: 8.748; P = 0.017), and significantly increased expression levels of CARMA1 (median: 2.916; P = 0.034), BCL10 (median: 0.285; P = 0.033), and MALT1 (median: 1.201; P = 0.010) were found in T-ALL compared with the healthy individuals (median: 1.379, 0.169, and 0.677, respectively). In contrast, overexpression of NF-κB (median: 0.714) was found in T-ALL compared with healthy individuals (median: 0.335; P = 0.001). A negative correlation between the MALT1 and A20 expression levels and a positive correlation between CARMA1 and BCL10 were found in T-ALL and healthy individuals. However, no negative correlation was found between A20 and NF-κB and the MALT1 and NF-κB expression level in the T-ALL group.We characterized the expression of the CARMA-BCL10-MALT1-A20-NF-κB pathway genes in T-ALL. Overexpression of CARMA-BCL10-MALT in T-ALL may contribute to the constitutive cleavage and inactivation of A20, which enhances NF-κB signaling and may be related to T-ALL pathogenesis.
- Elective orthopedic and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery causes a reduction in serum endostatin levels. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Nov 8; 19(1):61.
BackgroundEndostatin is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that inhibits neovascularisation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of elective surgery on endostatin levels.MethodsBlood samples were collected prior to elective surgery and 4 and 30 days postoperatively in 2 patient groups: orthopedic surgery (n =27) and coronary bypass patients (n =21). Serum endostatin levels were measured by ELISA.ResultsSerum endostatin was significantly reduced 30 days after surgery in comparison with presurgical values in both the orthopedic (P =0.03) and cardiopulmonary surgery (P =0.04) group.ConclusionSerum endostatin is reduced 30 days after surgery. This reduction would favor angiogenesis and wound-healing.
- Severe hyperpigmentation and scarring following glycolic acid peel treatment in combination with low-dose isotretinoin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Nov 7; 19(1):60.
BackgroundThe application of systemic isotretinoin in the treatment of cutaneous photoaging has been well investigated. In addition, well-recognized topical antiaging therapies such as superficial chemical peeling (CP) with ¿-hydroxy acids have been shown to be more helpful when combined with low-dose oral isotretinoin. Even though the combination of systemic isotretinoin and medium to deep CP has been associated with serious side effects such as delayed wound healing and enlarged incidence of scarring, to date superficial CP and concomitant systemic isotretinoin have been considered safe.Case presentationIn this report, we present the case of a patient receiving low-dose oral isotretinoin therapy who developed severe painful erythema and erosions that led to permanent hyperpigmentation and scarring of her face and neck after undergoing superficial CP with glycolic acid.ConclusionsThere is a potential risk of hyperpigmentation and scarring with the use of a combination of low-dose oral isotretinoin and glycolic acid peeling.
- Clinical efficacy of radical nephrectomy versus nephron-sparing surgery on localized renal cell carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Nov 6; 19(1):58.
BackgroundThe aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of radical nephrectomy (RN) with nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in treating patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC).MethodsThe literature search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar up to December 2012. The software Review Manager 5.1 and the STATA software package v.11.0 were used for analyses. The odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for comparison. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the tumor size of RCC.ResultsIn total, 10 studies with 10,174 RCC patients (7,050 treated with RN and 3,124 treated with NSS) were selected. The pooled estimate (OR =1.58, 95% CI =1.15¿2.15, P =0.004) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer-specific deaths in the patients treated with NSS compared to RN. However, no statistically significant differences were found in the rate of tumor recurrence (OR =0.84, 95% CI =0.67¿1.06, P =0.14) and complications (OR =0.91, 95% CI =0.51¿1.63, P =0.74) between the patients treated with NSS and RN. In addition, all the subgroup analyses presented consistent results with the overall analyses.ConclusionsNSS had no significantly different from RN in tumor recurrence and complications for localized RCC. However, the significantly lower rate of cancer-specific deaths supported the use of NSS not only for RCC with tumor size >4.0 cm but also for tumor sizes ¿4.0 cm compared with RN.
