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Exp Neurol [journal]
- Mobilisation of the splenic monocyte reservoir and peripheral CX3CR1 deficiency adversely affect recovery from spinal cord injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 9.
Macrophages in the injured spinal cord originate from resident microglia and blood monocytes. Whether this diversity in origins contributes to their seemingly dual role in immunopathology and repair processes has remained poorly understood. Here we took advantage of Cx3cr1(gfp) mice to visualize monocyte-derived macrophages in the injured spinal cord via adoptive cell transfer and bone marrow (BM) chimera approaches. We show that the majority of infiltrating monocytes at 7 days post-injury originate from the spleen and only to a lesser extent from the BM. Prevention of early monocyte infiltration via splenectomy was associated with improved recovery at 42 days post-SCI. Conversely, an increased early presence of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, as a result of CX3CR1 deficiency within the peripheral immune compartment, correlated with worsened injury outcomes. Adoptive transfer of identified Cx3cr1(gfp/+) monocytes confirmed peak infiltration at 7 days post-injury, with inflammatory (Ly6C(high)) monocytes being most efficiently recruited. Focal SCI also changed the composition of the two major monocyte subsets in the blood, with more Ly6C(high) cells present during peak recruitment. Adoptive transfer experiments further suggested high turnover of inflammatory monocytes in the spinal cord at 7 days post-injury. Consistent with this, only a small proportion of infiltrating cells unequivocally expressed polarisation markers for pro-inflammatory (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) macrophages at this time point. Our findings offer new insights into the origins of monocyte-derived macrophages after SCI and their contribution to functional recovery, providing a basis for further scrutiny and selective targeting of Ly6C(high) monocytes to improve outcomes from neurotraumatic events.
- Dopamine receptor activation increases Glial Cell line-derived Neurotrophic Factor in experimental stroke. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 9.
Treatment with levodopa enhances functional recovery after experimental stroke but its mechanisms of action are elusive. Reactive astrocytes in the ischemic hemisphere are involved in mechanisms promoting recovery and also express dopamine 1 (D1) and dopamine 2 (D2) receptors. Here we investigated if activation of astrocytic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2) regulate the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) after combined in vitro hypoxia/aglycemia (H/A) and studied the expression of GDNF in the ischemic brain after treatment with levodopa/benserazide following transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) in the rat. Twentyfour hours after H/A, GDNF levels were upregulated in exposed astrocytes compared to normoxic control cultures and further elevated by addition of the selective D1 receptor agonist (R)-(+)-SKF-38393 hydrochloride while D1 receptor antagonism by R(+)-SCH-23390 hydrochloride significantly reduced GDNF. No effect on GDNF levels was observed by the application of the D2 receptor agonist R(-)-2,10,11,-Trihydroxy-N-propyl-noraporphine hydrobromide hydrate or S-(-)-Eticlopride hydrochloride (D2 receptor antagonist). After tMCAO, GDNF was upregulated in D1 expressing reactive astrocytes in the peri-infarct area. In addition, treatment with levodopa/benserazide significantly increased GDNF levels in the infarct core and peri-infarct area after tMCAO without affecting the expression of glial fibrillaric acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament and marker of reactive gliosis. After stroke, GDNF levels increase in the ischemic hemisphere in rats treated with levodopa, implicating GDNF in the mechanisms of tissue reorganization and plasticity and in L-DOPA enhanced recovery of lost brain function. Our results support levodopa treatment as a potential recovery enhancing therapy in stroke patients.
- Axonal Degeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 9.
Axons are the anatomical link between neuronal cell bodies and their target organs, and thus axonal degeneration is the pathological substrate that underlies neurological dysfunction in a large number of neurological conditions. Recent advances in the field of axonal biology demonstrate that axons possess programs for survival and degeneration that are distinct from those of the cell body, indicating that therapeutic strategies must consider protection of both the cell body and the axon. This review discusses axonal degeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with a focus on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, examining both the underlying mechanisms, and the cellular and disease models of axonal degeneration that relate to disease pathogenesis.
