- Short- and long-term dopamine depletion causes enhanced beta oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia loop of parkinsonian rats. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Oct 12; 286:124-136
- Abnormally enhanced beta oscillations have been found in deep brain recordings from human Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in animal models of PD. Recent correlative evidence suggests that beta ...
Abnormally enhanced beta oscillations have been found in deep brain recordings from human Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in animal models of PD. Recent correlative evidence suggests that beta oscillations are related to disease-specific symptoms such as akinesia and rigidity. However, this hypothesis has also been repeatedly questioned by studies showing no changes in beta power in animal models using an acute pharmacologic dopamine blockade. To further investigate the temporal dynamics of exaggerated beta synchrony in PD, we investigated the reserpine model, which is characterized by an acute and stable disruption of dopamine transmission, and compared it to the chronic progressive 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model. Using simultaneous electrophysiological recordings in urethane anesthetized rats from the primary motor cortex, the subthalamic nucleus and the reticulate part of the substantia, we found evidence for enhanced beta oscillations in the basal ganglia of both animal models during the activated network state. In contrast to 6-OHDA, reserpine treated animals showed no involvement of primary motor cortex. Notably, beta coherence levels between primary motor cortex and basal ganglia nuclei were elevated in both models. Although both models exhibited elevated beta power and coherence levels, they differed substantially in respect to their mean peak frequency: while the 6-OHDA peak was located in the low beta range (17Hz), the reserpine peak was centered at higher beta frequencies (27Hz). Our results further support the hypothesis of an important pathophysiological relation between enhanced beta activity and akinesia in parkinsonism.
- Blast waves from detonated military explosive reduce GluR1 and synaptophysin levels in hippocampal slice cultures. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Oct 5; 286:107-115
- Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated wit...
Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1.7-gram assemblies of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) were detonated 15cm outside the tank, creating a distinct shockwave recorded at the culture plate position. Compared to control mock-treated groups of slices that received equal submerge time, 1-3 blast impacts caused a dose-dependent reduction in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1. While only a small reduction was found in hippocampal slices exposed to a single RDX blast and harvested 1-2days later, slices that received two consecutive RDX blasts 4min apart exhibited a 26-40% reduction in GluR1, and the receptor subunit was further reduced by 64-72% after three consecutive blasts. Such loss correlated with increased levels of HDAC2, a histone deacetylase implicated in stress-induced reduction of glutamatergic transmission. No evidence of synaptic marker recovery was found at 72h post-blast. The presynaptic marker synaptophysin was found to have similar susceptibility as GluR1 to the multiple explosive detonations. In contrast to the synaptic protein reductions, actin levels were unchanged, spectrin breakdown was not detected, and Fluoro-Jade B staining found no indication of degenerating neurons in slices exposed to three RDX blasts, suggesting that small, sub-lethal explosives are capable of producing selective alterations to synaptic integrity. Together, these results indicate that blast waves from military explosive cause signs of synaptic compromise without producing severe neurodegeneration, perhaps explaining the cognitive and behavioral changes in those blast-induced TBI sufferers that have no detectable neuropathology.
- Neuronal prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 deficiency improves cognitive abilities in a murine model of cerebral hypoperfusion. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Oct 5; 286:93-106
- Episodes of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia increase the risk of dementia, which is associated with impaired learning and memory. Previous studies in rodent models of dementia indicated a favorable effect ...
Episodes of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia increase the risk of dementia, which is associated with impaired learning and memory. Previous studies in rodent models of dementia indicated a favorable effect of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and erythropoietin (Epo). In the present study we thus investigated whether activation of the entire adaptive HIF pathway in neurons by cell-specific deletion of the HIF suppressor prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) improves cognitive abilities in young (3months) and old (18-28months) mice suffering from chronic brain hypoperfusion. Mice underwent permanent occlusion of the left common carotid artery, and cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water navigation task. Under conditions of both normal and decreased brain perfusion, neuronal PHD2 deficiency resulted in improved and faster spatial learning in young mice, which was preserved to some extent also in old animals. The loss of PHD2 in neurons resulted in enhanced hippocampal mRNA and protein levels of Epo and VEGF, but did not alter local microvascular density, dendritic spine morphology, or expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes in the hippocampus. Instead, better cognitive function in PHD2 deficient animals was accompanied by an increased number of neuronal precursor cells along the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Overall, our current pre-clinical findings indicate an important role for the endogenous oxygen sensing machinery, encompassing PHDs, HIFs and HIF target genes, for proper cognitive function. Thus, pharmacological compounds affecting the PHD-HIF axis might well be suited to treat cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative processes.
- Differential induction of dyskinesia and neuroinflammation by pulsatile versus continuous l-DOPA delivery in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Sep 30; 286:83-92
- Neuroinflammation is associated with l-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting a role in l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), however it is unclear whether increased inflammation is specif...
