- Evolutionary perspectives: Introduction to the special issue on Axon Regeneration Across Species. [Editorial]
- ENExp Neurol 2017; 287(Pt 3):299
- Neurotoxic mechanisms of paclitaxel are local to the distal axon and independent of transport defects. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 26; 288:153-166
- Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents. Paclitaxel binds and stabilizes microtubules, but the cellular mechan...
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents. Paclitaxel binds and stabilizes microtubules, but the cellular mechanisms that underlie paclitaxel's neurotoxic effects are not well understood. We therefore used primary cultures of adult murine dorsal root ganglion neurons, the cell type affected in patients, to examine leading hypotheses to explain paclitaxel neurotoxicity. We address the role of microtubule hyperstabilization and its downstream effects. Paclitaxel administered at 10-50nM for 1-3days induced retraction bulbs at the tips of axons and arrested axon growth without triggering axon fragmentation or cell death. By correlating the toxic effects and microtubule stabilizing activity of structurally different microtubule stabilizing compounds, we confirmed that microtubule hyperstabilization, rather than an off-target effect, is the likely primary cause of paclitaxel neurotoxicity. We examined potential downstream consequences of microtubule hyperstabilization and found that changes in levels of tubulin posttranslational modifications, although present after paclitaxel exposure, are not implicated in the paclitaxel neurotoxicity we observed in the cultures. Additionally, defects in axonal transport were not implicated as an early, causative mechanism of paclitaxel's toxic effects on dorsal root ganglion neurons. By using microfluidic chambers to selectively treat different parts of the axon with paclitaxel, we found that the distal axon was primarily vulnerable to paclitaxel, indicating that paclitaxel acts directly on the distal axon to induce degenerative effects. Together, our findings point to local effects of microtubule hyperstabilization on the distal-most portion of the axon as an early mediator of paclitaxel neurotoxicity. Because sensory neurons have a unique and ongoing requirement for distal growth in order to reinnervate the epidermis as it turns over, we propose that the ability of paclitaxel to arrest their growth accounts for the selective vulnerability of sensory neurons to paclitaxel neurotoxicity.
- Mitochondrial cristae remodelling is associated with disrupted OPA1 oligomerisation in the Huntington's disease R6/2 fragment model. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 23; 288:167-175
- There is evidence of an imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and HD animal models. Fission and fusion are important for mitochondrial homeostasis i...
There is evidence of an imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and HD animal models. Fission and fusion are important for mitochondrial homeostasis including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance and may be relevant for the selective striatal mtDNA depletion that we observed in the R6/2 fragment HD mouse model. We aimed to investigate the fission/fusion balance and the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane system in cortex and striatum of end-stage R6/2 mice and wild-type animals. Mitochondrial morphology was determined using electron microscopy, and transcript and protein levels of factors that play a key role in fission and fusion, including DRP1, mitofusin 1 and 2, mitofilin and OPA1, and cytochrome c and caspase 3 were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. OPA1 oligomerisation was evaluated using blue native gels. In striatum and cortex of R6/2 mice, mitochondrial cristae morphology was abnormal. Mitofilin and the overall levels of the fission and fusion factors were unaffected; however, OPA1 oligomerisation was abnormal in striatum and cortex of R6/2 mice. Mitochondrial and cytoplasmic cytochrome c levels were similar in R6/2 and wild-type mice with no significant increase of activated caspase 3. Our results indicate that the integrity of the mitochondrial cristae is compromised in striatum and cortex of the R6/2 mice and that this is most likely caused by impaired OPA1 oligomerisation.
- Treadmill exercise decreases amyloid-β burden possibly via activation of SIRT-1 signaling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 23; 288:142-152
- Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) correlates significantly with progressive cognitive deficits, a main symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although treadmill exercise reduces Aβ levels, the molecular m...
