(Exp Mol Pathol[TA]) articles in PubMed
- Usp2-69 overexpression slows down the progression of rat anti-Thy1.1 nephritis. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Sep 15; 101(2):249-258EM
- Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis is characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells (MCs) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-dependent stimulation of abnormal extracellular matrix (...
Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis is characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells (MCs) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-dependent stimulation of abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. We previously showed that Decorin--a leucine-rich proteoglycan inhibiting the progression of glomerulonephritis and glomerular sclerosis--can be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and deubiquitinated and stabilized by ubiquitin-specific processing protease 2-69(Usp2-69). Usp2-69 is highly expressed in the kidney and has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, its role in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis remains unclear. Here, we explored the effect of Usp2-69 on MC proliferation and ECM deposition by transfecting Usp2-69 plasmid into rat anti-Thy1.1 nephritis model and into cultured MCs, as well as detected Usp2-69 and Decorin in rat anti-Thy1.1 nephritis model by western blot. Overexpressing Usp2-69 at the early stage, but not advanced stage, of anti-Thy1.1 nephritis alleviated cell proliferation and ECM deposition, which was shown by decreased Ki-67, Collagen IV and Fibronectin detected by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression also increased Decorin and decreased TGF-β1 and Collagen IV both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Usp2-69 overexpression alleviates the progression of rat anti-Thy1.1 nephritis and, therefore, that exogenous plasmid injection via the renal artery enhanced by electrotransfer technology could be a promising avenue for glomerular disease research.
- Deregulation of the planar cell polarity genes CELSR3 and FZD3 in Hirschsprung disease. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Sep 13; 101(2):241-248EM
- Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the lower intestine. Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this disease are under act...
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the lower intestine. Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this disease are under active investigation. As core genes in the planar cell polarity pathway, Celsr3 and Fzd3 are believed to play vital roles in the development of the murine enteric nervous system. The potential association of CELSR3 and FZD3 with the development of HSCR in humans, however, is still unknown. We determined the genotypes of eight CELSR3 and FZD3 polymorphisms in 113 patients. Furthermore, target gene sequencing was used to search for rare mutations in the planar cell polarity genes. The mRNA and protein expression of CELSR3 and FZD3 were explored in patients with HSCR. Class III β-tubulin in colon tissue samples was examined to elucidate enteric innervation patterns. We observed a significant association between the FZD3 rs17059206 polymorphism and HSCR susceptibility (p<0.001). In addition, five rare mutations in CELSR3 were identified in six patients with HSCR. Upregulation of CELSR3 mRNA expression was detected in 80% of aganglionic segments; a similar increase was found for FZD3 protein expression in 81.8% of aganglionic tissues, compared with the ganglionic segments. Immunohistochemical staining on tissue sections revealed obvious excess expression of both molecules in the mucosal layer. The neurite patterns were highly disorganized in the aganglionic bowel segments, with a marked reduction in the prominence of TUJ1 bundles in number, thickness, and length. Our results showed that deregulation of the planar cell polarity genes CELSR3 and FZD3 might disrupt the enteric innervation pattern and consequently contribute to the susceptibility to HSCR.
- The role of cardiac fibroblasts in post-myocardial heart tissue repair. [Review]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Sep 9; 101(2):231-240EM
- The relative resistance of fibroblasts to hypoxia and their remarkable adaptive plasticity in response to rapid changes in local tissue microenvironment made interstitial cardiac fibroblasts to be a ...
