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European journal of pharmacology [journal]
- The novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor teneligliptin prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity accompanied with increased energy expenditure in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Dec 2.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4)-deficient mice exhibit prevention of obesity with increased energy expenditure, whereas currently available DPP-4 inhibitors do not induce similar changes. We investigated the impact of the novel DPP-4 inhibitor teneligliptin on body weight, energy expenditure, and obesity-related manifestations in diet-induced obese mice. Six-week-old C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat) ad libitum and administered teneligliptin (30 or 60mg/kg) via drinking water for 10 weeks. Mice fed a high-fat diet showed accelerated body weight gain. In contrast, compared with the vehicle group, the administration of teneligliptin reduced body weight to 88% and 71% at dose of 30mg/kg/day and 60mg/kg, respectively. Although there was no change in locomotor activity, indirect calorimetry studies showed that teneligliptin (60mg/kg) increased oxygen consumption by 22%. Adipocyte hypertrophy and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet were suppressed by teneligliptin. The mean adipocyte size in the 60-mg/kg treatment group was 44% and hepatic triglyceride levels were 34% of the levels in the vehicle group. Furthermore, treatment with teneligliptin (60mg/kg) reduced plasma levels of insulin to 40% and increased the glucose infusion rate to 39%, as measured in the euglycemic clamp study, indicating its beneficial effect on insulin resistance. We showed for the first time that the DPP-4 inhibitor prevents obesity and obesity-related manifestations with increased energy expenditure. Our findings suggest the potential utility of teneligliptin for the treatment of a broad spectrum of metabolic disorders related to obesity beyond glycemic control.
- Mechanisms involved in increased sensitivity to adenosine A2A receptor activation and hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in porcine coronary arteries. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Dec 2.
Hypoxia-induced coronary vasorelaxation is a compensatory mechanism increasing blood flow. We hypothesized that hypoxia shares pathways with adenosine and causes vasorelaxation through the adenosine A2A receptor and force suppression by increasing cAMP and phosphorylated heat shock protein (HSP)20. Adenosine receptors in porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) were examined by RT-PCR and isometric tension recording in myographs. Vasorelaxation was induced by adenosine, 1% oxygen, or both in the absence or presence of ZM241385, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. cAMP was determined by ELISA and p-HSP20/HSP20 and p-MLC/MLC were determined by immunoblotting and densitometric analyses. In coronary arteries exposed to 1% oxygen, there was increased sensitivity to adenosine, the adenosine A2 selective agonist NECA, and the adenosine A2A selective receptor agonist CGS21680. ZM241385 shifted concentration-response curves for CGS21680 to the right, whereas the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX, the adenosine A2B receptor antagonist MRS1754 and the adenosine A3 receptor antagonist MRS1523 failed to reduce vasodilatation induced by CGS21680. 1% oxygen or adenosine increased cAMP accumulation and HSP20 phosphorylation without changing T850-MYPT1 and MLC phosphorylation. ZM241385 failed to change 1% oxygen-induced vasodilation, cAMP accumulation, HSP20 phosphorylation and MLC phosphorylation. The PKA inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS significantly reduced vasorelaxation induced by 1% oxygen or CGS21680. Our findings suggest that the increased sensitivity to adenosine, NECA, and CGS21680 at 1% oxygen involves adenosine A2A receptors. Adenosine and 1% oxygen induce vasorelaxation in PGF2α-contracted porcine coronary arteries partly by force suppression caused by increased cAMP and phosphorylation of HSP20.
- Intracellular calcium channels: Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 30.
The inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) are the major intracellular Ca(2+)-release channels in cells. Activity of InsP3Rs is essential for elementary and global Ca(2+) events in the cell. There are three InsP3Rs isoforms that are present in mammalian cells. In this review review we will focus primarily on InsP3R type 1. The InsP3R1 is a predominant isoform in neurons and it is most extensively studied isoform. Combination of biophysical and structural methods revealed key mechanisms of InsP3R function and modulation. Cell biological and biochemical studies lead to identification of a large number of InsP3R-binding proteins. InsP3Rs are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological processes, including learning and memory, proliferation, differentiation, development and cell death. Malfunction of InsP3R1 play a role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and other disease states. InsP3Rs represent a potentially valuable drug target for treatment of these disorders and for modulating activity of neurons and other cells. Future studies will provide better understanding of physiological functions of InsP3Rs in health and disease.
- Inhibitory effect of spinal mGlu5 receptor antisense oligonucleotide on the up-regulated expression of spinal G protein associated with chronic morphine treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 29.
