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Exp Mol Pathol [journal]
- Douglas Radford Shanklin, MD. 1930–2013. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Aug; 97(1):16.
- Inhibition of p300 suppresses growth of breast cancer. Role of p300 subcellular localization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 17.
There is evidence that p300, a transcriptional co-factor and a lysine acetyl-transferase, could play a role both as an oncoprotein and as a tumor suppressor, although little is known regarding its role in breast cancer (BC). First we investigated the role p300 has on BC by performing pharmacological inhibition of p300 acetyl-transferase function and analyzing the effects on cell count, migration and invasion in LM3 murine breast cancer cell line and on tumor progression in a syngeneic murine model. We subsequently studied p300 protein expression in human BC biopsies and evaluated its correlation with clinical and histopathological parameters of the patients. We observed that inhibition of p300 induced apoptosis and reduced migration and invasion in cultured LM3 cells. Furthermore, a significant reduction in tumor burden, number of lung metastases and number of tumors invading the abdominal cavity was observed in a syngeneic tumor model of LM3 following treatment with the p300 inhibitor. This reduction in tumor burden was accompanied by a decrease in the mitotic index and Ki-67 levels and an increase in Bax expression. Moreover, the analysis of p300 expression in human BC samples showed that p300 immunoreactivity is significantly higher in the cancerous tissues than in the non-malignant mammary tissues and in the histologically normal adjacent tissues. Interestingly, p300 was observed in the cytoplasm, and the rate of cytoplasmic p300 was higher in BC than in non-tumor tissues. Importantly, we found that cytoplasmic localization of p300 is associated with a longer overall survival time of the patients. In conclusion, we demonstrated that inhibition of the acetylase function of p300 reduces both cell count and invasion in LM3 cells, and decreases tumor progression in the animal model. In addition, we show that the presence of p300 in the cytoplasm correlates with increased survival of patients suggesting that its nuclear localization is necessary for the pro-tumoral effects.
- Overexpression of TNF-α converting enzyme promotes adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis induced by high fat diet. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 15.
Obesity is a state in which chronic low-grade inflammation persists in adipose tissues. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, produced by adipose tissues have been implicated as active participants in the development of obesity-related diseases. Since TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) is the major factor that induces soluble TNF-α, TACE has been noted as a pivotal regulator in this field. To reveal the role of TACE in adipose tissue inflammation, TACE-transgenic (TACE-Tg) and wild type (WT) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) or control diet for 16weeks. At 13weeks after the beginning of the diet, serum TNF-α and macrophage-related cytokine/chemokine levels were elevated in TACE-Tg mice fed with HFD (Tg-HFD mice), and the number of the so-called crown-like adipocyte was significantly increased in adipose tissues of Tg-HFD mice at the end of the experiment. Although macrophage infiltration was not detected in the adipose tissues at this time, fibrosis was observed around the crown-like adipocytes. These findings suggested that TACE overexpression induced macrophage infiltration and subsequent fibrosis in adipose tissues under HFD regimen. The collective evidence suggested that TACE could be a therapeutic target of HFD-induced obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation.
- Analysis of microRNA expression signatures in malignant pleural mesothelioma, pleural inflammation, and atypical mesothelial hyperplasia reveals common predictive tumorigenesis-related targets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 15.
Pleural chronic inflammation (PP) and mesothelial hyperplasia (HP) may be critical to the development of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Nonetheless, studies searching for mechanistic links involving microRNA (miRNA) regulation among these interrelated processes have not been reported. Using PCR-Array, we identified the miRNAs expressed in pleural tissues diagnosed with MPM (n=5), PP (n=4) and HP (n=5), as well as in non-cancerous/non-inflammatory tissue as the normal control (n=5). We performed bioinformatics and network analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs to identify tumorigenesis-related miRNAs and their biological networks. The targets of four down-regulated miRNAs in MPM (mir-181a-5p, miR-101-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-212-3p), one in PP (mir-101-3p) and one in HP (mir-494) were significantly enriched in "pathways in cancer". Interactome networks revealed that >50% of down-regulated miRNAs in MPM targeted the signaling-activation molecule MAPK1, the transcription factor ETS1 and the mesenchymal transition-associated molecule FZDA, which have been associated with oncogenic function. Comparative analysis revealed that FZD4 was an overlapping gene target of down-regulated miRNAs that were associated with "pathways in cancer" in MPM, PP and HP. Moreover, MAPK1, ETS1 and Cox-2, a pro-inflammatory enzyme associated with over-expression in cancers, were among the 25 overlapping target genes in MPM and PP. This network analysis revealed a potential combinatory effect of deregulated miRNAs in MPM pathogenesis and indicated potential molecular links between pleural inflammation and hyperplasia with tumorigenesis mechanisms in pleura.
