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Fa yi xue za zhi [journal]
- Messenger RNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification: research and applications. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):368-74.
Identifying the origin of body fluids left at a crime scene can give a significant insight into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. However, the conventional body fluid identification methods are prone to various limitations, such as time consumption, intensive labor, nonparallel manner, varying degrees of sensitivity and limited specificity. Recently, the analysis of cell-specific messenger RNA expression (mRNA profiling) has been proposed to supplant conventional methods for body fluid identification. Since 2011, the collaborative exercises have been organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the robustness and reproducibility of mRNA profiling for body fluid identification. The major advantages of mRNA profiling, compared to the conventional methods, include higher sensitivity, greater specificity, the ability of detecting several body fluids in one multiplex reaction, and compatibility with current DNA extraction and analysis procedure. In the current review, we provided an overview of the present knowledge and detection methodologies of mRNA profiling for forensic body fluid identification and discussed its possible practical application to forensic casework.
- [Metallothionein-I/II in brain injury repair mechanism and its application in forensic medicine]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):365-7, 377.
Metallothionein (MT) is a kind of metal binding protein. As an important member in metallothionein family, MT-I/II regulates metabolism and detoxication of brain metal ion and scavenges free radicals. It is capable of anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative stress so as to protect the brain tissue. During the repair process of brain injury, the latest study showed that MT-I/II could stimulate brain anti-inflammatory factors, growth factors, neurotrophic factors and the expression of the receptor, and promote the extension of axon of neuron, which makes contribution to the regeneration of neuron and has important effect on the recovery of brain injury. Based on the findings, this article reviews the structure, expression, distribution, adjustion, function, mechanism in the repair of brain injury of MT-I/II and its application prospect in forensic medicine. It could provide a new approach for the design and manufacture of brain injury drugs as well as for age estimation of the brain injury.
- [SNP in differentially methylated region upstream of H19 gene in Chinese Korean nationality]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):360-4.
To investigate SNP and distribution of haplotypes in differentially methylated region (DMR) upstream of H19 gene in Chinese Korean nationality in order to provide basic data for forensic application and population genetics research.One hundred and one blood samples from unrelated Chinese Korean individuals and 14 blood samples from 5 Chinese Korean intergenerational families which known genetic relationship were collected. The SNP in DMR upstream of H19 gene were investigated by PCR-cycle sequencing and McrBC digestion followed by PCR. The haplotypes detected by parentally imprinted allele (PIA) method and relevant genetic parameters were calculated.Thirteen SNPs (rs10840167, rs2525883, rs12417375, rs4930101, rs2525882, rs2735970, rs2735971, rs11042170, rs2735972, rs10732516, rs2071094, rs2107425, and rs4930098) and five haplotypes were detected in 1 174 bp target product in DMR upstream of H19 gene, with 9 SNPs having high discrimination power as good genetic markers. The average gene diversity (GD) of haplotypes was 0.714. The maternal haplotype was confirmed correctly by PIA method from McrBC-digested products of genomic DNA.High polymorphisms exist in DMR upstream of H19 gene in Chinese Korean nationality. And determination of the maternal haplotype could furthermore enhance the forensic identification efficiency of imprinted gene.
- [Comparative analysis between diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):356-9.
To compare and explore the application value of diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method for drowning identification.Forty drowning cases from 2010 to 2011 were collected from Department of Forensic Medicine of Wenzhou Medical University. Samples including lung, kidney, liver and field water from each case were tested with diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method, respectively. The Diatom nitric acid digestion method and plankton 16S rDNA PCR method required 20 g and 2 g of each organ, and 15 mL and 1.5 mL of field water, respectively. The inspection time and detection rate were compared between the two methods.Diatom nitric acid digestion method mainly detected two species of diatoms, Centriae and Pennatae, while plankton 16S rDNA PCR method amplified a length of 162 bp band. The average inspection time of each case of the Diatom nitric acid digestion method was (95.30 +/- 2.78) min less than (325.33 +/- 14.18) min of plankton 16S rDNA PCR method (P < 0.05). The detection rates of two methods for field water and lung were both 100%. For liver and kidney, the detection rate of plankton 16S rDNA PCR method was both 80%, higher than 40% and 30% of diatom nitric acid digestion method (P < 0.05), respectively.The laboratory testing method needs to be appropriately selected according to the specific circumstances in the forensic appraisal of drowning. Compared with diatom nitric acid digestion method, plankton 16S rDNA PCR method has practice values with such advantages as less quantity of samples, huge information and high specificity.
- [Analysis of deaths caused by secondary damages of road traffic accidents: 17 fatal cases]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):353-5.
To explore the forensic identification points of deaths caused by secondary damages of road traffic accidents.Seventeen deaths caused by secondary damages of road traffic accidents were collected. Through scene investigation and necropsy, the basic information of the accidents, distribution and property of the injuries, and other information were collected. According to the collected data, the scene was reconstructed in order to confirm the injury process, analyze the way, mechanism and severity of injury, distinguish antemortem injury from postmortem injury, and determine the cause of deaths.Certain features such as serious injuries, multiple traumas, combined injuries, co-existence of antemortem and postmortem injuries, multiple causes of wounds, complex injury mechanism, as well as the mutual damaging and overlapping injuries were quite characteristically noted in these secondary traffic accident cases.Forensic assessment of deaths caused by secondary damages of road traffic accidents should be synthetically analyzed and judged through scene investigation and necropsy.
- [Gene detection of GPD1-L and the association with sudden unexplained death syndrome in young adults]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):348-52.