Knockdown of spinal metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor was shown to inhibit the development of intrathecal morphine antinociceptive tolerance. The present work was designed to evaluate the expression of spinal G-protein during morphine tolerance and knockdown of spinal mGlu5 receptor with antisense oligonucleotide (ODN). Rats were treated with saline, morphine, mGlu5 receptor antisense or mismatch ODN intrathecally. Behavioral tests were employed to test the thermal and mechanical pain thresholds. Five days later, rats were scarified and spinal expression of spinal Gαi, Gαo, Gαq and Gβ were detected. Consistent with previous results, knockdown of spinal mGlu5 receptor could inhibit spinal morphine antinociceptive tolerance in behavioral tests (P<0.05). The mGlu5 receptor antisense ODN produced a significant reduction in mGlu5 receptor protein of about 56.6% compared with the control group (P<0.05). Expression of spinal Gαi, Gαo, Gαq and Gβ were up-regulated while morphine tolerance developed (P<0.05). Antisense ODN of spinal mGlu5 receptor, but not mismatched ODN, reduced the spinal dorsal horn levels of Gαi, Gαo, Gαs, Gαq and Gβ (P<0.05). We conclude that expression of spinal G (αi, αo, αs, αq and β) protein may be up-regulated after chronic morphine treatment which could be attenuated by knockdown of spinal mGlu5 receptor with antisense ODN.
- Effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on learning and memory in the guinea pig. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 29.
Statins reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in millions of people worldwide. Recent pharmacovigilance data has suggested that people taking statins have an increased risk of psychiatric adverse events such as amnesia and anxiety. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of statin-induced amnesia through animal models of memory and learning. We conducted extracellular field recordings of synaptic transmission in area CA1 of hippocampal slices to examine the effects of acute cholesterol lowering with lipid lowering drugs. We also assessed the effect of six weeks of simvastatin (2mg/kg/d) and atorvastatin (1mg/kg/d) treatment using the Morris water maze. Long Term Potentiation (LTP) was significantly diminished in the presence of 3µM atorvastatin or simvastatin and by the cholesterol sequestering agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD). The effects were reversed in the MBCD but not the statin treated slices by the addition of cholesterol. In the water maze, statin treatment did not cause any deficits in the first five days of reference memory testing, but statin treated guinea pigs preformed significantly worse than control animals in a working memory test. The deficits observed in our experiments in water maze performance and hippocampal LTP are suggestive of statin induced changes in hippocampal plasticity. The effects on LTP are independent of cholesterol regulation, and occur at concentrations that may be relevant to clinical use. Our results may help to explain some of the behavioural changes reported in some people after beginning statin treatment.
- Underlying mechanisms involved in progesterone-induced relaxation to the pig bladder neck. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 29.
Progesterone increases bladder capacity and improves the bladder compliance by its relaxant action on the detrusor. A poor information, however, exists concerning to the role of this steroid hormone on the bladder outflow region contractility. This study investigates the progesterone-induced action on the smooth muscle tension of the pig bladder neck. To this aim, urothelium-denuded bladder neck strips were mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings and for simultaneous measurements of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and tension. On phenylephrine (PhE)-precontracted strips, progesterone produced concentration-dependent relaxations only at high pharmacological concentrations. The blockade of progesterone receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthase, guanylyl cyclase, large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) or ATP-dependent K(+) (KATP) channels reduced the progesterone relaxations. The presence of the urothelium and the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), intermediate- and small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels failed to modify these responses. In Ca(2+)-free potassium rich physiological saline solution, progesterone inhibited the contraction to CaCl2 and to the L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) (VOC) channel activator BAY-K 8644. Relaxation induced by progesterone was accompanied by simultaneous decreases in smooth muscle [Ca(2+)]i. These results suggest that progesterone promotes relaxation of pig bladder neck through smooth muscle progesterone receptors via cGMP/NO pathway and involving the activation of BKCa and KATP channels and inhibition of the extracellular Ca(2+) entry through L-type VOC channels.
- Clofarabine, a novel adenosine analogue, reactivates DNA methylation-silenced tumour suppressor genes and inhibits cell growth in breast cancer cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 29.
Clofarabine (2-chloro-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyarabinosyladenine, ClF) is a second-generation 2'-deoxyadenosine analogue that is structurally related to cladribine (2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine, 2CdA) and fludarabine (9-beta-D-arabinosyl-2-fluoroadenine, F-ara-A). It demonstrates potent antitumour activity at much lower doses than parent compounds with high therapeutic efficacy in paediatric blood cancers. Our previous studies in breast cancer cells indicate that 2CdA and F-ara-A are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. We therefore investigated whether ClF influences methylation and expression of selected tumour suppressor genes, such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), and retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARbeta2), as well as expression of p53, p21 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines with different invasive potential. Promoter methylation and gene expression were estimated using methylation-sensitive restriction analysis (MSRA) and real-time PCR, respectively. ClF demonstrated potent growth inhibitory activity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells after 96h treatment with IC50 determined as equal to 640nM and 50nM, respectively. In both breast cancer cell lines, ClF led to hypomethylation and up-regulation of APC, PTEN and RARbeta2 as well as increase in p21 expression. Only in non-invasive MCF-7 cells, these changes were associated with down-regulation of DNMT1. Our results provide first evidence of ClF implications in epigenetic regulation of transcriptional activity of selected tumour suppressor genes in breast cancer. It seems to be a new important element of ClF anticancer activity and may indicate its potential efficacy in epigenetic therapy of solid tumours, especially at early stages of carcinogenesis.