- Heme oxygenase-1 has antitumoral effects in colorectal cancer: Involvement of p53. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 16; 97(3):321-331.
The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been shown to be up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role it plays in this cancer type has not yet been addressed. The aims of this study have been to analyze HO-1 expression in human invasive CRC, evaluate its correlation with clinical and histo-pathological parameters and to investigate the mechanisms through which the enzyme influences tumor progression. We confirmed that HO-1 was over-expressed in human invasive CRC and found that the expression of the enzyme was associated with a longer overall survival time. In addition, we observed in a chemically-induced CRC animal model that total and nuclear HO-1 expression increases with tumor progression. Our investigation of the mechanisms involved in HO-1 action in CRC demonstrates that the protein reduces cell viability through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and, importantly, that a functional p53 tumor suppressor protein is required for these effects. This reduction in cell viability is accompanied by modulation of the levels of p21, p27, and cyclin D1 and by modulation of Akt and PKC pathways. Altogether, our results demonstrate an antitumoral role of HO-1 and points to the importance of p53 status in this antitumor activity.
- Analysis of biological and technical variability in gene expression assays from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded classical Hodgkin lymphomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 16.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are invaluable sources of biological material for research and diagnostic purposes. In this study, we aimed to identify biological and technical variability in RT-qPCR TaqMan® assays performed with FFPE-RNA from lymph nodes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma samples. An ANOVA-nested 6-level design was employed to evaluate BCL2, CASP3, IRF4, LYZ and STAT1 gene expression. The most variable genes were CASP3 (low expression) and LYZ (high expression). Total variability decreased after normalization for all genes, except by LYZ. Genes with moderate and low expression were identified and suffered more the effects of the technical manipulation than high-expression genes. Pre-amplification was shown to introduce significant technical variability, which was partially alleviated by lowering to a half the amount of input RNA. Ct and Cy0 quantification methods, based on cycle-threshold and the kinetic of amplification curves, respectively, were compared. Cy0 method resulted in higher quantification values, leading to the decrease of total variability in CASP3 and LYZ genes. The mean individual noise was 0.45 (0.31 to 0.61 SD), indicating a variation of gene expression over ~1.5 folds from one case to another. We showed that total variability in RT-qPCR from FFPE-RNA is not higher than that reported for fresh complex tissues, and identified gene-, and expression level-sources of biological and technical variability, which can allow better strategies for designing RT-qPCR assays from highly degraded and inhibited samples.
- Hedgehog signaling pathway mediates tongue tumorigenesis in wild-type mice but not in Gal3-deficient mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 16; 97(3):332-337.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers of the oral cavity and an important cause of death worldwide. Currently, there are limited clinical tools aiding clinicians to establish its early diagnosis, and genetic and epigenetic events leading to the pathogenesis of OSCC remain unsolved. The use of carcinogen-induced knocked out mouse models would help to improve its early detection and also determine the role of proteins such as galectin-3 (Gal3) in this process. Here we used a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis employing two mouse genotypes: wild-type (Gal3+/+) and galectin-3-deficient mice (Gal3-/-) challenged by the carcinogen 4NQO for 16weeks. After induction, the expression of Wnt1, Wnt3A, Shh and Gli3 proteins in tongue samples was evaluated using an immunohistochemistry approach. All samples of dysplasia and carcinoma were negative for Wnt1. Wnt3A expression was detected in both Gal3+/+ and Gal3-/- mice, at similar levels. Wnt3A expression did not predict tongue tumorigenesis in either genotype. Dysplastic- and carcinoma-expressing Shh was statistically significantly higher in Gal3+/+ mice than Gal3-/- mice (p<0.0001), and was associated with tongue tumorigenesis only in the former. Gli3 expression decreased and increased from dysplasia to carcinoma in Gal3+/+ and Gal3-/- mice, respectively, although the difference was not significant. The results suggest that activated Wnt signaling is present in both mice, and that the Hh signaling pathway might play a role in tongue carcinoma development in Gal3+/+ mice.