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) correlates significantly with progressive cognitive deficits, a main symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although treadmill exercise reduces Aβ levels, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects are not fully understood. We hypothesize that treadmill exercise decreases Aβ production and alleviates cognitive deficits by activating the non-amyloidogenic pathway via SIRT-1 signaling. Treadmill exercise improved cognitive deficits and alleviated neurotoxicity. Most importantly, treadmill exercise increased SIRT-1 level, which subsequently resulted in increased ADAM-10 level by down-regulation of ROCK-1 and upregulation of RARβ, ultimately facilitating the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Treadmill exercise-induced activation in SIRT-1 level also elevated PGC-1α level and reduced BACE-1 and C-99 level, resulting in inhibition of the amyloidogenic pathway. Treadmill exercise may thus inhibit Aβ production via upregulation of SIRT-1, which biases amyloid precursor protein processing toward the non-amyloidogenic pathway. This study provides novel and valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms possibly by which treadmill exercise reduces Aβ production.
- Special Issue: Respiratory Neuroplasticity. [Editorial]
- ENExp Neurol 2017; 287(Pt 2):91-92
- iPS-derived neural progenitor cells from PPMS patients reveal defect in myelin injury response. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 16; 288:114-121
- Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) currently lacking any effective treatment. Promoting endogenous brain repair offer...
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) currently lacking any effective treatment. Promoting endogenous brain repair offers a potential strategy to halt and possibly restore neurologic function in PPMS. To understand how the microenvironment within white matter lesions plays a role in repair we have focused on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) since these are found in lesions in PPMS and have been found to influence oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation (OPCs). To better understand the cellular nature of NPCs in PPMS we developed iPS cells from blood samples of PPMS patients and age matched non-disease spouse or blood relative controls. Using these iPS cell lines we determined that the NPCs from PPMS cases provided no neuroprotection against active CNS demyelination compared to NPCs from control iPS lines which were capable of completely preventing injury. Conditioned media (CM) from PPMS NPCs provides no protection to OPCs and prevents maturation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes in vitro. We also found that CM from PPMS iPS NPCs elicited patient-specific differences in the response to compounds that should foster oligodendrocyte (OL) maturation. Together, these data establish a new model for understanding the nature of myelination defects in PPMS which may lead to novel targeted approaches for preventing demyelination in these patients.
- The inhibition of spinal synaptic plasticity mediated by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling alleviates the acute pain induced by oxaliplatin. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 14; 288:85-93
- Our recent findings demonstrated that oxaliplatin entering CNS may directly induce spinal central sensitization, and contribute to the rapid development of CNS-related side effects including acute pa...
Our recent findings demonstrated that oxaliplatin entering CNS may directly induce spinal central sensitization, and contribute to the rapid development of CNS-related side effects including acute pain during chemotherapy. However, the mechanism is largely unclear. In the current study, we found that the amplitude of C-fiber-evoked field potentials was significantly increased and the expression of phosphorylated mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) was markedly decreased following high frequency stimulation (HFS) or single intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin (4mg/kg). Spinal local application of AMPK agonist metformin (25μg) prevented the long term potentiation (LTP) induction and the activation of mTOR/p70S6K signal pathway, and significantly attenuated the acute thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following single oxaliplatin treatment. Importantly, we found that incubation of low concentration oxaliplatin at dose of 6.6nM (the detected concentration in CSF following a single intraperitoneal injection of oxaliplatin) also significantly inhibited the AMPKα activation and increased the amplitude of sEPSCs, the number of action potential, and the expression of p-mTOR and p-p70S6K in spinal cord slices. Metformin (25μg) or rapamycin (2μg) inhibited the increased excitability of dorsal horn neurons and the decrease of p-AMPKα expression induced by low concentration oxaliplatin incubation. Furthermore, spinal application of AMPK inhibitor compound C (5μg) induced the spinal LTP, thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, and rapamycin attenuated the spinal LTP, the thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following oxaliplatin treatment (i.p.). Local application of metformin significantly decreased the mTOR and p70S6K activation induced by tetanus stimulation or oxaliplatin (i.p.). These results suggested that the decreased AMPKα activity via negatively regulating mTOR/p70S6K signal pathway enhanced the synaptic plasticity and contributed to acute pain induced by low concentration of oxaliplatin entering CNS.
- NOX4 is an early initiator of neuropathic pain. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 14; 288:94-103
- Treatment of neuropathic pain remains challenging as the etiology is heterogeneous and pathomechanisms are incompletely understood. One possible mechanism is oxidative stress due to unphysiological r...
