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Food additives contaminants [journal]
- Editorial board. [Journal Article]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Dec; 7(4):ebi.
- A survey of the use of soy in processed Turkish meat products and detection of genetic modification. [Journal Article]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Dec; 7(4):261-6.
To screen for possible illegal use of soybeans in meat products, the performance characteristics of a commercial polymer chain reaction (PCR) kit for detection of soybean DNA in raw and cooked meat products were established. Minced chicken and beef products containing soybean at levels from 0.1% to 10.0% were analysed by real-time PCR to amplify the soybean lectin gene. The PCR method could reliably detect the addition of soybean at a level of 0.1%. A survey of 38 Turkish processed meat products found only six samples to be negative for the presence of soybean. In 32 (84%) positive samples, 13 (34%) contained levels of soy above 0.1%. Of soybean positive samples, further DNA analysis was conducted by real-time PCR to detect whether genetically modified (GM) soybean had been used. Of 32 meat samples containing soybean, two samples were positive for GM modification.
- Ochratoxin A reduction in meat sausages using processing methods practiced in households. [Journal Article]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Dec; 7(4):239-46.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of ochratoxin A (OTA) reduction in home-made meat products. Meat sausages (n = 50) produced from raw materials coming from pigs exposed to OTA-contaminated feed, were subject to common heat processes practiced in households (cooking, frying and baking). Concentrations of OTA in pre- and post-processed products were quantified using a validated immunoassay method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and confirmed using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In line with the differences in recipes used and the degree of OTA accumulation in raw materials, OTA concentrations established in Mediterranean and roast sausages were lower than those found in liver and blood sausages. Baking of contaminated sausages at the temperatures of 190-220°C (for 60 min) resulted in significant reduction of OTA levels (75.8%), while 30-min cooking (at 100°C) and frying (at 170°C) proved to be significantly less effective (e.g. yielding OTA reductions of 7.4% and 12.6%, respectively). The results pointed out that despite high OTA stability, heat processes are capable of reducing its concentration in home-made meat products, depending on the processing modality used.
- Acrylamide Levels in Selected Colombian Foods. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Dec 11.
ABSTRACT Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n=112) and traditional (n=43) Colombian foods were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products, tuber-, meat- and vegetable- based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 μg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 g kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 g kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813μg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 μg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 μg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 μg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour.
- Erratum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Dec 13.:1.
- Monosodium glutamate in chicken and beef stock cubes using high-performance liquid chromatography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Dec 10.
Abstract In this survey monosodium glutamate (MSG) levels in chicken and beef stock cube samples were determined. A total number of 122 stock cube samples (from brands A, B, C, D) were collected from local markets in Ankara, Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was used for quantitative MSG determination. Mean MSG levels (± S.E) in samples of A, B, C and D brands were 14.6±0.2 g kg(-1), 11.9±0.3 g kg(-1), 9.7±0.1 g kg(-1), and 7.2±0.1 g kg(-1), respectively. Differences between mean levels of brands were significant. Also, mean levels of chicken stock cube samples were lower than in beef stock cubes. Maximum limits for MSG in stock cubes are not specified in the Turkish Food Codex (TFC). Generally the limit for MSG in foods (except some foods) is established as 10 g kg(-1) (individually or in combination).
- Patulin and its dietary intake by fruit juice consumption in Iran. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Dec 10.:1-4.
A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice.
- Development of a fast isocratic LC-MS/MS method for the high-throughput analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Australian honey. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Dec 10.
Honey samples, originating from Australia, were purchased and analysed for targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) using a new and rapid isocratic LC-MS/MS method. This isocratic method was developed from, and is comparable to, a gradient elution method and resulted in no loss of sensitivity or reduction in chromatographic peak shape. Isocratic elution allows for significantly shorter run times (6 min), eliminates the requirement for column equilibration periods and thus has the advantage of facilitating a high-throughput analysis which is particularly important for regulatory testing laboratories. In excess of two hundred injections are possible, with this new isocratic methodology, within a 24 hour period which is a > 50% improvement on all previously published methodologies. Good linear calibrations were obtained for all ten PAs and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides (PANOs) in spiked honey samples (3.57-357.14 µg L(-1); R(2) ≥ 0.9987). Acceptable inter-day repeatability was achieved for the target analytes in honey with % RSD values (n = 4) less than 7.4%. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were achieved with spiked PAs and PANOs samples; giving an average LOD of 1.6 µg kg(-1) and LOQ of 5.4 µg kg(-1). This method was successfully applied to Australian and New Zealand honey samples sourced from supermarkets in Australia. Analysis showed that 41 of the 59 honey samples were contaminated by PAs with the mean total sum of PAs being 153 µg kg(-1). Echimidine and lycopsamine were predominant and found in 76% and 88%, respectively, of the positive samples. The average daily exposure, based on the results presented in this study, were 0.051 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for adults and 0.204 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children. These results are a cause for concern when compared with the proposed EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), COT (Committee on Toxicity) and BfR (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung - the Federal Institute of Risk Assessment Germany) maximum daily PA intake limit of 0.007 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1).
- Alleviation of zearalenone toxicity by modified halloysite nanotubes in the immune response of swine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Dec 8.:1-13.
Zearalenone (ZEN) has caused significant economic effects on swine production in China. There is growing concern that exposure to ZEN during pregnancy affects the health of the offspring due to changes in the development of the immune system. To assess the risks associated with maternal ZEN exposure, several immunological parameters were assessed in pregnant sows and their offspring. The main aim of the study was to determine if modified hallosite nanotubes (MHNTs) can be used to protect pigs against the adverse effects of ZEN. Eighteen pregnant sows (second parity Yorkshire sows) were randomly divided into three treatment groups: (1) basal diet (control group); (2) contaminated grain (instead of 50% mouldy corn); and (3) contaminated grain (instead of 50% mouldy corn) + 1% MHNTs. The pregnant sows were fed the different treated diets from days 35 to 70 of gestation. Dietary ZEN exposure decreased the organ coefficient and the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10, and increased ZEN residues and IL-4 mRNA expression in the spleen of pregnant sows and neonatal piglets. Decreases in the serum IgA and IgG levels were observed in the pregnant sows. Maternal ZEN exposure decreased the organ coefficient and the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-10, and increased IL-4 mRNA expression in the spleen of weaning piglets. Exposure to ZEN during pregnancy decreased the level of serum IgG in the weaning piglets. Maternal exposure to ZEN induced histopathological damage and oxidative stress in the spleens of pregnant sows and their piglets. The addition of MHNTs to ZEN-contaminated diets can mitigate the negative effects induced by ZEN in the swine.
- A novel method for the simultaneous determination of fourteen sweeteners of regulatory interest using UHPLC-MS/MS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Dec 6.
An improved, efficient, sensitive method for the determination of fourteen non-nutritive sweeteners in food products has been developed using electrospray ionization (ESI) ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in the negative ion mode. Fourteen sweeteners and three internal standards are separated on a reversed-phase UHPLC column using a simple gradient programme. Analyte quantitation and confirmation were performed with data collection in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined in a representative drink, candy and yogurt sample and ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 ng/mL (drinks) and 0.1-2.5 ng/g (candy and yogurt). Repeatability at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 1 to 13% relative standard deviation (RSD). Twenty seven commercially available food products were tested using the optimised method showing that the majority of products contained sweetener concentrations below their assigned maximum usable dose. Recovery studies were performed and accuracy data is presented.