(Experimental neurology[TA]) articles in PubMed
- Impairment of decision making associated with disruption of phase-locking in the anterior cingulate cortex in viscerally hypersensitive rats. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 21EN
- Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in ...
Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in VH rats, which can be observed up to 7weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colonic inflammation. The induction of VH produces a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity at the ACC circuitry. In clinical practice, a positive link between IBS and cognitive impairments has been noted for years, but no animal model has been reported. Decision-making is a valuable model for monitoring higher-order cognitive functions in animals, which depends on the integrated function of several sub-regions of the ACC and amygdala. Using rat gambling task (RGT) in the present study, we observed an impairment of decision-making behavior in VH rats. Electrophysiological study showed a reduction of long-term potentiation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-ACC synapses in VH rats. Multiple-electrode array recordings of local field potential (LFP) in both BLA and ACC were also performed in freely behaving rats. Spike-field coherence (SFC) analysis revealed chronic visceral pain led to disruption of ACC spike timing and BLA local theta oscillation. Finally, cross-correlation analysis revealed that VH was associated with suppressed synchronization of theta oscillation between the BLA and ACC, indicating reduced neuronal communications between these two regions under the VH state. The present results demonstrate that functional disturbances in BLA-ACC neural circuitry may be relevant causes for the deficits in decision-making in chronic pain state.
- Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 19EN
- Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed ...
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos(+) D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos(+) non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD.
- Progressive gene dose-dependent disruption of the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator-driven rhythms in a knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 16EN
- Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor and cognitive deficits, as well as sleep and circadian abnormalities. In the R6/2 mouse, a fragmen...
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor and cognitive deficits, as well as sleep and circadian abnormalities. In the R6/2 mouse, a fragment model of HD, rest-activity rhythms controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus disintegrate completely by 4months of age. Rhythms driven by a second circadian oscillator, the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO), are disrupted even earlier, and cannot be induced after 2months of age. Here, we studied the effect of the HD mutation on the expression of MASCO-driven rhythms in a more slowly developing, genetically relevant mouse model of HD, the Q175 'knock-in' mouse. We induced expression of MASCO output by administering low dose methamphetamine (0.005%) chronically via the drinking water. We measured locomotor activity in constant darkness in wild-type and Q175 mice at 2 (presymptomatic), 6 (early symptomatic), and 12 (symptomatic) months of age. At 2months, all mice expressed MASCO-driven rhythms, regardless of genotype. At older ages, however, there was a progressive gene dose-dependent deficit in MASCO output in Q175 mice. At 6months of age, these rhythms could be observed in only 45% of heterozygous and 15% of homozygous mice. By 1year of age, 90% of homozygous mice had an impaired MASCO output. There was also an age-dependent disruption of MASCO output seen in wild-type mice. The fact that the progressive deficit in MASCO-driven rhythms in Q175 mice is HD gene dose-dependent suggests that, whatever its role in humans, abnormalities in MASCO output may contribute to the HD circadian phenotype.
- A new model of nerve injury in the rat reveals a role of Regulator of G protein Signaling 4 in tactile hypersensitivity. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 15; 286:1-11EN
- Tactile hypersensitivity is one of the most debilitating symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Clinical studies have suggested that its presence at early postoperative stages may predict chronic (n...
Tactile hypersensitivity is one of the most debilitating symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Clinical studies have suggested that its presence at early postoperative stages may predict chronic (neuropathic) pain after surgery. Currently available animal models are typically associated with consistent tactile hypersensitivity and are therefore limited to distinguish between mechanisms that underlie tactile hypersensitivity as opposed to mechanisms that protect against it. In this study we have modified the rat model of spared nerve injury, restricting the surgical lesion to a single peripheral branch of the sciatic nerve. This modification reduced the prevalence of tactile hypersensitivity from nearly 100% to approximately 50%. With this model, we here also demonstrated that the Regulator of G protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) was specifically up-regulated in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn of rats developing tactile hypersensitivity. Intrathecal delivery of the RGS4 inhibitor CCG63802 was found to reverse tactile hypersensitivity for a 1h period. Moreover, tactile hypersensitivity after modified spared nerve injury was most frequently persistent for at least four weeks and associated with higher reactivity of glial cells in the lumbar dorsal horn. Based on these data we suggest that this new animal model of nerve injury represents an asset in understanding divergent neuropathic pain outcomes, so far unravelling a role of RGS4 in tactile hypersensitivity. Whether this model also holds promise in the study of the transition from acute to chronic pain will have to be seen in future investigations.
- Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive sensitization. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 15; 285(Pt A):82-95EN
- Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to...
Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect. In spinally transected rats, noxious electrical stimulation and inflammation induce enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR), a behavioral index of nociceptive sensitization. Pretreatment with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline blocked these effects. Peripheral application of an irritant (capsaicin) also induced EMR. Both the induction and maintenance of this effect were blocked by bicuculline. Cellular indices of central sensitization [c-fos expression and ERK phosphorylation (pERK)] were also attenuated. In intact (sham operated) rats, bicuculline had the opposite effect. Pretreatment with a GABA agonist (muscimol) attenuated nociceptive sensitization in intact, but not spinally injured, rats. The effect of SCI on GABA function was linked to a reduction in the Cl(-) transporter, KCC2, leading to a reduction in intracellular Cl(-) that would attenuate GABA-mediated inhibition. Pharmacologically blocking the KCC2 channel (with i.t. DIOA) in intact rats mimicked the effect of SCI. Conversely, a pharmacological treatment (bumetanide) that should increase intracellular Cl(-) levels blocked the effect of SCI. The results suggest that GABAergic neurons drive, rather than inhibit, the development of nociceptive sensitization after spinal injury.
- Chronic mild stress accelerates the progression of Parkinson's disease in A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 13; 285(Pt A):61-71EN
- Daily stress is associated with increased risk for various diseases, and numerous studies have provided evidence that environmental stress leads to deleterious effects on the central nervous system. ...
Daily stress is associated with increased risk for various diseases, and numerous studies have provided evidence that environmental stress leads to deleterious effects on the central nervous system. However, it remains unclear whether chronic stress exacerbates the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate this hypothesis, we determined the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) on the pathogenesis of PD in a transgenic mice line that overexpresses the human A53T mutant α-synuclein (A53T Tg mice). We show that when exposed to CMS, male, but not female, A53T Tg mice developed profound motor disabilities and exhibited olfactory sensitivity deficits. Pathological analysis also identified robust dopaminergic neuron degeneration and strong reduction of dopamine levels in A53T Tg male mice who underwent CMS treatment. Systematic examination of the abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein revealed a profound increase of inclusion in A53T Tg male mice subject to CMS resembling key pathological changes of PD. An insight into the mechanism underlying stress leading to the acceleration of neurodegeneration in those with genetic susceptibility, was revealed by evidence of microglia activation and elevated pro-inflammatory factor levels in A53T Tg male mice following CMS. Notably, these effects of CMS on the pathogenesis of PD showed a remarkable sexual dimorphism: only male A53T Tg mice exhibited exacerbation of the progression of PD. However, the molecular and cellular bases for this difference remains to be elucidated. Our results indicate a causative role for chronic mild stress using a PD animal model. Based on these findings, we propose that CMS acts as an environmental risk factor that leads to neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration on a background of PD susceptibility.
- Activation of LILRB2 signal pathway in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and in a pilocarpine induced epilepsy model. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 13; 285(Pt A):51-60EN
- Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a frequent form of focal intractable epilepsy in adults, but the specific mechanism underlying the epileptogenesis of TLE is still unknown. Human leukocyte immunoglobu...
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a frequent form of focal intractable epilepsy in adults, but the specific mechanism underlying the epileptogenesis of TLE is still unknown. Human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2 (LILRB2) (the murine homolog gene called paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B, or PirB), participates in the process of synaptic plasticity and neurite growth in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a potential role of LILRB2 in epilepsy. However, the expression pattern of LILRB2 and the downstream molecular signal in intractable TLE remains poorly understood. In the present study, western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed that LILRB2 expression was upregulated in the temporal neocortex of patients with TLE. Moreover, protein levels of LILRB2 negatively correlated with the frequency of seizures in TLE patients. In the pilocarpine-induced C57BL/6 mouse model, PirB upregulation in the hippocampus began 12h after status epilepticus (SE), reached a peak at 7days and then maintained a significantly high level until day 60. Similarly, we found a remarkable increase in PirB expression at 1day, 7days and30days post-SE in the temporal cortex. Double-labeled immunofluorescence showed that LILRB2/PirB were highly expressed in neurons and astrocytes but not microglia. In addition, protein levels of POSH, SHROOM3, ROCK1 and ROCK2, the important downstream factors of the LILRB2 pathway, were significantly increased in the epileptic foci of TLE patients and located on the NeuN-positive neurons and GFAP-positive astrocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that LILRB2/PirB may be involved in the process of TLE.