Neuroinflammation is associated with l-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting a role in l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), however it is unclear whether increased inflammation is specifically related to the dyskinetic outcome of l-DOPA treatment. Diversely from oral l-DOPA, continuous intrajejunal l-DOPA infusion is associated with very low dyskinetic outcome in PD patients. We reproduced these regimens of administration in 6-OHDA-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats, where dyskinetic responses and striatal neuroinflammation induced by chronic pulsatile (DOPAp) or continuous (DOPAc) l-DOPA were compared. Moreover, we investigated the contribution of a peripheral inflammatory challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to DOPAp-induced dyskinetic and neuroinflammatory responses. Rats 6-OHDA-infused in the medial forebrain bundle received two weeks treatment with DOPAp, DOPAc via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps, or DOPAp followed by DOPAc. l-DOPA plasma levels were measured in all experimental groups. An independent group of rats received one peripheral dose of LPS 24h before DOPAp treatment. Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) were evaluated as a rat model of LID. Immunoreactivity (IR) for OX-42, microglial and neuronal TNF-α, iNOS and GFAP was quantified in denervated and contralateral striatum. In addition, serum TNF-α was measured. The 6-OHDA denervation induced a mild microgliosis in the striatum two weeks after neurotoxin infusion, and increased TNF-α IR in microglia. Rats receiving the DOPAp treatment developed AIMs and displayed increased striatal OX-42, microglial TNF-α, iNOS and GFAP. Moreover, TNF-α IR was also increased in a subpopulation of striatal neurons. Conversely, DOPAc did not induce AIMs or inflammatory responses in either drug-naïve animals or rats that were previously dyskinetic when exposed to DOPAp. Serum TNF-α was not altered by any l-DOPA treatment. LPS pre-treatment increased the degree of DOPAp-induced AIMs and striatal IR for OX-42, TNF-α, iNOS and GFAP. Altogether the present findings indicate that in the 6-OHDA model, chronic l-DOPA induces striatal inflammatory responses, which however depend upon the administration regimen and the dyskinetic outcome of drug treatment. The potentiation of dyskinetic responses by LPS suggests a reciprocal causal link between neuroinflammation and LID.
- Abbreviated environmental enrichment confers neurobehavioral, cognitive, and histological benefits in brain-injured female rats. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Sep 28; 286:61-68
- Environmental enrichment (EE) promotes behavioral recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the chronic rehabilitation provided in the laboratory is not analogous to the clin...
Environmental enrichment (EE) promotes behavioral recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the chronic rehabilitation provided in the laboratory is not analogous to the clinic where physiotherapy is typically limited. Moreover, females make up approximately 40% of the clinical TBI population, yet they are seldom studied in brain trauma. Hence, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that abbreviated EE would confer neurobehavioral, cognitive, and histological benefits in brain injured female rats. Anesthetized rats received a cortical impact of moderate-to-severe injury (2.8mm tissue deformation at 4m/s) or sham surgery and then were randomly assigned to groups receiving standard (STD) housing or 4h, 6h, or 24h of EE daily. Motor function (beam-balance/walk and rotarod) was assessed on post-operative days 1-5 and every other day from 1 to 19, respectively. Spatial learning/memory (Morris water maze) was evaluated on days 14-19, and cortical lesion volume was quantified on day 21. No statistical differences were appreciated among the sham controls in any assessment and thus the data were pooled. All EE conditions improved motor function and memory retention, but only 6h and 24h enhanced spatial learning relative to STD (p<0.05). Moreover, EE, regardless of duration reduced cortical lesion volume (p<0.05). These data confirm that abbreviated EE confers robust neurobehavioral, cognitive, and histological benefits in TBI female rats, which supports the hypothesis and strengthens the utility of EE as a pre-clinical model of neurorehabilitation.
- Myeloid-derived suppressor cells expressing a self-antigen ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Sep 28; 286:50-60
- Previous work by our group showed that transferring bone marrow cells transduced with a self-antigen induced immune tolerance and ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model ...
Previous work by our group showed that transferring bone marrow cells transduced with a self-antigen induced immune tolerance and ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We also found that following retroviral transduction of murine bone marrow (BM) cells, the majority of cells generated and transduced were myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Here, we aimed to determine whether purified antigen-expressing MDSCs have similar therapeutic effects than those of unfractionated BM, and to investigate their potential mechanisms. We performed phenotypic and functional analyses in these cells using the same animal model, and we used purified antigen-expressing MDSCs in preventive and therapeutic approaches. These cells exerted therapeutic effects similar to those of BM cells, which depended upon self-antigen expression. The majority of monocytic (M)-MDSCs expressed the immunosuppressive molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules. Additionally, the animals infused with antigen-expressing cells exhibited lower percentages of activated T cells and higher percentages of B cells with a regulatory phenotype (B220(+)CD1d(high) CD5(+)) in the spleen than their respective controls. MDSCs expressing self-antigens, alloantigens or therapeutic transgenes are tolerogenic and can be exploited therapeutically in autoimmune diseases, transplantation and in gene therapy, respectively.
