Exp Mol Pathol [journal]
- Investigating intra-tumor heterogeneity and expression gradients of miR-21, miR-92a and miR-200c and their potential of predicting lymph node metastases in early colorectal cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 23.
miR-21, miR-92a and miR-200c are regulators of pathways involved in migration, intravasation and metastasis, and their tumor expression levels have been proposed as potential prognostic markers in colorectal cancer (CRC).In two parallel cohorts we examine intra-tumor expression levels in early stage CRC tissue in order to determine intra-tumor heterogeneity, potential systematic intra-tumor expression gradients of the miRNAs and to investigate the association to metastatic disease in early stage CRC.Two parallel studies on archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CRC tissue. Intra-tumor and inter-patient varianceswere analyzed in 9 early metastatic CRCs by measuring expression levels by qRT-PCR on isolated tissue samples from luminal, central and invasive border zones. Associations between miRNA expression levels and early metastasizing tumors was investigated in FFPE tissue from invasive border and central tumor zones from 47 early metastatic CRCs matched with 47 non-metastatic CRCs. Intra-tumor expression gradients were analyzed on both cohorts.Mean intra-tumor coefficient of variation in the heterogeneity cohort was 38.5% (range: 33.1-49.0%) only slightly less than variation between patients (45.1%, range 37.0-49.5%). We demonstrated systematic expression gradients between tumor zones equal to a 3.23 (p=0.003) and 1.36 (p=0.014) fold lower expression in invasive areas for miR-200c, 1.52 (p<0.001) and 1.27 (p=0.021) fold lower expression in invasive areas for miR-92a. For miR-21 we found a 1.75 (p<0.001) and 1.21 (p=0.064) fold higher expression in invasive areas compared to luminal and central zones, respectively. No significant difference in expression levels between metastatic and non-metastatic tumors was demonstrated, nor a difference in intra-tumor gradients between metastatic and non-metastatic tumors.This study provides evidence for a moderate intra-tumor and inter-patient heterogeneities of three well-described potential prognostic markers in CRC. We demonstrate intra-tumor expression gradients indicating a differentiated expression of the target miRNAs between functional tumor zones, but the potential role as markers of early metastatic disease is still not fully clarified.
- Diagnosis of HCC for patients with cirrhosis using miRNA profiles of the tumor-surrounding tissue - A statistical model based on stepwise penalized logistic regression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 20.
The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant complication of cirrhosis because it changes the prognosis and the treatment of the patients. By now, contrast-enhanced CT and MR scans are the most reliable tools for the diagnosis of HCC; however, in some cases, a biopsy of the tumor is necessary for the final diagnosis. The aim of the study was to develop a diagnostic tool using the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of the tissue surrounding the HCC tumor combined with clinical parameters in statistical models. At a transplantation setting, 32 patients with HCC and cirrhosis (B) were compared to 22 patients suffering from cirrhosis only (A). The diagnosis and exclusion of HCC was confirmed following the histopathological examination of the explanted liver. The HCC patients were significantly older than the patients with cirrhosis only (B: 60.6 and A: 49.9, p<0.001) and showed higher levels of ALT (A: 0.76 μkat/l, B: 1.02 μkat/, p=0.006) and AFP (A: 5.8ng/ml, B: 70.3ng/ml, p<0.001), whereas the bilirubin levels were higher in the cirrhosis only group (p=0.002). Using age (cut-off 50.23years) and AFP (cut-off 4.2ng/ml) thresholds, the levels of expression of miR-1285-3p and miR-943 differentiated between the patients with HCC and cirrhosis from those with cirrhosis only with an accuracy of 96.3%. This is the first report about the use of stepwise penalized logistic regression and decision tree analyses of miRNA expressions in the tumor-surrounding tissue combined with clinical parameters for the diagnosis of HCC.
- HLA-DR antigen-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 17.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17)(q22;q21)/PML-RARα is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with distinct morphologic and immunophenotypic characteristics. It is a highly aggressive disease that requires rapid diagnosis and early intervention. In addition to morphologic evaluation, flow cytometry has been widely used to facilitate prompt diagnosis of this disease. Compared with other types of AML, APL typically displays a triad of absent or weak CD34, absent HLA-DR, and positive CD117. HLA-DR positive APL is extremely rare and its clinical and pathological features have not been reported. A total of 45 cases of APL with t(15,17)/PML-RARα were diagnosed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center from year 2006 to 2015. Among them, only two cases were positive for HLA-DR by flow cytometry immunophenotyping. Here we describe the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features of these two cases.
- RACK1 overexpression associates with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth and poor prognosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 3.
The receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1) is a scaffold protein involved in multiple intracellular signal pathways. Previous study showed that RACK1 was associated with the progression of multiple cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer. However, the role of RACK1 in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear.In this study, the expression of RACK1 was evaluated by Western blot in 8 paired fresh PDAC tissues and immunohistochemistry on 179 paraffin-embedded slices. Then, we used Fisher exact test to analyze the correlation between RACK1 and clinicopathological characteristics. Starvation and re-feeding assay was used to assess cell cycle. Western blot, CCK8, flow cytometry assays, and colony formation analyses demonstrated that RACK1 played an essential role in PDAC development. Annexin-V/PI apoptotic assay and western blot showed that RACK1 was involved in regulating the apoptosis of PDAC cells.RACK1 was highly expressed in PDAC tissues and cell lines and significantly associated with multiple clinicopathological factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that high RACK1 expression was suggested to be an independent prognostic factor for PDAC patients' survival. In vitro, serum starvation-refeeding experiment suggested that RACK1 was upregulated in proliferating PDAC cells, together with the percentage of cells at the S phase, and was correlated with the expression of Cyclin D1. Moreover, Overexpression of RACK1 facilitated the proliferation and cell cycle progress of PDAC cells, while downregulation of RACK1 induced growth impairment, G1/S cell cycle arrest and apotosis in PDAC cells. Silencing RACK1 decreased bcl-2 expression, increased cleaved caspase3 expression level and induced the apoptosis of PDAC cells.Our results suggest that RACK1 could play an important role in the tumorigenesis of PDAC and serve as a potential therapeutical target in PDAC treatment. Keywords RACK1; Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); Prognosis; Cell proliferation.
- The expression analysis of Bmpr1a and Bmp2 during hindgut development in rat embryos with anorectal malformations. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug; 101(1):143-9.
The aim of this study was to determine Bmpr1a and Bmp2 expression patterns during anorectal development in normal and anorectal malformation (ARM) embryos with a view to establishing the possible role of Bmpr1a and Bmp2 in ARM pathogenesis. ARM was induced with ethylenethiourea on the 10th gestational day (GD10) in rat embryos. The embryos were harvested by Cesarean deliveries. The expression of Bmpr1a and Bmp2 was evaluated in normal rat embryos (n=213) and ARM embryos (n=236) from GD14 to GD16. Immunohistochemical staining revealed, in normal embryos, that Bmpr1a and Bmp2 was mainly expressed on the epithelium of the urorectal septum (URS) and the cloacal membrane (CM) on GD14 and GD15. When the rectum separated from the urogenital sinus (UGS) on GD16, Bmpr1a- and Bmp2-immunolabeled cells were observed on the anorectal epithelium. In ARM embryos, the epithelium of the hindgut and URS demonstrated faint immunostaining for Bmpr1a and Bmp2. Analyses by Western blot and Real-time PCR revealed that Bmpr1a and Bmp2 protein and mRNA expression were significantly decreased in the ARM hindgut compared with normal hindgut on GD14 and GD15 (P<0.05). In ARM embryos, an imbalance in the spatiotemporal expression of Bmpr1a and Bmp2 was noted during anorectal morphogenesis from GD14 to GD16. Therefore, downregulation of Bmpr1a and Bmp2 at the time of cloacal separation into the primitive rectum and UGS might be related to the development of ARM.
- The influence of changes in expression of redox-sensitive genes on the development of retinopathy in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Jul 25; 101(1):124-132.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease of the elderly, with unclear pathogenesis; AMD is the leading cause of blindness. One of the destructive processes in AMD is oxidative stress, which leads to an imbalance in the processes responsible for production and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling pathway can participate in the development of oxidative stress, but the main regulator of antioxidant defense is nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2 (Nrf2). AhR-dependent oxidative stress can be attenuated by activation of Nrf2, and defects in the Nrf2 signaling pathway can increase sensitivity of the cell to oxidative stress. Our aim was to determine the role of the pro-oxidant (AhR-dependent) and antioxidant (Nrf2-dependent) systems in the pathogenesis of AMD using rats of OXYS strain and of OXYSb substrain with signs of AMD-like retinopathy of varying severity. We compared the retinal levels of mRNA expression of Nrf2- and AhR-dependent redox-sensitive systems between 1-, 3-, and 12- month-old senescence-accelerated OXYS rats (have been shown to be a valid experimental model of AMD) and the rat substrain OXYSb, which shows low morbidity of AMD. We uncovered interstrain differences in the expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent genes (glutathione S-reductase [Gsr] and heme oxygenase 1 [Hmox1]), in the expression of AhR-dependent genes (cytochrome P450 1A2 [Cyp1a2] and cytochrome P450 1B1 [Cyp1b1]), and in the NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) expression, which is controlled by both AhR and Nrf2. Binding of AhR and Nrf2 proteins to the regulatory regions of AhR and Nrf2 genes, respectively, was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation in the retina of 1-, 3-, and 12-month-old OXYS, OXYSb, and Wistar (control) rats. We compared the strength of DNA-protein interactions of AhR and Nrf2 with regulatory sequences and found that the level of autoupregulation of the AhR gene was higher in the retina of 1-month-old OXYSb rats in comparison with OXYS rats. An imbalance between pro-oxidant (AhR-dependent) and antioxidant (Nrf2-dependent) systems may play a crucial role in the onset and/or progression of AMD.
- Cancer related gene alterations can be detected with next-generation sequencing analysis of bile in diffusely infiltrating type cholangiocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug; 101(1):150-6.