- Contribution of RhoA/Rho-kinase/MEK1/ERK1/2/iNOS pathway to ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation leading to distant and target organ injury in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 29.
The small G protein RhoA and its downstream effector Rho-kinase play an important role in various physiopathological processes including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by iNOS and NADPH oxidase are important mediators of inflammation and organ injury following an initial localized I/R event. The aim of this study was to determine whether RhoA/Rho-kinase signalling pathway increases expression and activity of MEK1, ERK1/2, iNOS, gp91(phox), and p47(phox), and peroxynitrite formation which result in oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation leading to hindlimb I/R-induced injury in kidney as a distant organ and gastrocnemius muscle as a target organ. I/R-induced distant and target organ injury was performed by using the rat hindlimb tourniquet model. I/R caused an increase in the expression and/or activity of RhoA, MEK1, ERK1/2, iNOS, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and 3-nitrotyrosine and nitrotyrosine levels in the tissues. Although Rho-kinase activity was increased by I/R in the kidney, its activity was decreased in the muscle. Serum and tissue MDA levels and MPO activity were increased following I/R. I/R also caused an increase in SOD and catalase activities associated with decreased GSH levels in the tissues. Y-27632, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, (100µg/kg, i.p.; 1h before reperfusion) prevented the I/R-induced changes except Rho-kinase activity in the muscle. These results suggest that activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase/MEK1/ERK1/2/iNOS pathway associated with oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation contributes to hindlimb I/R-induced distant organ injury in rats. It also seems that hindlimb I/R induces target organ injury via upregulation of RhoA/MEK1/ERK1/2/iNOS pathway associated with decreased Rho-kinase activity.
- Hypotensive and vascular relaxant effects of phospholipase A2 toxins from Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) venom. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 29.
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) toxins are common and abundant components of Australasian elapid venoms. These toxins are associated with a range of activities including neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and coagulation disturbances. We have recently reported that sudden cardiovascular collapse induced by Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) venom involves a combination of the release of dilator autacoids and a direct effect on the smooth muscle. In this study, we aimed to isolate PLA2 components from Papuan taipan venom and investigate their contribution to the hypotensive action of this venom. O. scutellatus venom was fractionated using size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and fractions screened for activity in anaesthetized rats. Fraction 3 from O. scutellatus venom (i.e. OSC3, 14.2±1.0% of whole venom) produced a 64% decrease in mean arterial pressure. Reverse-phase HPLC indicated that OSC3 consisted of 2 major components (i.e. OSC3a and OSC3b). OSC3a and OSC3b produced a significant hypotensive response in anaesthetized rats which were attenuated by prior administration of indomethacin or the combination of mepyramine and heparin. N-terminal analysis indicated that OSC3a and b displayed sequence homology to PLA2 toxins isolated from coastal taipan (O. scutellatus scutellatus) venom. These finding indicate that PLA2 components may play an important role in the development of hypotension and vascular relaxation which may contribute to the effects observed after envenoming by Australasian elapids.
- How ORAI and TRP channels interfere with each other: interaction models and examples from the immune system and the skin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Nov 28.
Four types of Ca(2+) selective ion channels are known, 10 voltage gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels, four CatSper channels, three store operated CRAC channels (ORAI channels) and at least two members of the TRPV subfamily (TRPV5, TRPV6). Some of the other TRP channels also show some Ca(2+) selectivity like certain splice variants of TRPM3. In addition to Ca(2+) selective channels, various cation channels play an important role for Ca(2+) entry and furthermore, they may also regulate Ca(2+) entry through other channels by modulating the membrane potential or other means as outlined in this review. Of the different types of cation channels, TRP channels form one of the most prominent families of non-selective cation channels with functional relevance in electrically non-excitable and electrically excitable cell types. Among these, the seven channels of the TRPC subfamily are rather non-selective with very modest Ca(2+) selectivity, whereas in the other subfamilies, cation selectivity ranges from monovalent selectivity (i.e. TRPM4, TRPM5) to divalent selectivity (i.e. TRPM6, TRPM7) or Ca(2+) selectivity (i.e. TRPV5, TRPV6). Rather than discussing the heavily reviewed individual functions of ORAI or TRP channels, we summarize data and present models how TRP and ORAI may functionally interact to guide cellular functions. We focus on T lymphocytes representing a more ORAI-dominated tissue and skin as model system in which both ORAI and TRP channel have been reported to control relevant functions. We present several interaction models how ORAI and TRP may interfere with each other's function.