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Exp Mol Pathol [journal]
- Molecular forms of the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 in patients with colorectal cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 22; 96(1):48-53.
The components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and molecules with which they interact are associated with the neoplastic transformation of cells in colorectal cancer. The IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) plays a significant role in mitotic stimulation of the cancer cells and its concentration is significantly elevated in tumor states. Little is known about IGFBP-2 at the molecular level and the purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between IGFBP-2 and some other proteins, the fragmentation pattern and posttranslational modifications that might have occurred due to a disease. Results have shown that the amount of monomer IGFBP-2 was 20-30% greater in patients with cancer and the amount of fragmented IGFBP-2 was doubled compared to healthy people, whereas the portion of IGFBP-2 in complex with α2 macroglobulin (α2M) was 2.5 times lower in cancer patients. According to this distribution, IGFBP-2 was not only increasingly synthetized in patients with cancer, but also the amount involved in complexes with α2M was reduced favoring the existence of binary IGFBP-2/IGF complexes, free to leave the circulation. Both IGFBP-2 and α2M were significantly more oxidized in patients with colon cancer than in healthy individuals and α2M was additionally sialylated. It can be speculated that the formation of IGFBP-2/α2M complexes is part of the control mechanism involved in the regulation of IGFBP-2 and, consequently, IGF availability. It also seems that posttranslational modifications are more important factors in determining the amount of IGFBP-2/α2M complexes than the actual quantity of these two proteins.
- MicroRNA-23a is involved in tumor necrosis factor-α induced apoptosis in mesenchymal stem cells and myocardial infarction. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 19.
Cell therapy has emerged as an attractive therapeutic modality to treat myocardial infarction (MI) via repairing damaged myocardium, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an appealing therapeutic approach for cardiac regeneration. However, the clinical application of MSC-based therapy is restricted because of the poor survival of implanted cells, and this poor survival remains poorly understood. Using a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced bone marrow (BM)-MSC injury model in vitro and a rat MI model in vivo, we showed in the current study that miR-23a was involved in TNF-α-induced BM-MSC apoptosis through regulating caspase-7 and that the injection of BM-MSCs overexpressing miR-23a could improve left ventricular (LV) function and reduce infarct size in the rat MI model. Our findings elucidate the etiology of MI and provide an alternative treatment strategy for patients with heart failure caused by MI who are not optimal candidates for surgical treatment.
- Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 protein overexpression as an independent biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 18; 96(1):54-60.
Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) is a member of the SIX gene family. It is highly expressed in cancers derived from tissues that play a fundamental role during embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest that inappropriate expression of SIX1 can both initiate tumorigenesis and promote metastasis. To investigate the clinicopathological significance of SIX1 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and to further identify its role as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PDAC, 103 PDAC tissue samples and 45 normal pancreatic tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained for SIX1 protein. The localization of SIX1 protein was detected in Panc-1 cancer cells using immunofluorescence staining. Correlations between SIX1 overexpression and the clinicopathological features of pancreatic cancer were evaluated using Chi-square (χ(2)) tests, differences in survival curves were analyzed using log-rank tests, and multivariate survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. In results, SIX1 protein showed mainly cytoplasmic/perinuclear staining pattern in PDAC with immunohistochemistry. The strongly positive rate of SIX1 protein was 60.2% (62/103) in PDAC, which was significantly higher than normal pancreatic tissue (6.7%, 3/45). SIX1 overexpression was positively correlated with tumor size, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and grade of PDAC (P<0.001). SIX1 high expression levels influenced overall survival rates in G1, G2, stage I-II and stage III-IV groups of PDAC; and high expression levels had significantly lower overall survival rates than SIX1 low expression levels. In conclusion, SIX1 emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor in PDAC. SIX1 overexpression appears to be associated with PDAC, and may be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of PDAC.
- MCP-1and IL-1β expression in the myocardia of two young patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and fatal diabetic ketoacidosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 16.
Convincing evidence exists for the early onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease (CAD) as distinct forms of cardiac disease in young patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the pre-stages of T2DM, forms of dysregulated insulin signaling. Progression of both chronic cardiac conditions is mediated by oxidative stress and low grade inflammation. This study reports the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) chemokine and the interleukin (IL)-1β inflammatory cytokine in two young patients with suboptimal metabolic control and fatal diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), two age-matched overweight/obesity cases and two age-matched controls. In addition, markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis, collagen deposition and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were studied. Significant expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β was seen in the myocardia of the T1DM/DKA cases, with lesser amounts expressed in the overweight/obesity myocardia. All of the other markers except cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were expressed to a significantly greater extent in the T1DM/DKA and overweight/obesity cases in comparison to the age-matched controls. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was significantly greater in the overweight/obesity cases than in the T1DM/DKA or the control cases.