- Comparing BRAF mutation status in matched primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas: Implications on optimized targeted therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 16; 97(3):315-320.
Selective BRAF inhibitors have shown dramatic results with regard to improving outcome in patients with melanoma. Testing the BRAF status in matched primary and metastatic melanomas to optimize individual targeted therapy is not well investigated.Extended BRAF testing using PCR for 9 mutations and VE1 immunohistochemistry for BRAF V600E detection on 95 lesions including 40 primary melanomas with their matched metastases (n=42), recurrences (n=9) and second primaries (n=4) was performed. Nine patients had multiple metastases.V600E was the only identified mutation type; 35.4% of primary vs. 18.9% of metastatic melanomas. The overall primary-metastatic BRAF status discordance rate was 32.3% using PCR and 27.5% with immunohistochemistry, and was significantly more frequent in primary lesions with mutant BRAF (67%). Males and patients with metastasis to lymph nodes were less likely to be discordant compared to females and those with metastasis to other sites (p=0.023). Discordant BRAF mutation status was predicted by multivariate binary logistic regression: the presence of a mutant BRAF in the primary melanoma [OR (95% C.I.)=23.4 (2.4-229.7)] and female gender [OR=10.6 (1.08-95)]. Inter-metastases BRAF concordance was 100% (6 comparisons).A high discordant rate implies the need for clinical trials addressing the response to targeted therapy in patients with discordant BRAF statuses between their primary and metastatic lesions.
- Protective role of DDAH2 (rs805304) gene polymorphism in patients with myocardial infarction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 15.
The purpose of the present study was to establish the role of DDAH gene polymorphisms in the risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI) in a clinical cohort of Mexican patients. One polymorphism (rs1498373) in the DDAH1 and three in the DDAH2 (rs805304, rs3131383, and rs805305) genes were performed by TaqMan genotyping assays in 473 patients with MI and 447 healthy unrelated controls. Similar distribution of DDAH1 and DDAH2 polymorphisms was observed in MI patients and healthy controls. Under a recessive model adjusted for age, gender, and obesity, the rs805304 C allele was associated with decreased risk of MI (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.51-0.96, P=0.030). The effect of the polymorphisms on various cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed. Under a recessive model adjusted for age and gender, the DDAH2 rs805304 C allele was associated with decreased risk of obesity (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.22-0.57, P=0.001). The three DDAH2 polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium. Our results suggest that the rs805304 C allele was associated with decreased risk of MI and decreased risk of obesity.
- Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profile of Leukocytes from Melanoma Patients With and Without CDKN2A Mutations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2014 Sep 15.
Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer, accounting for up to 75% of skin cancer deaths. A small proportion of melanoma cases can be ascribed to the presence of highly penetrant germline mutations, and approximately 40% of hereditary melanoma cases are caused by CDKN2A mutations. The current study sought to investigate whether the presence of germline CDKN2A mutations or the occurrence of cutaneous melanoma would result in constitutive genome-wide DNA methylation changes. The leukocyte methylomes of two groups of melanoma patients (those with germline CDKN2A mutations and those without CDKN2A mutations) were analyzed together with the profile of a control group of individuals. A pattern of DNA hypomethylation was detected in the CDKN2A-negative patients relative to the CDKN2A-mutated patients and controls. Additionally, we delineated a panel of 90 CpG sites that were differentially methylated in CDKN2A-mutated patients relative to controls. Although we identified a possible constitutive epigenetic signature in CDKN2A-mutated patients, the high occurrence of reported SNPs at the detected CpG sites complicated the data interpretation. Thus, further studies are required to elucidate the impact of these findings on melanoma predisposition and their possible effect on the penetrance of CDKN2A mutations.