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Food additives contaminants [journal]
- Benzoic and sorbic acid in soft drink, milk, ketchup sauce and bread by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Aug 19.
Benzoic and sorbic acid are widely used for food preservation. These preservatives are generally recognized as safe. The aim of this study was to determine the level of benzoic and sorbic acid in food samples which are usually consumed in Iran. Therefore, 54 samples, including 15 soft drinks, 15 Ultra High Temperature milk, 15 ketchup sauces and 9 bread samples were analyzed by HPLC with UV detection. Benzoic acid was detected in 50 (92.5%) of the samples ranging from 3.5 to 1520 µg mL(-1), while for sorbic acid 29 (50.3%) samples presented the preservative in a range of 0.8 and 2305 µg mL(-1). LOD and LOQ were for benzoate 0.1 and 0.5 µg mL(-1), respectively, and for sorbate 0.08 and 0.3 µg mL(-1), respectively. The results showed that benzoic and sorbic acid widely occur in food products in Iran.
- Semicarbazide - from state-of-the-art analytical methods and exposure to toxicity: a review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Aug 15.
This review assesses the state-of-the-art concerning semicarbazide (SEM). Originally, SEM was primarily detected as a nitrofurazone veterinary metabolite, but over time, scientists gradually found that azodicarbonamide in sealed cans and flour could also lead to the generation of SEM. This discovery makes the study SEM particularly interesting. At present, an increasing number of researchers are investigating the toxicity of SEM and developing more and better analytical methods for the determination of SEM. In recent years, many researchers have focused on exposure from different foods, public awareness of hazards, and analytical detection methods for SEM in different foods. Although there have been significant achievements, these results have not been summarized in a review. In this review, the exposure from different foods, toxicity, and methods of detection for SEM are comprehensively reviewed. This review will not only provide others with a better understanding of SEM but will also provide background information to facilitate future research.
- Fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize harvested in Hebei province, China, during 2011-2013. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Aug 13.:1-6.
A total of 125 maize kernel samples were collected from Hebei province in China during 2011-2013 and were analysed for incidence and contamination levels of fumonisins (FB1 + FB2) by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The incidence of FBs for all samples was 46.4%. The mean contamination level of FBs for the samples collected in 2013 was 706 μg kg(-1), which was higher than the levels in 2012 (429 μg kg(-1)) and 2011 (250 μg kg(-1)). All samples, except five, exhibited total FB levels below 4000 μg kg(-1), which is the maximum limit as set by the European Commission. The probable daily intakes of FBs (0.04 in 2011; 0.07 in 2012; 0.12 in 2013, expressed as μg kg(-1) body weight/day) were all within the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2.0 μg kg(-1) of body weight/day as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Nevertheless, monitoring is needed to prevent and control the potential risk of FB exposure to the consumers.
- Synthetic food colours in saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken from restaurants in Tehran, Iran. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Aug 13.:1-6.
Saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken samples were considered for synthetic colours as additives, which are forbidden according to Iranian national standards. Samples were taken from restaurants of three locations and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the total 573 samples, 52% were positive for at least one colour. The most prevalent colours were Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow, with 44%, 9.1% and 8.4% of the samples testing positive for these colours, respectively. Carmoisine and Ponceau were both detected only in 0.5% of the positive samples and found only in saffron solution. In conclusion, synthetic food colours, especially Tartrazine should be regarded as a potential risk in saffron and its related food. Therefore, new attempts for food safety and quality should be undertaken to eliminate the use of these colours in restaurants.
- Formaldehyde and heavy metal migration from rubber and metallic packaging/utensils in Korea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2014 Aug 11.:1-5.