The relative resistance of fibroblasts to hypoxia and their remarkable adaptive plasticity in response to rapid changes in local tissue microenvironment made interstitial cardiac fibroblasts to be a key player in post-myocardial infarction myocardial repair. Cardiac fibroblasts are abundantly presented in the interstitial and perivascular extracellular matrix. These cells can be rapidly mobilized in response to cardiac injury. Inflammatory activation of fibroblasts leads to the loss of their quiescent phenotype and inhibition of matrix-producing capacity. Acute inflammation that follows the infarct induces production of inflammatory mediators, matrix-degrading activity, proliferation, and migration of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts migrate to the injured myocardial site where undergo transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts in response to anti-inflammatory and mitogenic stimuli. They acquire capacity to synthesize matrix and contractile proteins. In the infarcted zone, fibroblasts/myofibroblasts actively proliferate, expand, and extensively produce and deposit collagen and other matrix proteins. The proliferative stage of heart healing transits to the scar maturation stage, in which collagen-based scar exhibits formation of intramolecular and extramolecular cross-links, deactivation and apoptosis of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts. Generally, cardiac reparation is strongly controlled. Inability to pass from one repair stage to another in a timely manner can induce detrimental events such as expansion of the infarct area due to advanced inflammation, cardiac fibrosis and adverse remodeling due to the excessive proliferative and profibrotic response, left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmogenicity, and heart failure.
- RGC-32 is expressed in the human atherosclerotic arterial wall: Role in C5b-9-induced cell proliferation and migration. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Sep 13; 101(2):221-230EM
- The complement system is an important player in the development of atherosclerosis. Previously reported as a cell cycle regulator, RGC-32 is an essential effector of the terminal complement complex, ...
The complement system is an important player in the development of atherosclerosis. Previously reported as a cell cycle regulator, RGC-32 is an essential effector of the terminal complement complex, C5b-9. In this study, our aims were to determine the expression of RGC-32 in the human atherosclerotic arterial wall and to delineate the mechanisms through which RGC-32 affects C5b-9-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration. We now demonstrate that RGC-32 is expressed in human aortic atherosclerotic wall and that RGC-32 expression increases with the progression of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, silencing of RGC-32 expression abolished C5b-9-induced human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) proliferation and migration. Of the 279 genes differentially expressed in HAECs after RGC-32 silencing, the genes involved in cell adhesion and cell cycle activation were significantly regulated by RGC-32. RGC-32 silencing caused a significant reduction in the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, Akt, ROCK1, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha and profilin. These data suggest that RGC-32 mediates HAEC migration through the regulation of RhoA and ROCK1 expression and is involved in actin cytoskeletal organization. Thus, RGC-32 has promising therapeutic potential with regard to angiogenesis and atherosclerosis.
- Interleukin-1α induces focal degradation of biglycan and tissue degeneration in an in-vitro ovine meniscal model. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Sep 9; 101(2):214-220EM
- We have developed an ovine meniscal explant model where the focal degradative events leading to characteristic fragmentation patterns of biglycan in human OA of the knee and hip, and evident in anima...
We have developed an ovine meniscal explant model where the focal degradative events leading to characteristic fragmentation patterns of biglycan in human OA of the knee and hip, and evident in animal models of knee OA and IVD degeneration are reproduced in culture. Lateral and medial menisci were dissected into outer, mid and inner zones and established in explant culture±IL-1 (10ng/ml). The biglycan species present in conditioned media samples and in GuHCl extracts of tissues were examined by Western blotting using two C-terminal antibodies PR-85 and EF-Bgn. Clear differences were evident in the biglycan species in each meniscal tissue zone with the medial outer meniscus having lower biglycan levels and major fragments of 20, 28, 33 and 36, 39kDa. Similar fragmentation was detected in articular cartilage samples, 42-45kDa core protein species were also detected. Biglycan fragmentation was not as extensive in the IL-1 stimulated meniscal cultures with 36, 39, 42 and 45kDa biglycan species evident. Thus the medial meniscus outer zone displayed the highest levels of biglycan processing in this model and correlated with a major zone of meniscal remodelling in OA in man. Significantly, enzymatic digests of meniscal tissues with MMP-13, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 have also generated similar biglycan species in-vitro. Zymography confirmed that the medial outer zone was the region of maximal MMP activity. This model represents a convenient system to recapitulate matrix remodelling events driven by IL-1 in pathological cartilages and in animal models of joint degeneration.
- Ameliorative effect of propolis on the cadmium-induced reproductive toxicity in male albino rats. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 29; 101(2):207-213EM
- Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. The present study aimed to investigate protective effects of propolis extract on cadmium-induced testicular damage, apoptosis, HIF-1α ex...
Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. The present study aimed to investigate protective effects of propolis extract on cadmium-induced testicular damage, apoptosis, HIF-1α expression and toxicity in rat's testis tissue. A total of 32 male rats were equally divided into four study groups namely, control, Cd (1mg/kg/day), Cd+propolis (50mg/kg/day) and propolis. The rats were decapitated under ketamine anesthesia and their testes tissues were removed. Serum testosterone, tissue malondialdehyde and HIF-1α levels, HIF-1α expression, apoptosis and histopathological damage scores were then compared. In the Cd group, the diameters of seminiferous tubules, tubular biopsy score of Johnsen and serum testosterone levels were decreased compared control group, but tissue HIF-1α and tissue MDA levels was higher than control group. The immunoreactivity of HIF-1α and the number of apoptotic cells were increased in Cd group. Furthermore, the propolis treated group showed an improved histological appearance in the Cd group. Thus, the results suggest that propolis acts as a potent protective agent against Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats.
- Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) causes more UPR-ER stress than non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 29; 101(2):201-206EM
- Investigating intra-tumor heterogeneity and expression gradients of miR-21, miR-92a and miR-200c and their potential of predicting lymph node metastases in early colorectal cancer. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 23; 101(2):187-196EM
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for moderate intra-tumor and inter-patient heterogeneities of three well-described potential prognostic markers in CRC. We demonstrate intra-tumor expression gradients indicating a differentiated expression of the target miRNAs between functional tumor zones, but the potential role as markers of early metastatic disease is still not fully clarified.
- Diagnosis of HCC for patients with cirrhosis using miRNA profiles of the tumor-surrounding tissue - A statistical model based on stepwise penalized logistic regression. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 20; 101(2):165-171EM
- The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant complication of cirrhosis because it changes the prognosis and the treatment of the patients. By now, contrast-enhanced CT and MR scans...
The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant complication of cirrhosis because it changes the prognosis and the treatment of the patients. By now, contrast-enhanced CT and MR scans are the most reliable tools for the diagnosis of HCC; however, in some cases, a biopsy of the tumor is necessary for the final diagnosis. The aim of the study was to develop a diagnostic tool using the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of the tissue surrounding the HCC tumor combined with clinical parameters in statistical models. At a transplantation setting, 32 patients with HCC and cirrhosis (B) were compared to 22 patients suffering from cirrhosis only (A). The diagnosis and exclusion of HCC was confirmed following the histopathological examination of the explanted liver. The HCC patients were significantly older than the patients with cirrhosis only (B: 60.6 and A: 49.9, p<0.001) and showed higher levels of ALT (A: 0.76μkat/l, B: 1.02μkat/, p=0.006) and AFP (A: 5.8ng/ml, B: 70.3ng/ml, p<0.001), whereas the bilirubin levels were higher in the cirrhosis only group (p=0.002). Using age (cut-off 50.23years) and AFP (cut-off 4.2ng/ml) thresholds, the levels of expression of miR-1285-3p and miR-943 differentiated between the patients with HCC and cirrhosis from those with cirrhosis only with an accuracy of 96.3%. This is the first report about the use of stepwise penalized logistic regression and decision tree analyses of miRNA expressions in the tumor-surrounding tissue combined with clinical parameters for the diagnosis of HCC.
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- HLA-DR antigen-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2016 Aug 18; 101(2):197-200EM
- Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17)(q22;q21)/PML-RARα is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with distinct morphologic and immunophenotypic characteristics. It is a highly aggressi...
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17)(q22;q21)/PML-RARα is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with distinct morphologic and immunophenotypic characteristics. It is a highly aggressive disease that requires rapid diagnosis and early intervention. In addition to morphologic evaluation, flow cytometry has been widely used to facilitate prompt diagnosis of this disease. Compared with other types of AML, APL typically displays a triad of absent or weak CD34, absent HLA-DR, and positive CD117. HLA-DR positive APL is extremely rare and its clinical and pathological features have not been reported. A total of 45 cases of APL with t(15,17)/PML-RARα were diagnosed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center from year 2006 to 2015. Among them, only two cases were positive for HLA-DR by flow cytometry immunophenotyping. Here we describe the clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features of these two cases.