To analyze the variations of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 like gene (GPD1-L) and address the association with sudden manhood death syndrome (SMDS).The genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of the SMDS group and the normal control group. The exons, exon-intron boundaries and 3'-UTRs of coding region of GPD1-L were PCR amplified and DNA sequenced directly to confirm the types of variations. The genotype frequency and allele frequency were analyzed statistically.There were two variants in the SMDS group, c.465C>T and c.*18G>T, the latter existed certain degree difference of genotype distribution and allele frequency between the SMDS group and the control group, but there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05).The relation between gene mutation of GPD1-L and the occurrence of Chinese SMDS deserves a further research.
- [Stature estimation for Sichuan Han nationality female based on X-ray technology with measurement of lumbar vertebrae]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):344-7.
To establish the mathematical models of stature estimation for Sichuan Han female with measurement of lumbar vertebrae by X-ray to provide essential data for forensic anthropology research.The samples, 206 Sichuan Han females, were divided into three groups including group A, B and C according to the ages. Group A (206 samples) consisted of all ages, group B (116 samples) were 20-45 years old and 90 samples over 45 years old were group C. All the samples were examined lumbar vertebrae through CR technology, including the parameters of five centrums (L1-L5) as anterior border, posterior border and central heights (x1-x15), total central height of lumbar spine (x16), and the real height of every sample. The linear regression analysis was produced using the parameters to establish the mathematical models of stature estimation. Sixty-two trained subjects were tested to verify the accuracy of the mathematical models.The established mathematical models by hypothesis test of linear regression equation model were statistically significant (P<0.05). The standard errors of the equation were 2.982-5.004 cm, while correlation coefficients were 0.370-0.779 and multiple correlation coefficients were 0.533-0.834. The return tests of the highest correlation coefficient and multiple correlation coefficient of each group showed that the highest accuracy of the multiple regression equation, y = 100.33 + 1.489 x3 - 0.548 x6 + 0.772 x9 + 0.058 x12 + 0.645 x15, in group A were 80.6% (+/- lSE) and 100% (+/- 2SE).The established mathematical models in this study could be applied for the stature estimation for Sichuan Han females.
- [Mathematical models of the teenager's skeletal age evaluation based on CT scan and imaging reconstruction of medial clavicular epiphysis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):340-3.
To explore the correlation between CT volume rendering (VR) statistics and living age and to build the mathematical models for skeletal age evaluation based on the growth rules of medial clavicular epiphysis of teenagers in China.The thin layer CT scan and VR 3D imaging reconstruction of both sides of sternal ends of clavicles were examined for 684 teenagers aged from 15 to 25 in East and South China. The parameters of sternal end of clavicle including the longest diameter of epiphysis, the longest diameter of metaphysis, their length radio, area of epiphysis, area of metaphysic, their area ratio, and other data were measured and calculated in order to establish mathematical models of skeletal age evaluation. Fifty trained subjects were tested to verify the accuracy of the mathematical models.In the same age group, the length ratio and the area ratio had significant difference in genders (P < 0.05). The established mathematical models showed that the growth rules of medial clavicular epiphysis were highly correlated with the living ages. The accuracies of these models were higher than 70.5% +/- 1.0 year) and 82.5% (+/- 1.5 year).The mathematical models have easy operability and high accuracy. It can be used to confirm and sustain the conclusion of atlas method. Meanwhile, it is of great significance to study the other single skeletal age evaluation in the future.
- [Change rules of quantity and species of diatoms in Hunhe River in Shenyang]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):337-9, 343.
To observe the change rules of quantity and species of diatoms in Hunhe River in Shenyang and to provide technology and scientific evidence for drowning identification and the location of drowning in forensic investigation.In 2011, different locations for collecting water samples were chosen in Hunhe River in Shenyang. Water samples were collected and variation of quantity and species of diatoms were observed every month. And variation of dominant species of diatoms was observed every week.The quantity, species and dominant species of diatoms in Hunhe River in Shenyang varied with different time and locations. The quantity and species of diatoms were lowest from December to February and gradually increased, reaching peak in May and second peak in October, and then gradually decreased. The dominant species of diatoms varied significantly adjacent two weeks at same location from April to November, but had little changes at different locations in same week from July to August.The change rules of quantity and species of diatoms are complicated and affected by various factors such as environment and hydrology. The change rules of species and quantity of diatoms should be considered in forensic investigation of drowning identification and the location of drowning.
- [Pathological changes in rats with acute Dysosma versipellis poisoning]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2013 Oct; 29(5):333-6.
To observe the pathological changes of major organs in rats with acute Dysosma versipellis poisoning and investigate the toxic mechanism and the injuries of target tissues and organs.Forty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups, which were given the gavage with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 LDo doses of Dysosma versipellis decoction, and one control group, which was given the gavage with 1.0 LD0 dose of normal saline. The rats were sacrificed 14 days after Dysosma versipellis poisoning and samples including brain, heart, liver, lung, and kidney were taken. After pathological process, the pathological changes of the major organs and tissues were observed by light microscope and electron microscope. The experimental data were statistical analyzed by chi2 test.The observations of light microscopy: loose cytoplasm of neurons with loss of most Nissl bodies; swelling of myocardial cells with disappearance of intercalated disk and striations; hepatocellular edema with ballooning degeneration; and swelling epithelial cells of renal proximal convoluted tubule with red light coloring protein-like substances in the tube. The observations of electron microscopy: the structures of cell membrane and nuclear membrane of neurons were destroyed; cytoplasm of neurons, obvious edema; and most organelles, destroyed and disappeared. The mortalities of rats after acute poisoning of the four groups increased with doses (P < 0.05).Acute Dysosma versipellis poisoning can cause multi-organ pathological changes. There is a positive correlation between the toxic effect and the dosage. The target tissues and organs are brain (neurons), heart, liver and kidney.