- Vitamin D receptor and CD86 expression in the skin of vitamin D-deficient swine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 13; 96(1):42-47.
The immunomodulatory role of vitamin D in many diseases is well established. However, the relationship between vitamin D status and skin cancers is unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency on VDR, NF-κB, and CD86 in the epidermis of Yucatan microswine tragi. All of these proteins have known roles in the pathogenesis of cutaneous malignancies such as melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. There was weaker and less discrete nuclear staining for VDR and weaker CD86 immunoreactivity with patchy membranous expression in the epidermis of vitamin D-deficient compared to vitamin D-sufficient swine. There was no difference in the immunostaining for NF-κB. Since VDR and CD86 expression are decreased in the setting of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers, our findings suggest a potential role of vitamin D-deficiency in the progression of skin malignancies.
- Nonselective inhibition of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases by naproxen ameliorates acute or chronic liver injury in animals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 10; 96(1):27-35.
The rising prevalence of hepatic injury due to toxins, metabolites, viruses, etc., necessitates development of further mechanisms for protecting the liver and for treating acute or chronic liver diseases. To examine whether inhibition of inflammation is directed by cyclo-oxygenase pathways, we performed animal studies with naproxen, which inhibits prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2 and is in extensive clinical use. We administered carbon tetrachloride to induce acute liver injury and ligated the common bile duct to induce chronic liver injury in adult rats. These experimental manipulations produced abnormalities in liver tests, tissue necrosis, compensatory hepatocyte or biliary proliferation, and onset of fibrosis, particularly after bile duct ligation. After carbon tetrachloride-induced acute injury, naproxen decreased liver test abnormalities, tissue necrosis and compensatory hepatocellular proliferation. After bile duct ligation-induced chronic injury, naproxen decreased liver test abnormalities, tissue injury and compensatory biliary hyperplasia. Moreover, after bile duct ligation, naproxen-treated rats showed more periductular oval liver cells, which have been classified as hepatic progenitor cells. In naproxen-treated rats, we found greater expression in hepatic stellate cells and mononuclear cells of cytoprotective factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. The ability of naproxen to induce expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was verified in cell culture studies with CFSC-8B clone of rat hepatic stellate cells. Whereas assays for carbon tetrachloride toxicity using cultured primary hepatocytes established that naproxen was not directly cytoprotective, we found conditioned medium containing vascular endothelial growth factor from naproxen-treated CFSC-8B cells protected hepatocytes from carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Therefore, naproxen was capable of ameliorating toxic liver injury, which involved naproxen-induced release of physiological cytoprotective factors in nonparenchymal liver cells. Such drug-induced release of endogenous cytoprotectants will advance therapeutic development for hepatic injury.
- Interferon alpha induced intrahepatic pSTAT1 inversely correlate with serum HCV RNA levels in chronic HCV infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 8; 96(1):36-41.
The Jak-STAT signaling of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected hepatocyte is critical for the antiviral action of endogenously produced interferon (IFN) as well as exogenously administered interferon alpha (IFN-α). The activation of cellular Jak-STAT signaling by IFN-α results in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of pSTAT1 and pSTAT2 proteins to induce antiviral gene transcription. Clinical studies show that chronic HCV patients with high viral load show poor response to interferon alpha and ribavirin combination therapy.We seek to determine whether the IFN-α induced activation of pSTAT1 and pSTAT2 in hepatocytes isolated from liver biopsy of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus could be related to the viral load.Hepatocytes were isolated from liver biopsies of 18 chronic HCV patients using the collagen digestion method. Induction of pSTAT1 protein in the isolated hepatocyte was measured after IFN-α treatment. The fold change in the levels of pStat1 in the cell lysates due to IFN-treatment was measured by Western blot analysis followed by densitometry analysis.Results of our study indicate that IFN-α induced pSTAT1 levels vary in chronically infected hepatocytes from chronic HCV patients. Semi-quantitative analysis of the pSTAT1 bands revealed a median induction of 7.4-fold in non-infected primary hepatocytes and 2.3-fold in chronic hepatitis C patients (p<0.001). Total STAT1 levels were not significantly different between treated and untreated primary hepatocytes. We also found a significantly inverse correlation between the intrahepatic pSTAT1 inductions with the serum HCV RNA levels.We have developed an antibody based Western blot detection method to measure intrahepatic pStat1 and pStat2 levels to assess the cellular response to exogenous IFN-alpha. Our results indicate that pStat1 activation is a good indicator to assess the level of HCV replication in chronic HCV patients.