Treatment of neuropathic pain remains challenging as the etiology is heterogeneous and pathomechanisms are incompletely understood. One possible mechanism is oxidative stress due to unphysiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The only know dedicated enzymatic source of ROS are NADPH oxidases of which the type 4 isoform (NOX4) has been suggested to be involved in the subacute and chronic phase of neuropathic pain. Here, we aim to translate this finding into a treatment strategy by examining the efficacy of the NOX1/4-specific inhibitor GKT136901 using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) mouse model of neuropathic pain. Unexpectedly, post-nerve lesion treatment using GKT136901 was ineffective to reduce pain-related behavior after CCI. We therefore re-investigated the role of NOX4 using an independent KO mouse model. Early after CCI we found an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS formation and the oxidative stress marker nitrotyrosine in the lesioned nerve together with an upregulated Nox4 gene expression. In NOX4 KO mice, mechanical allodynia was markedly reduced from day 4 after nerve injury as were all ROS related and acute biomarkers. In addition, we observed a reduction in the CCI-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia along with NOX4-deficiency. Thus, we conclude that NOX4 is involved in the development of neuropathic pain states by producing oxidative stress and subsequent cytokine dysregulation at the lesion site. This appears at very early stages immediately after nerve injury explaining ineffectiveness of post-acute pharmacological NOX inhibition. We suggest that future target validation of NOX4 should now focus on defining the possible therapeutic window in human neuropathic pain.
- Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of oxyntomodulin in neuronal cells and a rat model of stroke. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 14; 288:104-113
- Proglucagon-derived peptides, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its long-acting mimetics, have exhibited neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke. Several of these peptides are...
Proglucagon-derived peptides, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its long-acting mimetics, have exhibited neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke. Several of these peptides are in clinical trials for stroke. Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a proglucagon-derived peptide that co-activates the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). The neuroprotective action of OXM, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of OXM was first examined in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells and rat primary cortical neurons. GLP-1R and GCGR antagonists, and inhibitors of various signaling pathways were used in cell culture to characterize the mechanisms of action of OXM. To evaluate translation in vivo, OXM-mediated neuroprotection was assessed in a 60-min, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) rat model of stroke. We found that OXM dose- and time-dependently increased cell viability and protected cells from glutamate toxicity and oxidative stress. These neuroprotective actions of OXM were mainly mediated through the GLP-1R. OXM induced intracellular cAMP production and activated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). Furthermore, inhibition of the PKA and MAPK pathways, but not inhibition of the PI3K pathway, significantly attenuated the OXM neuroprotective actions. Intracerebroventricular administration of OXM significantly reduced cerebral infarct size and improved locomotor activities in MCAo stroke rats. Therefore, we conclude that OXM is neuroprotective against ischemic brain injury. The mechanisms of action involve induction of intracellular cAMP, activation of PKA and MAPK pathways and phosphorylation of CREB.
New Search Next
- Therapeutic potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2016 Nov 13; 288:75-84
- Type-1 Diabetes is generally treated with exogenous insulin administration. Despite treatment, a very common long term consequence of diabetes is the development of a disabling and painful peripheral...
Type-1 Diabetes is generally treated with exogenous insulin administration. Despite treatment, a very common long term consequence of diabetes is the development of a disabling and painful peripheral neuropathy. The transplantation of pancreatic islets is an advanced alternative therapeutic approach, but its clinical application is still very limited, mainly because of the great number of islets required to complete the procedure and of their short-term survival. An intriguing method to improve the performance of pancreatic islets transplantation is the co-transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), adult stem cells already known to support the survival of different cellular populations. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated using an in vivo model of diabetes, the ability of allogenic MSCs to reduce the number of pancreatic islets necessary to achieve glycemic control in diabetic rats, and overall their positive effect on diabetic neuropathy, with the reduction of all the neuropathic signs showed after disease induction. The cutback of the pancreatic islet number required to control glycemia and the regression of the painful neuropathy make MSC co-transplantation a very promising tool to improve the clinical feasibility of pancreatic islet transplantation for diabetes treatment.