- Closing-opening wedge osteotomy for thoracolumbar traumatic kyphosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Nov 1; 19(1):59.
BackgroundSurgical treatment modalities for post-traumatic kyphosis (PTK) remain controversial. Like vertebral column resection, closing-opening wedge osteotomy (COWO) can achieve satisfactory results for kyphosis with multiple etiologies. However, few studies have assessed this procedure for PTK. Our purpose was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of COWO in a selected series of patients with PTK via a single posterior approach.MethodsIn this retrospective case series, seven patients with symptomatic PTK in the thoracolumbar spine were reviewed. Five patients underwent surgery at the time of initial injury, and the other two initially underwent conservative treatment. All seven patients underwent COWO procedures through a single posterior approach. The Cobb angle was assessed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the final follow-up. A visual analog scale (VAS) and the American Spinal Injury Association scale were used to evaluate back pain and neurological function preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. Operation-associated complications were also recorded.ResultsThe mean follow-up period was 34.3 months (range, 24 to 43 months). The mean kyphotic angle was significantly (P <0.05) reduced from 57.7° (range, 36° to 100°) preoperatively to 8° postoperatively (range, ¿12° to 50°). The mean VAS improved from 5.9 to 2.1 (P <0.05). Three patients exhibited improved neurological function. Bony fusion was achieved in all patients. No significant correction loss or permanent complication was noted.ConclusionsThough technically demanding, COWO via a single posterior approach can provide satisfactory outcomes for selected patients with PTK. Additional studies are required to improve patient selection and outcomes for this condition.
- Ranking candidate genes of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas based on differentially expressed genes and the topological properties of the co-expression network. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Med Res 2014; 19(1):52.
The aim of this study was to identify the candidate genes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).Gene expression profiling of 17 ESCC samples and 17 adjacent normal samples, GSE20347, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The raw data were preprocessed, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ESCC and normal samples were identified by using SAM software (false discovery rate <0.001). Then, the co-expression network of DEGs was constructed based on Pearson's correlation test (r-value ≥0.8). Furthermore, the topological properties of the co-expression network were analyzed through NetworkAnalyzer (default settings) of Cytoscape. The expression fold changes of DEGs and topological properties were utilized to identify the candidate genes of ESCC (Crin score >4), which were further analyzed based on DAVID functional enrichment analysis (P-value <0.05).A total of 1,063 DEGs were identified, including 490 up-regulated and 573 down-regulated DEGs. Then, the co-expression network of DEGs was constructed, containing 999 nodes and 46,323 edges. Based on the expression fold changes of DEGs and the topological properties of the co-expression network, DEGs were ranked, and the top 24 genes were candidate genes of ESCC, such as CRISP3, EREG, CXCR2, and CRNN. Furthermore, the 24 genes were significantly enriched in bio-functions regarding cell differentiation, glucan biosynthetic process and immune response.The present study suggested that CRISP3, EREG, CXCR2, and CRNN might be causative genes of ESCC, and play vital roles in the development of ESCC. However, further experimental studies are needed to confirm our results.
- Construction of microRNA and transcription factor regulatory network based on gene expression data in cardiomyopathy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Oct 24; 19(1):57.
BackgroundCardiomyopathy is a progressive myocardial disorder. Here, we attempted to reveal the possible mechanism of cardiomyopathy at the transcription level with the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) taken into account.MethodWe firstly identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between cardiomyopathy patients and controls with data from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. DEGs were associated with the canonical pathways, molecular and cellular functions, physiological system development and function in the Ingenuity Knowledge Base by using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. TFs and miRNAs that DEGs significantly enriched were identified and a double-factor regulatory network was constructed.ResultsA total of 1,680 DEGs were identified. The DEGs were enriched for various pathways, with glucocorticoid receptor signaling as the most significant. A double-factor regulatory network was constructed, including seven TFs and two miRNAs. A subnetwork under the regulation of MEF2C and SRF was also constructed to illustrate their regulatory effects on cardiac functions.ConclusionOur results may provide new understanding of cardiomyopathy and may facilitate further therapeutic studies.