- Impairment of decision making associated with disruption of phase-locking in the anterior cingulate cortex in viscerally hypersensitive rats. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Sep 21; 286:21-31
- Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in ...
Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in VH rats, which can be observed up to 7weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colonic inflammation. The induction of VH produces a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity at the ACC circuitry. In clinical practice, a positive link between IBS and cognitive impairments has been noted for years, but no animal model has been reported. Decision-making is a valuable model for monitoring higher-order cognitive functions in animals, which depends on the integrated function of several sub-regions of the ACC and amygdala. Using rat gambling task (RGT) in the present study, we observed an impairment of decision-making behavior in VH rats. Electrophysiological study showed a reduction of long-term potentiation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-ACC synapses in VH rats. Multiple-electrode array recordings of local field potential (LFP) in both BLA and ACC were also performed in freely behaving rats. Spike-field coherence (SFC) analysis revealed chronic visceral pain led to disruption of ACC spike timing and BLA local theta oscillation. Finally, cross-correlation analysis revealed that VH was associated with suppressed synchronization of theta oscillation between the BLA and ACC, indicating reduced neuronal communications between these two regions under the VH state. The present results demonstrate that functional disturbances in BLA-ACC neural circuitry may be relevant causes for the deficits in decision-making in chronic pain state.
- Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Sep 19; 286:32-39
- Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed ...
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos(+) D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos(+) non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD.
- Progressive gene dose-dependent disruption of the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator-driven rhythms in a knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Sep 16; 286:69-82
- Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor and cognitive deficits, as well as sleep and circadian abnormalities. In the R6/2 mouse, a fragmen...
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor and cognitive deficits, as well as sleep and circadian abnormalities. In the R6/2 mouse, a fragment model of HD, rest-activity rhythms controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus disintegrate completely by 4months of age. Rhythms driven by a second circadian oscillator, the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO), are disrupted even earlier, and cannot be induced after 2months of age. Here, we studied the effect of the HD mutation on the expression of MASCO-driven rhythms in a more slowly developing, genetically relevant mouse model of HD, the Q175 'knock-in' mouse. We induced expression of MASCO output by administering low dose methamphetamine (0.005%) chronically via the drinking water. We measured locomotor activity in constant darkness in wild-type and Q175 mice at 2 (presymptomatic), 6 (early symptomatic), and 12 (symptomatic) months of age. At 2months, all mice expressed MASCO-driven rhythms, regardless of genotype. At older ages, however, there was a progressive gene dose-dependent deficit in MASCO output in Q175 mice. At 6months of age, these rhythms could be observed in only 45% of heterozygous and 15% of homozygous mice. By 1year of age, 90% of homozygous mice had an impaired MASCO output. There was also an age-dependent disruption of MASCO output seen in wild-type mice. The fact that the progressive deficit in MASCO-driven rhythms in Q175 mice is HD gene dose-dependent suggests that, whatever its role in humans, abnormalities in MASCO output may contribute to the HD circadian phenotype.
New Search Next
- A new model of nerve injury in the rat reveals a role of Regulator of G protein Signaling 4 in tactile hypersensitivity. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Sep 15; 286:1-11
- Tactile hypersensitivity is one of the most debilitating symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Clinical studies have suggested that its presence at early postoperative stages may predict chronic (n...
Tactile hypersensitivity is one of the most debilitating symptoms of neuropathic pain syndromes. Clinical studies have suggested that its presence at early postoperative stages may predict chronic (neuropathic) pain after surgery. Currently available animal models are typically associated with consistent tactile hypersensitivity and are therefore limited to distinguish between mechanisms that underlie tactile hypersensitivity as opposed to mechanisms that protect against it. In this study we have modified the rat model of spared nerve injury, restricting the surgical lesion to a single peripheral branch of the sciatic nerve. This modification reduced the prevalence of tactile hypersensitivity from nearly 100% to approximately 50%. With this model, we here also demonstrated that the Regulator of G protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) was specifically up-regulated in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn of rats developing tactile hypersensitivity. Intrathecal delivery of the RGS4 inhibitor CCG63802 was found to reverse tactile hypersensitivity for a 1h period. Moreover, tactile hypersensitivity after modified spared nerve injury was most frequently persistent for at least four weeks and associated with higher reactivity of glial cells in the lumbar dorsal horn. Based on these data we suggest that this new animal model of nerve injury represents an asset in understanding divergent neuropathic pain outcomes, so far unravelling a role of RGS4 in tactile hypersensitivity. Whether this model also holds promise in the study of the transition from acute to chronic pain will have to be seen in future investigations.