- Increased SMA-M1 Coherence in Parkinson's Disease - Pathophysiology or Compensation? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 9.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder owing to loss of dopaminergic cells. Akinesia - one of the core symptoms of PD - is associated with exaggerated oscillations at beta frequency (13 - 30 Hz) within the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Thus, enhanced oscillations below 30 Hz are assumed to represent a pathophysiological marker of PD. However, recent data suggest that OFF medication exaggerated beta oscillations within basal ganglia (BG) cortical networks may serve for the compensation of BG dysfunctions. The STN is functionally connected to mesial prefrontal areas like the supplementary motor area (SMA). But, it is still not fully understood how enhanced beta oscillations within the BG exert dominance over the primary motor cortex (M1) thereby yielding motor impairment. The present study, therefore, investigates the effect of dopaminergic state on SMA-M1 functional connectivity using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG data were recorded in 7 patients suffering from PD with preponderance of akinesia during isometric contraction of the right forearm and during rest. Coherence as a measure of functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and SMA was calculated OFF and ON medication and correlated with the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III) and with disease duration. During rest a significant positive correlation between disease duration and SMA-M1 coherence was found ON but not OFF medication. Conversely, during isometric contraction SMA-M1 coherence and UPDRS III were inversely correlated OFF but not ON medication explaining more than 80% of variance. The results favor the hypothesis that OFF medication exaggerated cortical coherence at beta frequency represents a compensatory mechanism rather than a pathophysiological marker per se.
- Special Issue on Epilepsy. [EDITORIAL]
- Exp Neurol 2013 Jun.:1-3.
- Retinol palmitate prevents ischemia-induced cell changes in hippocampal neurons through the Notch1 signaling pathway in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 4.
Retinol palmitate, an analog of vitamin A, plays multiple roles in the nervous system, including neural differentiation, axon outgrowth, and neural patterning, and is also an antioxidative agent and thereby potential neuroprotectant for brain ischemia. The present study aimed at investigating the protective effects of retinol palmitate against ischemia-induced brain injury in a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) model in mice. Ischemia induced by 20-min BCCAO resulted in significant neuronal morphological changes and reactive astrocyte proliferation in the hippocampus, particularly in the CA1 region, and these changes were accompanied by increased Notch1 expression. Intraperitoneal retinol palmitate administration before ischemia reduced ischemic neurons with Notch1 expression; the differences were statistically significant in both the 1.2mg/kg group and 12mg/kg group. These results show that retinol palmitate prevents brain ischemia-induced neuronal injury with Notch1 expression and that Notch1 signaling could be involved in the neuroprotective mechanism. Retinol palmitate could be a treatment option for human brain infarction.
- A novel reproducible model of neonatal stroke in mice: Comparison with a hypoxia-ischemia model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 4.
Neonatal stroke occurs in 1/4000 live births and leaves life-long neurological impairments, such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy. Currently, the rodent models of neonatal stroke that are available exhibit significant inter-animal variability, which makes it difficult to accurately assess the mechanisms of brain injury and the efficacy of candidate treatments. We aimed to introduce a novel, highly reproducible model of stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), in immature mice, and to evaluate the reproducibility of this model compared with a conventional hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Postnatal day 12 CB-17 mice underwent left MCAO by direct electrocoagulation. The MCAO model exhibited excellent long-term survival; 85% up to 8weeks after the insult. Infarct was evident in every animal with MCAO (n=27) and was confined to the cortex, with the exception of some mild thalamic injury. While the % stroke volume 48h after the insult was consistent in the MCAO group, range: 17.8-30.4% (minimum-maximum), it was substantially less consistent in the HI group, range: 3.0-70.1%. This contrasting variability between the two models was also evident in the cerebral blood flow, 24h after the insult, and in the ipsilateral hemispheric volume, as assessed at 8weeks after the insult. Mice with MCAO exhibited significant neurofunctional deficits in the rotarod and open-field tests. Preclinical studies for neonatal stroke could become more reliable using this model, with even a potential reduction in the number of pups required for statistical significance. The contrasting variability between the two models may provide insights into the factors that contribute to inter-animal variability in brain injury.