Genome-wide association study in diffusely infiltrating type cholangiocarcinoma (CC) can be limited due to the difficulty of obtaining tumor tissue. We aimed to evaluate the genomic alterations of diffusely infiltrating type CC using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of bile and to compare the variations with those of mass-forming type CC. A total of 24 bile samples obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and 17 surgically obtained tumor tissue samples were evaluated. Buffy coat and normal tissue samples were used as controls for a somatic mutation analysis. After extraction of genomic DNA, NGS analysis was performed for 48 cancer related genes. There were 27 men and 14 women with a mean age of 65.0±11.8years. The amount of extracted genomic DNA from 3cm(3) of bile was 66.0±84.7μg and revealed a high depth of sequencing coverage. All of the patients had genomic variations, with an average number of 19.4±2.8 and 22.3±3.3 alterations per patient from the bile and tumor tissue, respectively. After filtering process, damaging SNPs (8 sites for each type of CC) were predicted by analyzing tools, and their target genes showed relevant differences between the diffusely infiltrating and mass-forming type CC. Finally, in somatic mutation analysis, tumor-normal paired 14 tissue and 6 bile samples were analyzed, genomic alterations of EGFR, FGFR1, ABL1, PIK3CA, and CDKN2A gene were seen in the diffusely infiltrating type CC, and TP53, KRAS, APC, GNA11, ERBB4, ATM, SMAD4, BRAF, and IDH1 were altered in the mass-forming type CC group. STK11, GNAQ, RB1, KDR, and SMO genes were revealed in both groups. The NGS analysis was feasible with bile sample and diffusely infiltrating type CC revealed genetic differences compared with mass-forming type CC. Genome-wide association study could be performed using bile sample in the patients with CC undergoing ERCP and a different genetic approach for accurate diagnosis, pathogenesis study, and targeted therapy will be needed in diffusely infiltrating type CC.
- M1-/M2-macrophage polarization in pseudolobules consisting of adipohilin-rich hepatocytes in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rat hepatic cirrhosis. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug; 101(1):133-42.
Liver steatosis is the most frequent liver disease and may further develop into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. Adipophilin (Adp) is localized on lipid droplet membrane in cytoplasm, and its increased expression is related to development of steatosis and NASH. The relationship between M1-/M2-macrophage polarization and Adp-rich hepatocyte-consisting pseudolobules (PLs) was investigated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rat cirrhosis.F344 rats were injected twice weekly with TAA (100mg/kg bodyweight) and sacrificed at post-first injection (PFI) weeks 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Macrophage immunophenotypes and Adp-containing hepatocytes were analyzed by single immunolabeling. Adp and M1-/M2-related factors were analyzed by real -time RT-PCR.PLs consisting exclusively of Adp-containing hepatocytes (Adp-positive) and PLs consisting of few Adp-containing hepatocytes (Adp-negative) were clearly distinguishable at PFI week 20 onwards. The numbers of M1-macrophages (reacting to CD68 and Iba1) and M2- macrophages (reacting to CD163, CD204 and Gal-3) were considerably greater in Adp-positive PLs. Expressions for both M1 (TNF-α, MCP-1, and Iba1)- and M2 (IL-4, TGF-β1, Gal-3, and Hsp25)-related factors were markedly higher in Adp-positive PLs at PFI week 25. Interestingly, MHC class II-positive macrophages/dendritic cells were increased in Adp-positive clusters/foci at the early stages at PFI weeks 5 and 10, and the level was gradually decreased thereafter.M1-/M2-macrophages may simultaneously participate in the pathogenesis of steatosis in TAA-induced cirrhosis through M1- and M2-related factors. MHC class II cells may be responsible for steatosis at early stages, suggesting different functions from the above M1-/M2-macropahges.
- Creatine and creatine pyruvate reduce hypoxia-induced effects on phrenic nerve activity in the juvenile mouse respiratory system. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug; 101(1):157-62.
Adequate concentrations of ATP are required to preserve physiological cell functions and protect tissue from hypoxic damage. Decreased oxygen concentration results in ATP synthesis relying increasingly on the presence of phosphocreatine. The lack of ATP through hypoxic insult to neurons that generate or regulate respiratory function, would lead to the cessation of breathing (apnea). It is not clear whether creatine plays a role in maintaining respiratory phrenic nerve (PN) activity during hypoxic challenge. The aim of the study was to test the effects of exogenously applied creatine or creatine pyruvate in maintaining PN induced respiratory rhythm against the deleterious effects of severe hypoxic insult using Working Heart-Brainstem (WHB) preparations of juvenile Swiss type mice. WHB's were perfused with control perfusate or perfusate containing either creatine [100μM] or creatine pyruvate [100μM] prior to hypoxic challenge and PN activity recorded throughout. Results showed that severe hypoxic challenge resulted in an initial transient increase in PN activity, followed by a reduction in that activity leading to respiratory apnea. The results demonstrated that perfusing the WHB preparation with creatine or creatine pyruvate, significantly reduced the onset of apnea compared to control conditions, with creatine pyruvate being the more effective substance. Overall, creatine and creatine pyruvate each produced time-dependent degrees of protection against severe hypoxic-induced disturbances of PN activity. The underlying protective mechanisms are unknown and need further investigations.