- Influence of testosterone replacement therapy on metabolic disorders in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and androgen deficiency. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Oct 23; 19(1):56.
BackgroundMultiple epidemiological studies have shown that low testosterone levels are associated with and predict the future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome.The aim of our study was to show the influence of testosterone replacement therapy on obesity, HbA1c level, hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus and androgen deficiency.MethodsOne hundred and twenty-five male patients with diabetes mellitus were screened; 85 subjects aged 41 to 65 years, with BMI from 27.0 to 48.0 kg/m2, were randomized in a placebo-controlled study. They also underwent a routine physical examination and selected by free testosterone examination. We divided patients into two groups: 1) treatment group, where we used diet, physical activity, patient¿s antidiabetic therapy and testosterone replacement therapy; 2) placebo group, where we used diet, physical activity, patient¿s antidiabetic therapy and placebo.ResultsAfter 6 months of treatment we repeated the diagnostic assessments: lipid profile was improved in both groups but in first group it was clinically significant. Free testosterone level increased in all groups, but in group I was clinically significant. HbA1c decreased in both groups, but in group I we obtained the best result. Leptin level after treatment was approximately the same in both groups. Also, blood pressure was reduced in both groups but results were similar.ConclusionsOur study demonstrated that it is possible to break this metabolic vicious circle by raising testosterone levels in diabetic men with androgen deficiency. Re-instituting physiological levels of testosterone, as the study has shown, has an important role in reducing the prevalence of diabetic complications.
- Nasal position of nasotracheal tubes: a retrospective analysis of intraoperatively generated three-dimensional X-rays during maxillofacial surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Oct 17; 19(1):55.
BackgroundThe aim of this retrospective investigation was to evaluate the position of the nasotracheal tube in the nose and to show its anatomical relationship with the maxillary sinus ostium.MethodsFifty data sets from patients who had undergone endonasal intubation were analyzed for tube positioning. There was a drop-out of eight data sets due to missing information concerning tube size and mode. Tube positioning was determined at the maxillary sinus ostium in the intraoperatively generated three-dimensional X-ray data sets. The type of tube, the tube size, and the presence of maxillary sinusitis were analyzed 30 minutes after intubation.ResultsThe tube was positioned in the middle nasal meatus in 35 (83.3%) patients and not in the middle nasal meatus in 7 (16.7%) patients. The difference in comparison with equal distribution was significant (P <0.001). The test value was 83.3; the 95% confidence interval of the test value was 68.6 to 93.0%. Maxillary sinusitis was diagnosed as a chance finding in 17% of patients (n =7).ConclusionsThe majority of nasal tubes are positioned in the middle nasal meatus. This result can be part of the answer to the question of the causal relationship between position of the breathing tube and the onset of maxillary sinusitis. The indications for prolonged nasotracheal intubation instead of orotracheal intubation or early tracheostomy should be considered carefully.
- Online Intervention Study - Willingness to donate organs among the employees of a German University. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Med Res 2014 Oct 14; 19(1):43.
BackgroundOrgan shortage remains a major challenge in transplantation medicine. The aim of this study was to analyze the public¿s willingness to donate organs and to observe whether increased knowledge about organ donation has an effect on the attitude toward organ donation. The study in particular tested the efficacy of using electronic communication as a means to distribute information.MethodsIn 2011, an Email invitation to participate in a survey was sent to the employees of the University Duisburg-Essen. The survey consisted of a two-piece questionnaire with an informational intervention on organ donation between the questionnaires. The technical design ensured that interviewees remained anonymous and could participate only once.ResultsIn total, 1,818 interviewees completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 42% were organ-donor card holders (which was consistent among genders and age groups), whereas 87% of the interviewees would support an organ donation for themselves. Of the interviewees who did not possess an organ-donor card, 67% were positively inclined toward holding one in future after reading the interventional information.ConclusionsThe considerable improvement in attitude toward carrying an organ-donor card after reading the information illustrates the effectiveness of distributing concise information on organ donation. To increase the willingness to donate organs, it is of great importance to inform the public and facilitate the documentation of a decision to donate. The present study has proven the use of Email communication to be an important asset to this process.