- The trade-off between wiring cost and network topology in white matter structural networks in health and migraine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 3.
The human brain organization of cortical networks has optimized trade-off architecture for the economical minimization of connection distance and maximizing valuable topological properties; however, whether this network configuration is disrupted in chronic migraine remains unknown. Here, employing the diffusion tensor imaging and graph theory approaches to construct white matter networks in 26 patients with migraine (PM) and 26 gender-matched healthy controls (HC), we investigated relationships between structural connectivity, cortical network architecture and anatomical distance in the two groups separately. Compared with the HC group, the patients showed longer global distance connection in PM, with proportionally less short-distance and more medium-distance; correspondingly, the patients showed abnormal global topology in their structural networks, mainly presented as a higher clustering coefficient. Moreover, the abnormal association between these two network features was also found. Intriguingly, the network measure that combined the nodal anatomical distance and network topology could distinguish PM from HC with high accuracy of 90.4%. We also demonstrated a high reproducibility of our findings across different parcellation schemes. Our results demonstrated that long-term migraine may result in a abnormal optimization of a trade-off between wiring cost and network topology in white matter structural networks and highlights the potential for combining spatial and topological aspects as a network marker, which may provide valuable insights into the understanding of brain network reorganization that could be attributed to the underlying pathophysiology resulting from migraine.
- Limited regeneration in long acellular nerve allografts is associated with increased Schwann cell senescence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 May 3.
Repair of large nerve defects with acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) is an appealing alternative to autografting and allotransplantation. ANAs have been shown to be similar to autografts in supporting axonal regeneration across short gaps, but fail in larger defects due to a poorly-understood mechanism. ANAs depend on proliferating Schwann cells (SCs) from host tissue to support axonal regeneration. Populating longer ANAs places a greater proliferative demand on host SCs that may stress host SCs, resulting in senescence. In this study, we investigated axonal regeneration across increasing isograft and ANA lengths. We also evaluated the presence of senescent SCs within both graft types. A sciatic nerve graft model in rats was used to evaluate regeneration across increasing isograft (~autograft) and ANA lengths (20, 40, and 60mm). Axonal regeneration and functional recovery decreased with increased graft length and the performance of the isograft was superior to ANAs at all lengths. Transgenic Thy1-GFP rats and qRT-PCR demonstrated that failure of the regenerating axonal front in ANAs was associated with increased levels of senescence related markers in the graft (senescence associated β-galactosidase, p16(INK4A), and IL6). Lastly, electron microscopy (EM) was used to qualitatively assess senescence-associated changes in chromatin of SCs in each graft type. EM demonstrated an increase in the presence of SCs with abnormal chromatin in isografts and ANAs of increasing graft length. These results are the first to suggest that SC senescence plays a role in limited axonal regeneration across nerve grafts of increasing gap lengths.
- Tetramethylpyrazine reduces cellular inflammatory response following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Neurol 2013 Apr 30.
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been used to treat ischemic stroke. However, scientific evidence related to its effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is largely unclear. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its physiological benefits. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on intracerebral cellular inflammatory response in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia. TMP exhibited a neuroprotective effect against ischemic deficits by reduction of behavioral disturbance, brain infarction, and edema. The results of immunohistochemistry, enzymatic assay, Western blot, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and flow cytometric analysis revealed that TMP reduced the percentages of activated macrophages/microglia and infiltrative lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after cerebral ischemia. In parallel with these immunosuppressive phenomena, TMP also attenuated the activities of ischemia-induced inflammation-associated signaling molecules and transcription factors. Another finding in this study was that the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of TMP were accompanied by a further elevated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in ipsilateral neurons and macrophages/microglia after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results suggest that both the promotion of endogenous defense capacity and the attenuation of the extent and composition percentage of the major cellular inflammatory responses via targeting of macrophages/microglia by elevating Nrf2/HO-1 expression might actively contribute to TMP-mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia.