(European journal of pharmacology[TA])
- Pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine is relieved by p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide in rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 18
- Depression and pain comorbidity represent a neuropsychiatric condition with substantial socioeconomic impact to society. The commonly used antidepressants and analgesics to treat this comorbidity hav...
Depression and pain comorbidity represent a neuropsychiatric condition with substantial socioeconomic impact to society. The commonly used antidepressants and analgesics to treat this comorbidity have shown restricted clinical efficacy. In this way, the aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical effects of a p,p'-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide (OMePhSe)2 supplemented diet on pain-depression dyad induced by reserpine in rats. Adult Wistar rats were fed with 10mg (MeOPhSe)2 per kg of rat chow supplemented diet for 30 days. Pain-depression dyad was induced by daily subcutaneous reserpine injection (0.5mg/kg for three consecutive days) from 22 to 24day of (MeOPhSe)2 supplementation. The results showed that the reserpine injected rats had behavior phenotypes typical of depression-pain dyad and the (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet protected against these modifications. Furthermore, the (MeOPhSe)2 dietary supplementation was effective against the increase in the prefrontal cortical MDA levels caused by reserpine. (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet triggered a per se augmentation of Nrf-2 levels. The [(3)H] serotonin uptake, [(3)H] glutamate uptake and release and MAO activity were not altered in the prefrontal cortices of rats from any experimental group. Therefore, the results indicate that protective effects of a (MeOPhSe)2-supplemented diet can be mediated, at least in part, by its antioxidant property.
- Effects of thyroid hormones on aortic tissue after myocardial infarction in rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 18
- Studies have shown a cardioprotective role of thyroid hormones (THs) in cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is no data in the literature examining the influence ...
Studies have shown a cardioprotective role of thyroid hormones (THs) in cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is no data in the literature examining the influence of TH administration on the aortic tissue in an animal model of MI. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of thyroid hormones on the aorta after MI. Male Wistar rats were divided into a sham group (SHAM), infarcted group (AMI), sham+TH (SHAMT) and AMI+TH (AMIT). After MI, the animals received T3 and T4 (2 and 8μg/100g/day, respectively) by oral gavage for 12 days. Later, the animals underwent echocardiography and euthanasia and the aorta was collected for molecular and biochemical analysis. T3 and T4 administration increased the expression of the pro-angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in the aorta of AMIT rats when compared with AMI. With respect to TH receptors, AMI rats presented a decrease in TRβ levels, which was prevented by the hormonal administration. In AMIT rats, both TRα and TRβ levels were increased when compared with the AMI group. Reactive oxygen species levels and NADPH oxidase activity were decreased in both treated groups when compared with the non-treated animals. TH administration after MI may improve angiogenic signaling in the aorta as well as the responsiveness of this vessel to T3 and T4. These positive effects in the aorta may result in additional protection for the cardiovascular system in the context of cardiac ischaemic injury.
- Liraglutide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 15; 791:735-740
- Liraglutide, an effective drug for the treatment of diabetes, has been proven to demonstrate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Hence, this study explored the effects and mechanism of ac...
Liraglutide, an effective drug for the treatment of diabetes, has been proven to demonstrate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Hence, this study explored the effects and mechanism of action of liraglutide on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Male BALB/c mice were pre-conditioned with liraglutide or saline prior to intraperitoneal LPS or saline administration. Histopathological examination of lung, the wet/dry (W/D)weight ratio, protein content, inflammatory cell numbers and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) were conducted. The effects of liraglutide on the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signalling pathway were assessed by Western blot. Pre-treatment with liraglutide decreased the wet-to-dry weight ratio and protein concentrations in BAL fluid and neutrophil infiltration in the lung tissues. Liraglutide also significantly reduced the interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 levels in BAL fluid, as well as effectively inhibited the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome. These results indicated that liraglutide pre-treatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.
- Esculin attenuates endotoxin shock induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse and NO production in vitro through inhibition of NF-κB activation. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 13; 791:726-734
- Esculin, a coumarin compound derived from the traditional Chinese herbs such as Cortex Fraxini, has long been used for treating inflammatory and vascular diseases. In present study, we analyzed the r...
