Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Experimental molecular medicine [journal]
- Inhibition of Janus activated kinase-3 protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e23.
Recent studies have documented that Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway can modulate the apoptotic program in a myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model. To date, however, limited studies have examined the role of JAK3 on myocardial I/R injury. Here, we investigated the potential effects of pharmacological JAK3 inhibition with JANEX-1 in a myocardial I/R model. Mice were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by varying periods of reperfusion. JANEX-1 was injected 1 h before ischemia by intraperitoneal injection. Treatment with JANEX-1 significantly decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, reduced infarct size, reversed I/R-induced functional deterioration of the myocardium and reduced myocardial apoptosis. Histological analysis revealed an increase in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration within the infarcted area, which was markedly reduced by JANEX-1 treatment. In parallel, in in vitro studies where neutrophils and macrophages were treated with JANEX-1 or isolated from JAK3 knockout mice, there was an impairment in the migration potential toward interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), respectively. Of note, however, JANEX-1 did not affect the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in the myocardium. The pharmacological inhibition of JAK3 might represent an effective approach to reduce inflammation-mediated apoptotic damage initiated by myocardial I/R injury.
- Autophagic failure promotes the exocytosis and intercellular transfer of α-synuclein. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e22.
The accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates is a major characteristic of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The intracytoplasmic deposition of α-synuclein aggregates and Lewy bodies, often found in PD and other α-synucleinopathies, is thought to be linked to inefficient cellular clearance mechanisms, such as the proteasome and autophagy/lysosome pathways. The accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates in neuronal cytoplasm causes numerous autonomous changes in neurons. However, it can also affect the neighboring cells through transcellular transmission of the aggregates. Indeed, a progressive spreading of Lewy pathology among brain regions has been hypothesized from autopsy studies. We tested whether inhibition of the autophagy/lysosome pathway in α-synuclein-expressing cells would increase the secretion of α-synuclein, subsequently affecting the α-synuclein deposition in and viability of neighboring cells. Our results demonstrated that autophagic inhibition, via both pharmacological and genetic methods, led to increased exocytosis of α-synuclein. In a mixed culture of α-synuclein-expressing donor cells with recipient cells, autophagic inhibition resulted in elevated transcellular α-synuclein transmission. This increase in protein transmission coincided with elevated apoptotic cell death in the recipient cells. These results suggest that the inefficient clearance of α-synuclein aggregates, which can be caused by reduced autophagic activity, leads to elevated α-synuclein exocytosis, thereby promoting α-synuclein deposition and cell death in neighboring neurons. This finding provides a potential link between autophagic dysfunction and the progressive spread of Lewy pathology.
- Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome: intellectual disability due to loss of TCF4-regulated gene transcription. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e21.
TCF4 (transcription factor 4; E2-2, ITF2) is a transcription factor that when haplo-insufficient causes Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PTHS), an autism-spectrum disorder that is associated with pervasive developmental delay and severe intellectual disability. The TCF4 gene is also a risk factor with highly significant linkage to schizophrenia, presumably via overexpression of the TCF4 gene product in the central nervous system. This review will present an overview of the clinical manifestations of PTHS and relate those clinical attributes to the underlying molecular genetics of TCF4. In order to provide a molecular biological context for the loss of function of TCF4 in PTHS, the review will also present a brief overview of the basic biochemistry of TCF4-mediated regulation of cellular and neuronal gene expression. In the final section of this review, I will discuss and speculate upon possible roles for the TCF4 transcription factor in neuronal function and comment upon how understanding these roles may give new insights into the molecular neurobiology of human cognition.
- MRP8 promotes Th17 differentiation via upregulation of IL-6 production by fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e20.