- Effects of lentiviral-mediated Foxp1 and Foxq1 RNAi on the hepatocarcinoma cell. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 5; 96(1):1-8.
Foxp1 and Foxq1 are two multifunctional molecules of "forkhead box (Fox)" family. The objective of this paper was to construct the lentiviral vectors expressing RNA interference (RNAi) against Foxp1 or Foxq1 genes, and the effects of both vectors with two RNAis on the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of 7721 hepatocarcinoma cell line were evaluated. Six target sequences against human Foxp1/Foxq1 mRNA were designed respectively and six pairs of their corresponding double-strand DNA oligo (siRNA) were synthesized prior to being transfected into 7721 cells with lipo2000, then a most efficient siRNA were selected to be subcloned into pLL3.7-GFP/Lenti plasmids. These plasmids were transfected into 293T cells to package lentiviral particles for subsequent transfection into 7721 cells after their sequences were confirmed. The expression of Foxp1and Foxq1 genes in the transfected cells were identified by real-time PCR. The migration, infiltration, viability and apoptosis of the transfected cells were assessed by wound healing assay, Transwell assay, CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Sequencing results showed that lentiviral vectors contained Foxp1 or Foxq1 gene. After being transfected into 7721 cells, Foxp1 and Foxq1 expression were significantly down-regulated by siRNA-823 and siRNA-834. The migration and infiltration ability, and the viability of 7721 cells transfected with two siRNAs were significantly suppressed; flow cytometry assay exhibited the apoptosis rate of transfected 7721 cells with the lentivirus RNAi vector of Foxp1 or Foxq1 was increased. All the results showed that the lentivirus RNAi vectors of Foxp1 and Foxq1 were able to inhibit the expression of Foxp1 and Foxq1 in 7721 cells efficiently, and the down-regulation of either Foxp1 or Foxq1 resulted in suppression of migration, infiltration and viability of 7721 cells and an increase in cell apoptosis. Our data indicated that both Foxp1 and Foxq1 genes played an oncogenic role in hepatocarcinoma cells, which proposed the two genes as new therapeutic targets for the cancer.
- Expression profile of osteoprotegerin, RANK and RANKL genes in the femoral head of patients with avascular necrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Nov 5; 96(1):9-14.
Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) is a recalcitrant disease of the hip that leads to joint destruction. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulate the balance between osteoclasts-osteoblasts. The expression of these genes affects the maturation and function of osteoblasts-osteoclasts and bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathways leading to AVN by studying the expression profile of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes.Quantitative Real Time-PCR was performed for evaluation of OPG, RANK and RANKL expression. Analysis was based on parallel evaluation of mRNA and protein levels in normal/necrotic sites of 42 osteonecrotic femoral heads (FHs). OPG and RANKL protein levels were estimated by western blotting.The OPG mRNA levels were higher (insignificantly) in the necrotic than the normal site (p>0.05). Although the expression of RANK and RANKL was significantly lower than OPG in both sites, RANK and RANKL mRNA levels were higher in the necrotic part than the normal (p<0.05). Protein levels of OPG and RANKL showed no remarkable divergence.Our results indicate that differential expression mechanisms for OPG, RANK and RANKL that could play an important role in the progress of bone remodeling in the necrotic area, disturbing bone homeostasis. This finding may have an effect on the resulting bone destruction and the subsequent collapse of the hip joint.
- Involvement of cross-linked ribosomal protein S19 oligomers and C5a receptor in definitive erythropoiesis. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Pathol 2013 Dec; 95(3):364-75.
We performed a series of experiments under a working hypothesis that cross-linked oligomers of ribosomal protein S19 (RP S19) play an essential role in definitive erythropoiesis as a ligand of the C5a receptor of erythroblasts and macrophages. We found molecules functionally and immunologically indistinguishable from RP S19 oligomers in the extracellular fluid of porcine and guinea pig bone marrow. When an increased hematopoietic state was induced in guinea pigs by bloodletting, the bone marrow RP S19 oligomer concentration was concomitantly increased. However, when the RP S19 oligomers were immunologically neutralized or the C5a receptor was pharmacologically antagonized, hyper-erythropoiesis induced by bloodletting was prevented and the anemic state was retarded in guinea pigs. When the RP S19 oligomers were neutralized in mice after bloodletting, the reactive hyper proliferation of erythroblasts in the spleen was prevented. Proerythroblasts and erythroblasts prepared by bone marrow aspiration from healthy individuals were found to express significant levels of the C5a receptor and type 2 transglutaminase genes. Majority of erythroblasts in cord blood of healthy newborns bore the C5a receptor. Taken together, these results support our hypothesis.