Esculin, a coumarin compound derived from the traditional Chinese herbs such as Cortex Fraxini, has long been used for treating inflammatory and vascular diseases. In present study, we analyzed the role of esculin against macrophages and endotoxin shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Here, we demonstrated that esculin suppressed inflammatory reactions in macrophages and protected mice from LPS-induced endotoxin shock. We found that esculin significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) production via the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in macrophages. In animal model, esculin pretreatment significantly improved the survival rate of mice. LPS-induced increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum, lung, liver and kidney were markedly inhibited by esculin. IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was up-regulated by esculin. Moreover, the histopathological analyses showed that esculin significantly attenuated the tissues injury of lung, liver, kidney in endotoxic mice. In addition, esculin significantly diminished the protein expression of NF-κB p65 in lung, liver, kidney, which resulted in lower levels of inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that esculin may be a potential drug for treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
- Helium postconditioning regulates expression of caveolin-1 and -3 and induces RISK pathway activation after ischaemia/reperfusion in cardiac tissue of rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 11; 791:718-725
- Caveolae, lipid enriched invaginations of the plasma membrane, are epicentres of cellular signal transduction. The structural proteins of caveolae, caveolins, regulate effector pathways in anaestheti...
Caveolae, lipid enriched invaginations of the plasma membrane, are epicentres of cellular signal transduction. The structural proteins of caveolae, caveolins, regulate effector pathways in anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection, including the RISK pathway. Helium (He) postconditioning (HePoc) is known to mimic anaesthetic conditioning and to prevent damage from myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that HePoc regulates caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 (Cav-1 and Cav-3) expression in the rat heart and activates the RISK pathway. Male Wistar rats (n=8, each group) were subjected to 25min of cardiac ischaemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) for 5, 15 or 30min (I/R 5/15/30). The HePoc groups underwent I/R with 70% helium ventilation during reperfusion (IR+He 5/15/30min). Sham animals received surgical treatment without I/R. After each protocol blood and hearts were retrieved. Tissue was obtained from the area-at-risk (AAR) and non-area-at-risk (NAAR) and processed for western blot analyses and reverse-transcription-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-qPCR). Protein analyses revealed increased amounts of Cav-1 and Cav-3 in the membrane of I/R+He15 (AAR: Cav-1, P<0.05; Cav-3, P<0.05; both vs. I/R15). In serum, Cav-3 was found to be elevated in I/R+He15 (P<0.05 vs. I/R15). RT-qPCR showed increased expression of Cav-1 in IR+He15 in AAR tissue (P<0.05 vs. I/R15). Phosphorylation of RISK pathway proteins pERK1/2 (AAR: P<0.05 vs. I/R15) and pAKT (AAR: P<0.05; NAAR P<0.05; both vs. I/R15) was elevated in the cytosolic fraction of I/R+He15. These results suggest that 15min of HePoc regulates Cav-1 and Cav-3 and activates RISK pathway kinases ERK1/2 and AKT. These processes might be crucially involved in HePoc mediated cardioprotection.
- Galacto-N-biose is neuroprotective against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 8; 791:711-717
- Galacto-N-biose (GNB: Galβ1-3GalNAc) is an O-glycan disaccharide core moiety that is a core component of mucin in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the physiological properties of GNB are not well...
Galacto-N-biose (GNB: Galβ1-3GalNAc) is an O-glycan disaccharide core moiety that is a core component of mucin in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the physiological properties of GNB are not well understood. Glutamate excitotoxicity causes neuronal death in acute neurological disorders including stroke, trauma, and neurodegenerative disease. Therefore the discovery of drugs to treat glutamate excitotoxicity is an important goal. Here, we report that GNB is neuroprotective against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We treated 14-15 days in vitro cultured rat cortical neurons with 0.1-1000nM GNB together with 30µm glutamate for various durations. Short-term (3h) GNB treatments showed a modest neuroprotective effect against glutamate neurotoxicity, however, long-term (24h) GNB treatment conferred significant neuroprotective effects, as shown by both MTT and immunocytochemical assays. Prolonged GNB treatment did not alter glutamate-induced calcium influx, but did induce antioxidant-related gene expression. Furthermore, GNB treatment did not induce cell death or alter synaptic connections. These data suggest that GNB is a potential candidate drug that protects against glutamate excitotoxicity without affecting cell viability and synaptic connections.
- High fructose-mediated attenuation of insulin receptor signaling does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 8; 791:703-710
- Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signa...
Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins. In comparison with PDGF (a potent mitogen), neither fructose nor insulin enhanced VSMC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. d-[(14)C(U)]fructose uptake studies revealed a progressive increase in fructose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Concentration-dependent studies with high fructose (5-25mM) showed marked increases in IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, a key adapter protein in insulin receptor signaling. Accordingly, high fructose treatment led to significant diminutions in insulin-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling components including Akt and S6. In addition, high fructose significantly diminished insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, high fructose did not affect PDGF-induced key proliferative signaling events including phosphorylation of Akt, S6, and ERK and expression of cyclin D1 protein. Together, high fructose dysregulates IRS-1 phosphorylation state and proximal insulin receptor signaling in VSMCs, but does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling. These findings suggest that systemic insulin resistance rather than VSMC-specific dysregulation of insulin receptor signaling by high fructose may play a major role in enhancing atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia.