Myeloid-related protein (MRP)8/MRP14 is an endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand and is abundant in synovial fluid (SF) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Belonging to damage-associated molecular patterns, it amplifies proinflammatory mediators and facilitates a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T-helper (Th)17 cells have a crucial role in RA pathogenesis, and IL-6 is the key factor promoting Th17 differentiation. We investigated whether the level of MRP8/MRP14 is positively associated with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF and found that MRP8/MRP14 level had a significant correlation with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF. We also observed that MRP8-induced IL-17 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells but MRP14 did not. Upon stimulation with MRP8, IL-6 production was enhanced by RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and was further elevated by coculturing RA FLS with activated CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that MRP8-activated IL-6 production by RA FLS promoted differentiation of Th17 cells using the coculture system consisting of CD4(+) T cells and RA FLS. In addition, IL-6 blockade attenuated Th17 polarization of CD4(+) T cells in the cocultures. Inhibitor studies revealed that MRP8 increased IL-6 production in RA FLS via TLR4/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our results show that MRP8 has a crucial role in stimulating IL-6 expression by RA FLS, and subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation in RA, suggesting that neutralizing MRP8 level in RA synovium may be an effective therapeutic strategy in RA treatment.
- The colchicine derivative CT20126 shows a novel microtubule-modulating activity with apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e19.
New colchicine analogs have been synthesized with the aim of developing stronger potential anticancer activities. Among the analogs, CT20126 has been previously reported to show immunosuppressive activities. Here, we report that CT20126 also shows potential anticancer effects via an unusual mechanism: the modulation of microtubule integrity and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase before apoptosis. When we treated COS-7 cells with CT20126 (5 μM), the normal thread-like microtubules were disrupted into tubulin dimers within 10 min and thereafter repolymerized into short, thick filaments. In contrast, cells treated with the same concentration of colchicine exhibited microtubule depolymerization after 20 min and never underwent repolymerization. Furthermore, optical density (OD) analysis (350 nm) with purified tubulin showed that CT20126 had a higher repolymerizing activity than that of Taxol, a potent microtubule-polymerizing agent. These results suggest that the effects of CT20126 on microtubule integrity differ from those of colchicine: the analog first destabilizes microtubules and then stabilizes the disrupted tubulins into short, thick polymers. Furthermore, CT20126 induced a greater level of apoptotic activity in Jurkat T cells than colchicine (assessed by G2/M arrest, caspase-3 activation and cell sorting). At 20 nM, CT20126 induced 47% apoptosis among Jurkat T cells, whereas colchicine induced only 33% apoptosis. Our results suggest that the colchicine analog CT20126 can potently induce apoptosis by disrupting microtubule integrity in a manner that differs from that of colchicine or Taxol.
- ISG15: leading a double life as a secreted molecule. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e18.
ISG15 is a well-known intracellular ubiquitin-like molecule involved in ISGylation. However, a recent study has revived the notion first put forward two decades ago that ISG15 is also a secreted molecule. Human neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes can release ISG15, even though this protein has no detectable signal peptide sequence. ISG15 has also been found in the secretory granules of granulocytes. The mechanism underlying ISG15 secretion is unknown. Secreted ISG15 acts on at least T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, in which it induces interferon (IFN)-γ production. However, the mechanism by which ISG15 stimulates these cells also remains unclear. ISG15 and IFN-γ seem to define an innate circuit that operates preferentially, but not exclusively, between granulocytes and NK cells. Inherited ISG15 deficiency is associated with severe mycobacterial disease in both mice and humans. This infectious phenotype probably results from the lack of secreted ISG15, because patients and mice with other inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity also display mycobacterial diseases. In addition to raising mechanistic issues, the studies described here pave the way for clinical studies of various aspects, ranging from the use of recombinant ISG15 in patients with infectious diseases to the use of ISG15-blocking agents in patients with inflammatory diseases.
- Glyceollins, a novel class of soybean phytoalexins, inhibit SCF-induced melanogenesis through attenuation of SCF/c-kit downstream signaling pathways. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e17.
The anti-melanogenesis effect of glyceollins was examined by melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity assay in zebrafish embryos and in B16F10 melanoma cells. When developing zebrafish embryos were treated with glyceollins, pigmentation of the embryos, melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity were all decreased compared with control zebrafish embryos. In situ expression of a pigment cell-specific gene, Sox10, was dramatically decreased by glyceollin treatment in the neural tubes of the trunk region of the embryos. Stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit signaling pathways as well as expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were determined by western blot analysis. Glyceollins inhibited melanin synthesis, as well as the expression and activity of tyrosinase induced by SCF, in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 melanoma cells. Pretreatment of B16F10 cells with glyceollins dose-dependently inhibited SCF-induced c-kit and Akt phosphorylation. Glyceollins significantly impaired the expression and activity of MITF. An additional inhibitory function of glyceollins was to effectively downregulate intracellular cyclic AMP levels stimulated by SCF in B16F10 cells. Glyceollins have a depigmentation/whitening activity in vitro and in vivo, and that this effect may be due to the inhibition of SCF-induced c-kit and tyrosinase activity through the blockade of downstream signaling pathway.
- Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α negatively regulates nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e16.
Neurite outgrowth, a cell differentiation process involving membrane morphological changes, is critical for neuronal network and development. The membrane lipid, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), is a key regulator of many important cell surface events of membrane signaling, trafficking and dynamics. This lipid is produced mainly by the type I PI 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) family members. In this study, we addressed whether PIP5Kα, an isoform of PIP5K, could have a role in neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). For this purpose, we knocked down PIP5Kα in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells by stable expression of PIP5Kα microRNA that significantly reduced PIP5Kα expression and PIP2 level. Interestingly, NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was more prominent in PIP5Kα-knockdown (KD) cells than in control cells. Conversely, add-back of PIP5Kα into PIP5Kα KD cells abrogated the effect of NGF on neurite outgrowth. NGF treatment activated PI 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which seemed to be associated with reactive oxygen species generation. Similar to the changes in neurite outgrowth, the PI3K/Akt activation by NGF was potentiated by PIP5Kα KD, but was attenuated by the reintroduction of PIP5Kα. Moreover, exogenously applied PIP2 to PIP5Kα KD cells also suppressed Akt activation by NGF. Together, our results suggest that PIP5Kα acts as a negative regulator of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in PC12 cells.
- G protein signaling in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e15.
The parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic colitis and systemic amebiasis. Among the known amebic factors contributing to pathogenesis are signaling pathways involving heterotrimeric and Ras superfamily G proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge of the roles of heterotrimeric G protein subunits, Ras, Rho and Rab GTPase families in E. histolytica pathogenesis, as well as of their downstream signaling effectors and nucleotide cycle regulators. Heterotrimeric G protein signaling likely modulates amebic motility and attachment to and killing of host cells, in part through activation of an RGS-RhoGEF (regulator of G protein signaling-Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor) effector. Rho family GTPases, as well as RhoGEFs and Rho effectors (formins and p21-activated kinases) regulate the dynamic actin cytoskeleton of E. histolytica and associated pathogenesis-related cellular processes, such as migration, invasion, phagocytosis and evasion of the host immune response by surface receptor capping. A remarkably large family of 91 Rab GTPases has multiple roles in a complex amebic vesicular trafficking system required for phagocytosis and pinocytosis and secretion of known virulence factors, such as amebapores and cysteine proteases. Although much remains to be discovered, recent studies of G protein signaling in E. histolytica have enhanced our understanding of parasitic pathogenesis and have also highlighted possible targets for pharmacological manipulation.
- A genetic effect of IL-5 receptor α polymorphism in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. [Journal Article]
- Exp Mol Med 2013.:e14.
Persistent eosinophil activation in both the upper and lower airway mucosa is a central feature of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Eosinophil activation and survival are profoundly influenced by interleukin 5 (IL-5) and its receptor, IL-5R. In patients susceptible to allergic disorders, IL-5 receptor α (IL5RA) polymorphisms have been reported; however, an association with AERD remains unclear. We hypothesize that IL5RA polymorphisms may contribute to eosinophil activation in AERD patients. We recruited 139 AERD patients, 171 aspirin-tolerant asthma patients and 160 normal controls. IL5RA polymorphisms (-5993G>A, -5567C>G and -5091G>A) were genotyped and functional activity of polymorphism was assessed by luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). There was no significant difference in the genotype frequency of the three polymorphisms among the three groups. AERD patients carrying the AA genotype at -5993G>A had a significantly higher presence of serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to staphylococcal enterotoxin A (P=0.008) than those with the GG/GA genotype. In vitro, the -5993A allele had a higher promoter activity compared with the -5993G allele in human mast cell (HMC-1; P=0.030) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60; P=0.013) cells. In EMSA, a -5993A probe produced a specific shifted band than the -5993G had. These findings suggest that a functional polymorphism in IL5RA may contribute to eosinophil and mast cell activation along with specific IgE responses to staphylococcal enterotoxin A in AERD patients.