- α-Synuclein pre-formed fibrils impair tight junction protein expression without affecting cerebral endothelial cell function. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 12; 285(Pt A):72-81EN
- Recently it has been shown that there is impaired cerebral endothelial function in many chronic neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Such problems have also bee...
Recently it has been shown that there is impaired cerebral endothelial function in many chronic neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Such problems have also been reported in Parkinson's disease, in which α-synuclein aggregation is the pathological hallmark. However, little is known about the relationship between misfolded α-synuclein and endothelial function. In the present study, we therefore examined whether α-synuclein preformed fibrils affect endothelial function in vitro. Using a well-established endothelial cell model, we found that the expression of tight junction proteins, in particular zona occludens-1 and occludin, was significantly perturbed in the presence of fibril-seeded neurotoxicity. Disrupted expression of these proteins was also found in the postmortem brains of patients dying with Parkinson's disease. There was though little evidence in vitro of functional impairments in endothelial cell function in terms of transendothelial electrical resistance and permeability. This study therefore shows for the first time that misfolded α-synuclein can interact and affect the cerebral endothelial system, although its relevance to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease remains to be elucidated.
- MHC-I promotes apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn and contributes to cancer induced bone pain. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 13; 286:12-20EN
- Cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) remains one of the most intractable clinical problems due to poor understanding of its underlying mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrate the decline of inhibitory inte...
Cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) remains one of the most intractable clinical problems due to poor understanding of its underlying mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrate the decline of inhibitory interneurons, especially GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord, can evoke generation of chronic pain. It has also been reported that neuronal MHC-I expression renders neurons vulnerable to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and finally lead to neurons apoptosis in a variety neurological disorders. However, whether MHC-I could induce the apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in spinal cord and contribute to the development of CIBP remains unknown. In this study, we investigated roles of MHC-I and underlying mechanisms in CIBP on a rat model. Our results showed that increased MHC-I expression on GABAergic interneurons could deplete GABAergic interneurons by inducing their apoptosis in the spinal dorsal horn of tumor-bearing rats. Pretreatment of MHC-I RNAi-lentivirus could prevent the apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons and therefore alleviated mechanical allodynia induced by tumor cells intratibial injection. Additionally, we also found that CD8(+) T cells were colocalized with MHC-I and GABAergic neurons and presented a significant and persistent increase in the spinal cord of tumor-bearing rats. Taken together, these findings indicated that MHC-I could evoke CIBP by promoting apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in the dorsal horn, and this apoptosis was closely related to local CD8(+) T cells.
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- Role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels in visceral nociception and hypersensitivity. [Journal Article]
- Exp Neurol 2016 Sep 9; 285(Pt A):41-50EN
- Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel. TRPM2 contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory and neur...
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel. TRPM2 contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that TRPM2 is important for visceral nociception and the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of TRPM2 channels and their involvement in visceral nociception in normal physiology and under pathological conditions that cause visceral hypersensitivity in rats. TRPM2 immunoreactivities were detected in the mucosa and muscle layer of the rat gastrointestinal tract. TRPM2 immunopositive cell bodies were almost completely co-localized with calretinin- and NeuN-positive cells in the myenteric plexus. We found that the majority of the TRPM2-immunoreactive cells were double-labeled with the retrograde marker fluorogold in lumbar 6/sacral 1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), indicating that TRPM2 is expressed in spinal primary afferents innervating the distal colon. Subtypes of TRPM2-immunopositive DRG neurons were labeled by the A-fiber marker NF200, the C-fiber marker IB4, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or P2X3 receptor. We found that oral administration of the TRPM2 inhibitor econazole (30mg/kg) reduced the visceromotor response (VMR) to noxious colorectal distention (CRD) at 80mmHg in control rats. Expression of TRPM2 in the mucosa of the distal colon was increased in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis model. The VMR to CRD significantly increased in colitis model rats compared with control rats at 40, 60, and 80mmHg. Econazole restored visceral hypersensitivity to the control level. Furthermore, TRPM2-deficient mice showed significantly attenuated trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, TRPM2 channels contribute to visceral nociception in response to noxious stimuli under normal conditions and visceral hypersensitivity in pathological conditions.