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Food additives contaminants [journal]
- Efficacy of corn silage inoculants on the fermentation quality under farm conditions and their influence on Aspergillus parasitucus, A. flavus and A. fumigatus determined by q-PCR. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 24.
Laboratory-scale silos were prepared to evaluate the efficacy of two different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation quality and mycobiota of corn silage. Their influence on Aspergillus species variability by using the q-PCR technique was studied. Silage inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 or L. plantarum RC009 were compared to uninoculated silage. Silos were opened after 1, 7, 45, 90 and 120 days after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, silos were left open for 7 days to evaluate aerobic stability. Rapid lactic acid production and decline in pH values were seen in the early stages of fermentation in silage inoculated with L. rhamnosus RC007. After aerobic exposure, a significant decline in lactic acid content was observed in untreated and L. plantarum RC009 inoculated silages. Counts for yeasted and toxigenic fungus remained lower, after aerobic exposure, in L. rhamnosus RC007-inoculated silage, in comparison with L. plantarum RC009 and uninoculated silages. Comparing the influence exerted by both BAL, it was observed that L. rhamnosus RC007 was more efficient inhibiting the three fungal species tested whose DNA concentrations, determinated by q-PCR, oscillated near the initial value (pre-ensiling maize). The ability of L. rhamnosus RC007 to a rapid lactic acid production and decline in pH values in the early stages of the fermentation along with the reduction of yeast and mycotoxicogenic fungus after aerobic exposure shows its potential as bio-control inoculant agent in animal feed.
- Determination of free and total bisphenol A in human milk samples from Canadian women using a sensitive and selective GC-MS method. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 24.:1-6.
A sensitive and selective GC-MS method was developed and used to analyse human milk samples for both free and total bisphenol A (BPA). Total BPA was detected in 72 of the 278 human milk samples (25.9%) at concentrations from < 0.036 to 2.5 ng g(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.13 ng g(-1) and median of 0.11 ng g(-1), while free BPA was detected in fewer samples, 46 of the 278 samples (16.5%) at concentrations ranging from < 0.036 to 2.3 ng g(-1) with a GM of 0.11 ng g(-1) and median of 0.10 ng g(-1). Ratios of [free BPA]/[total BPA] for the positive samples ranged from 7.9% to 100% with a GM of 57.2% and median of 70.3%. Concentrations of free and total BPA in most samples were low with 0.39 and 0.65 ng g(-1) at the 95th percentile for free and total BPA, respectively, and they are also lower than those reported in other countries. Based on the low frequency of detection of free BPA in human milk samples, in general, dietary exposure to BPA for Canadian breast-fed infants is expected to be somewhat lower compared with exposure among formula-fed infants.
- Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 24.:1-8.
The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.
- Assessment of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in Seafood Marketed in Puglia and Basilicata (Italy) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Nov 24.
ABSTRACT Lead, cadmium and mercury are non-essential heavy metals that may interfere with biological systems, exhibiting high toxicity to human and marine biota. Due to bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, seafood may concentrate high levels of these contaminants since they are often at the top of aquatic food chain. In this study 342 seafood samples, subdivided into 4 categories (bivalve molluscs, cephalopod molluscs, blue-fish and other sea fish), were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in order to assess the levels of lead, cadmium and mercury. Contamination levels higher than allowable limits were verified. In particular, 2 bivalve mollusc samples were non-compliant for Lead and Cadmium, 4 cephalopod mollusc samples non-compliant for cadmium and 14 samples (4 blue-fish and 10 other sea fish) non-compliant for mercury. This survey confirmed the necessity to perform routinely controls related to this type of food inspection.
- Quantification of bovine β-casein allergen in baked foodstuffs based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 21.
The quantification of allergens in food including baked food matrices is of great interest. The aim of the present study was to describe a non-immunologic method to quantify bovine β-casein using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Eight of ten theoretical peptides from β-casein after tryptic digestion were compared and MRM methods were developed to determine 5 signature peptides. The peptide VLPVPQK was selected as the signature peptide for bovine β-casein because of the high sensitivity. A stable isotope-labeled internal standard was designed to adjust the instability of sample pretreatment and ionization caused by matrix effect. Using the present suspension digestion method, the native and denatured β-casein could be digested to release the signature peptide at the maximum extent. The UPLC-TQ-MS/MS method developed based on tryptic signature peptide led to a reliable determination of bovine β-casein allergen in baked food matrices at a low quantitation level down to 500 μg/kg with a satisfactory accuracy (< 8.9%) and recovery (98.8 ± 2.6-106.7 ± 3.0%).
- Development and application of a non-targeted extraction method for the analysis of migrating compounds from plastic baby bottles by GC-MS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 19.:1-13.