- The calcilytics Calhex-231 and NPS 2143 and the calcimimetic Calindol reduce vascular reactivity via inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 8; 791:659-668
- The present study investigates the effect of commonly used negative and positive allosteric modulators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on vascular reactivity. In wire myography studies, increa...
The present study investigates the effect of commonly used negative and positive allosteric modulators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on vascular reactivity. In wire myography studies, increasing [Ca(2+)]o from 1mM to 6mM induced concentration-dependent relaxations of methoxamine-induced pre-contracted rabbit mesenteric arteries, with 6mM [Ca(2+)]o producing almost complete relaxation. [Ca(2+)]o-induced relaxations were attenuated in the presence of the calcilytics Calhex-231 and NPS 2143, and abolished by the removal of the endothelium. In addition to their calcilytic effects, Calhex-231 and NPS 2143 also produced concentration-dependent inhibitions of methoxamine- or KCl-induced precontracted tone, which were unaffected by removal of the endothelium and unopposed in the presence of the calcimimetic Calindol. In vessels with depleted Ca(2+) stores, contractions mediated by Ca(2+) influx via voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) were inhibited by Calhex231. In freshly isolated single rabbit mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells, Calhex-231 and NPS 2143 inhibited whole-cell VGCC currents. Application of Calindol also inhibited methoxamine- and KCl-induced pre-contracted tone, and inhibited whole-cell VGCC currents. In conclusion, in addition to their CaSR-mediated actions in the vasculature, Calhex-231, NPS 2143 and Calindol reduce vascular contractility via direct inhibition of VGCCs.
- Antispasmodic effect of selected Citrus flavonoids on rat isolated jejunum specimens. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 6; 791:640-646
- Citrus flavonoids are acknowledged for numerous pharmacological activities, including the myorelaxant effect on various smooth muscles. However, there is no data on their effect on jejunum contractil...
Citrus flavonoids are acknowledged for numerous pharmacological activities, including the myorelaxant effect on various smooth muscles. However, there is no data on their effect on jejunum contractility. Therefore, the aim of the study at hand was to evaluate the impact of hesperetin and diosmetin along with their glycosides on the motoric activity of intestine and to verify the possible mechanism of hesperetin-induced effect. The experiments were performed on rat isolated jejunum strips and were conducted under isometric conditions. Hesperetin and diosmetin, but not hesperidin and diosmin, dose-dependently (10-100µM) and reversibly inhibited acetylcholine (1µM) and KCl (80mM) induced contractile activity. The antispasmodic effect of hesperetin was partially blocked by 4-aminopyridine (100µM), glibenclamide (100µM) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100µM). By contrast, apamin (0.1µM), tetraethylammonium (500µM) and methylene blue (10µM) did not affect the magnitude of hesperetin-induced myorelaxant effect. Indomethacin (10µM) increased the force of hesperetin-evoked reaction. In conclusion, hesperetin and diosmetin are potent myorelaxant agents. The antispasmodic effect of hesperetin is partially mediated by fast current low-voltage activated K(+) channels, voltage-independent K+ channels and involves the nitric oxide pathway. Finally, hesperetin shows a synergistic effect with indomethacin towards jejunal KCl-precontracted smooth muscle.
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- Palmitoylethanolamide reduces inflammation and itch in a mouse model of contact allergic dermatitis. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2016 Oct 5; 791:669-674
- In mice, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induces contact allergic dermatitis (CAD), which, in a late phase, is characterized by mast cell (MC) infiltration and angiogenesis. Palmitoylethanolamide (PE...
In mice, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induces contact allergic dermatitis (CAD), which, in a late phase, is characterized by mast cell (MC) infiltration and angiogenesis. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, acts by down-modulating MCs following activation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We have previously reported the anti-inflammatory effect of PEA in the early stage of CAD. Here, we examined whether PEA reduces the features of the late stage of CAD including MC activation, angiogenesis and itching. After sensitization to DNFB, female C57BL/6J mice underwent to three DNFB challenges at days 5, 12 and 19 and treatments were given at each challenge and for two more days. CAD was expressed as Δ increase in ear thickness between challenged and un-challenged mice. PEA (5mg/kg/i.p.) reduced: i) the DNFB-induced Δ increase; ii) the number of MCs per tissue area; iii) the expression of VEGF and its receptor Flk-1. These effects were reversed by co-administration of AM630 (1mg/kg/i.p.), a CB2 antagonist, but not GW6471 (1mg/kg/i.p.), a PPAR-α antagonist. Finally, PEA reduced the number of ear scratchings 48h after DNFB challenge and this effect was reversed by both CB2 and PPAR-α antagonists, suggesting the involvement of both receptors. PEA, by reducing the features of late stage CAD in mice, may be beneficial in this pathological condition.