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Food additives contaminants [journal]
- Monitoring of 35 illegally added steroid compounds in foods and dietary supplements. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Jul 18.
Abstract The adulteration of foods and dietary supplements with steroids has been well attested and has the potential to be dangerous owing to various possible side effects. Therefore, detecting the presence of steroids in various health food products has become increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to monitor illegally adulterated health food products by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) techniques to tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various food and supplement samples advertised for the treatment of arthritis, bone ache, and joint pain were collected over a 4 year (2010-2013) period from local and online Korean sources. The method was validated based on limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.5- 15.0 ng g(-1) and recoveries in spiked solid samples of 81-119%. Approximately 30% of the tested samples were identified as having been illicitly adulterated. Six compounds were observed overall, including dexamethasone (45.1%), cotrisone-21-aceteate and prednisone-21-acetate (16.2%), and betamethasone (14.4%), and found in some samples in high concentrations.
- Determination of rice papers and rice noodles adulterated with Tinopal CBS-X using HPLC with fluorescence detection and MS/MS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Jul 18.
There have to date been no reports of methods to determine Tinopal CBS-X. We developed a rapid and simple method to determine the Tinopal CBS-X content in rice noodles and rice papers using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detection. Heating the rice noodles and rice papers to 80°C after adding 75% methanol solution induced the release of Tinopal CBS-X from processed rice products. Tinopal CBS-X was separated using an isocratic mobile phase comprising 50% acetonitrile/water containing 0.4 tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate at pH 8.0. The samples suspected to be positive by HPLC analysis were then confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. This study also investigated the Tinopal CBS-X content of three rice noodle products and two rice papers. Consequently, Tinopal CBS-X from rice noodles and rice papers can be successfully detected using the developed pre-treatment and ion-pairing HPLC system coupled with fluorescence detection. The limits of quantification for rice papers and rice noodles were 1.58 and 1.51 µg/kg, respectively, and their correlation curves showed good linearity with r2 ≥0.9997 and ≥ 0.9998, respectively. Moreover, rice papers had recoveries of 70.3-83.3% with a precision ranging from 5.0% to 7.9%, whereas rice noodles had slightly lower recoveries of 63.4-78.7% and precisions of 8.5-11.5%. Only one type of rice noodle contained Tinopal CBS-X, at around 2.1 mg/kg, whereas it was not detected in four other samples. Thus, the pre-treatment procedure can successfully extract Tinopal CBS-X from processed rice products.
- Mycoflora and deoxynivalenol in whole wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from Southern Brazil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):232-237.
The fungal species Fusarium graminearum is related to deoxynivalenol (DON) formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate mycoflora and DON occurrence in 53 whole wheat grain samples collected in Southern Brazil during the 2012 crop. Wheat grains showed adequate values of water activity ranging from 0.48 to 0.72, within the required limits of moisture content, ranging from 9.1% to 13.9%. In addition, low counts of fungal colonies, ranging from 10 to 8.2 × 10(2), were found. For Fusarium genera, there was predominance of Fusarium verticillioides (34%) and F graminearum (30.2%). For Aspergillus species, 37.7% of Aspergillus flavus was determined. Regarding the Penicillium species, Penicillium digitatum (49%) was the most found species. DON was detected in 47.2% (25 out of 53) of the samples analysed, with levels ranging from 243.7 to 2281.3 µg kg(-1) (mean: 641.9 µg kg(-1)).
- Minerals and metals in mushroom species in Anatolia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):226-231.
Mineral and metal contents of 24 wild mushroom species collected from Anatolia were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Eight minerals (Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, P and K) and six metals (Cr, Ni, Ag, Co, Cu and Pb) were studied. The mineral content of mushroom samples ranged 77.1-1061.2 mg/kg for Na, 268.1-1927.9 mg/kg for Mg, 19.3-352.9 mg/kg for Ca, 1.23-75.36 mg/kg for Mn, 27.8-816.1 mg/kg for Fe, 1.61-122.13 mg/kg for Zn, 176.7-5726.4 mg/kg for P and 1133.3-9866.7 mg/kg for K. The metal content ranged 0.03-10.58 mg/kg for Cr, 0.24-48.65 mg/kg for Ni, 0.02-0.63 mg/kg for Ag, 0.02-5.13 mg/kg for Co, 1.10-9.04 mg/kg for Cu and 0.07-8.46 mg/kg for Pb.
- Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):220-225.
Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.
- Heavy metals in vegetables and respective soils irrigated by canal, municipal waste and tube well waters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):213-219.
Heavy metal contamination in the food chain is of serious concern due to the potential risks involved. The results of this study revealed the presence of maximum concentration of heavy metals in the canal followed by sewerage and tube well water. Similarly, the vegetables and respective soils irrigated with canal water were found to have higher heavy metal contamination followed by sewerage- and tube-well-watered samples. However, the heavy metal content of vegetables under study was below the limits as set by FAO/WHO, except for lead in canal-water-irrigated spinach (0.59 mg kg(-1)), radish pods (0.44 mg kg(-1)) and bitter gourd (0.33 mg kg(-1)). Estimated daily intakes of heavy metals by the consumption of selected vegetables were found to be well below the maximum limits. However, a complete estimation of daily intake requires the inclusion of other dietary and non-dietary exposure sources of heavy metals.
- Aflatoxin M1 in raw and imported powdered milk sold in Khartoum state, Sudan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):208-212.
The aim of this study is to determine the level of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw and imported powdered milk in Khartoum state, Sudan. Thirty-five samples of fresh cow milk were collected from different farms, based on the source of concentrated feed introduced to the dairy cows (locally vs. commercially produced) and the size of the farm (≤50 vs. >50 cows/farm). Also 12 samples of powdered milk were obtained from repacking companies in Khartoum state. The samples were analysed by a fluorometer, using the Vicam method. AFM1 was detected in all raw and powdered milk samples. Almost 50% of the contaminated powdered milk samples and all the raw milk samples exceeded the European Union limit of 0.05 µg/kg whereas 33% of the contaminated powdered milk samples and 77% of the raw milk samples exceeded the limit of Codex regulations (0.5 µg/kg). The results revealed that the concentration of AFM1 is affected significantly (P < 0.05) by the source of concentrated feed (locally produced or purchased) but not by the farm size. It was concluded that the levels of AFM1 in the milk samples indicated that the feeds offered to the cows were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 to such a level that it might cause a serious health problem to the public. Therefore, there is a need to limit the exposure to aflatoxin by imposing regulatory limits, as well as further studies on large scale bases are needed to investigate the amount of AFM1 in milk and dairy products.
- Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):202-207.
The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20 µg kg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p < 0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2) = 0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively.
- Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011. [Journal Article]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):186-201.
During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given.
- Aflatoxin M1 in Tarhana chips. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Sep; 7(3):182-185.
Tarhana chips are a popular traditional fermented food consumed widely in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey. Tarhana chips are different from many other types of fermented food in that they are produced in the form of tortilla chips. Cereal and yoghurt are the main ingredients in Tarhana chips. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in dairy and dairy-based products are of concern for human health. To investigate AFM1 contamination, a total of 40 samples were collected from Kahramanmaraş region and AFM1 levels were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, physicochemical characteristics of Tarhana chips were investigated and compared with classic fried chips in terms of nutritional value. Based on data obtained from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 21 (52.5%) out of 40 samples contained AFM1 in the range 0.5-36.6 ng/kg, so AFM1 levels of all samples were below the legal limit.