In 2011, the European Union prohibited the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles due to the toxic effects of the PC monomer bisphenol-A. Therefore, baby bottles made of alternative materials, e.g. polypropylene (PP) or polyethersulphone (PES), are currently marketed. The principal aim of the study was the identification of major compounds migrating from baby bottles using a liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis. A 50% EtOH in water solution was selected as a simulant for milk. After sterilisation of the bottle, three migration experiments were performed during 2 h at 70°C. A non-targeted liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:1) was performed on the simulant samples. Identification of migrants from 24 baby bottles was done using commercially available WILEY and NIST mass spectra libraries. Differences in the migrating compounds and their intensities were observed between the different types of plastics, but also between the same polymer from a different producer. Differences in the migration patterns were perceived as well between the sterilisation and the migrations and within the different migrations. Silicone, Tritan™ and PP exhibited a wide variety of migrating compounds, whereas PES and polyamide (PA) showed a lower amount of migrants, though sometimes in relatively large concentrations (azacyclotridecan-2-one up to 250 µg kg(-1)). Alkanes (especially in PP bottles), phthalates (dibutylphthalate in one PP bottle (±40 µg kg(-1)) and one silicone bottle (±25 µg kg(-1)); diisobutylphthalate in one PP (±10 µg kg(-1)), silicone (up to ±80 µg kg(-1)); and Tritan™ bottle (±30 µg kg(-1))), antioxidants (Irgafos 168, degradation products of Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076), etc. were detected for PP, silicone and Tritan™ bottles. Although the concentrations were relatively low, some compounds not authorised by European Union Regulation No. 10/2011, such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (10-100 µg kg(-1)) or 2-butoxyethyl acetate (about 300 µg kg(-1)) were detected. Migrating chemicals were identified as confirmed (using a standard) or as tentative (further confirmation required).
- Magnetic Three-dimensional Graphene Solid-phase Extraction Of Chlorophenols From Honey Samples. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 14.
In this work, a novel magnetic three-dimensional graphene nano-composite (3D-G@Fe3O4) with a high surface area was synthesised by a vacuum freeze-dried method. Due to its high surface area, specific three-dimensional nano-porous structure and excellent magnetic properties, it can be used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. Some chlorophenols in honey samples were enriched by this nanocomposite prior to their determination by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Factors that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the amount of 3D-G@Fe3O4, extraction time, sample pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions were investigated and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity existed in the range of 10.0~1000.0 ng/g. The enrichment factors of the method for the analytes were in the range from 101 to 248. The limits of detection of the method (S/N = 3) were 1.0~1.5 ng/g. The recoveries of the method for the analytes at spiking levels of 100.0 and 400.0 ng/g were in the range of 93.2%~98.9%. The results showed that the proposed method is simple, reliable and sensitive. It will be a useful tool for the routine monitoring of chlorophenols in honey products.
- Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 17.:1-9.
Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min(-1) flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg(-1) and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.
- Arsenic and lead in foods: a potential threat to human health in Bangladesh. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 17.:1-11.
The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic and lead to adults and children via daily dietary intake of food composites in Bangladesh was estimated. The target hazard quotients (THQs), hazard index (HI) and target carcinogenic risk (TR) were calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk from arsenic and lead. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic and lead. The highest mean concentrations of arsenic were found in cereals (0.254 mg kg(-1) fw) and vegetables (0.250 mg kg(-1) fw), and lead in vegetables (0.714 mg kg(-1) fw) and fish (0.326 mg kg(-1) fw). The results showed the highest THQs of arsenic in cereals and lead in vegetables for both adults and children which exceeded the safe limit (> 1) indicating that cereals and vegetables are the main food items contributing to the potential health risk. The estimated TR from ingesting dietary arsenic and lead from most of the foods exceeded 10(-6), indicating carcinogenic risks for all adult people of the study area.
- Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Nov 13.:1-11.
Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the world including from regions with naturally high arsenic levels. Therefore, specific populations living in Europe could also have a high exposure to inorganic arsenic due to their consumption pattern. Current risk assessment is based on exposure via drinking water. For a good estimation of the risks of arsenic in food, it is important to investigate if the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from food is different from drinking water. The present study further explores the issue of European dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic via rice and seaweed and its associated health risks. The bioavailability of inorganic arsenic was measured in in vitro digestion experiments. The data indicate that the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic is similar for rice and seaweed compared with drinking water. The calculated dietary intake for specific European Union populations varied between 0.44 and 4.51 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1). The margins of exposure between the inorganic intake levels and the BMDL0.5 values as derived by JECFA are low. Decreasing the intake of inorganic arsenic via Hijiki seaweed could be achieved by setting legal limits similar to those set for rice by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2014.