The aim of this study was to determine the non-intentionally added substances - formaldehyde and trace metals - at 4% acetic acid conditions in rubber and metallic packaging/utensils. The temperature effect on migration in rubber and metallic packaging/utensils was monitored at 60°C and 100°C under acidic (pH < 3) circumstances. The concentrations were: formaldehyde - 23.1 μg kg(-1), lead - 13.41 μg kg(-1), cadmium - 0.15 μg kg(-1), total arsenic - 2.02 μg kg(-1) and nickel - 2.92 μg kg(-1) at 60°C and formaldehyde - 148.9 μg kg(-1), lead - 17.04 μg kg(-1), cadmium - 0.14 μg kg(-1), total arsenic - 7.25 μg kg(-1) and nickel - 8.7 μg kg(-1) at 100°C. A significant difference was noticed in formaldehyde and total arsenic between both temperatures (p < 0.01), which was not present in other trace metals. In conclusion, formaldehyde and total arsenic were more sensitive with cooking temperature than the other metals.
- Investigation into the migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Aug 8.
Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to the EU Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterize, and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg(-1), carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both, the experimental findings and the theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.
- Contamination of wines and spirits by phthalates: types of contaminants present, contamination sources and means of prevention. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Aug 7.:1-11.
This research determines the concentrations of various phthalates in French wines and grape spirits marketed in Europe or intended for export. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were the most frequently detected compounds in the wines analysed. While only 15% of the samples examined contained quantifiable concentrations (> 0.010 mg kg(-1)) of DEHP and BBP, 59% of the wines contained significant quantities of DBP, with a median value as high as 0.0587 mg kg(-1). Only 17% of the samples did not contain any detectable quantity of at least one of the phthalates and 19% contained only non-quantifiable traces. In the spirits analysed, DBP (median = 0.105 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (median = 0.353 mg kg(-1)) were the substances measured at the highest concentrations, as well as the most frequently detected (90% of samples). BBP was present in 40% of the samples at an average concentration of 0.026 mg kg(-1). Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), which is not permitted in contact with food, was found in 25% of the spirits tested. According to the specific migration limits (SML) for materials in contact with food, slightly more than 11% of the wines analysed were non-compliant, as they exceeded the SML for DBP (0.3 mg kg(-1)); just under 4% were close to the SML for DEHP. Concerning spirits, 19% of the samples analysed were considered non-compliant to the SML for DBP and nearly 7% were close to the SML for DEHP. The aged grape spirits analysed were often excessively contaminated with DiBP, which is not permitted to be used in contact with food (> 0.01 mg kg(-1)). A study of various materials frequently present in wineries revealed that a relatively large number of polymers sometimes contained high concentrations of phthalates. However, the epoxy resin coatings used on vats represented the major source of contamination.
- Optimization of the supercritical extraction of toxic elements in fish oil. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Aug 4.
This study aimed to optimize the operating conditions for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of toxic elements from fish oil. The SFE operating parameters of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate, and extraction time were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). High coefficients of determination (R(2)) (0.897-0.988) for the predicted response surface models confirmed a satisfactory adjustment of the polynomial regression models with the operation conditions. The results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of the pressure and temperature were the most significant (p < 0.05) variables affecting the overall responses. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous elimination of toxic elements comprised a pressure of 61 MPa, a temperature of 39.8ºC, a CO2 flow rate of 3.7 ml/min and an extraction time of 4 hours. These optimized SFE conditions were able to produce fish oil with the contents of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury reduced by up to 98.3%, 96.1%, 94.9%, and 93.7%, respectively. The fish oil extracted under the optimized SFE operating conditions was of good quality in terms of its fatty acid constituents.
- Effect of paste processing on residue levels of imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and fipronil in winter jujube. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Aug 4.:1-6.
The changes of imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and fipronil residues were studied to investigate the carryover of pesticide residues in winter jujube during paste processing. A multi-residue analytical method for winter jujube was developed based on the QuEChERS approach. The recoveries for the pesticides were between 87.5% and 116.2%. LODs ranged from 0.002 to 0.1 mg kg(-1). The processing factor (Pf) is defined as the ratio of pesticide residue concentration in the paste to that in winter jujube. Pf was higher than 1 for the removal of extra water, and other steps were generally less than 1, indicating that the whole process resulted in lower pesticide residue levels in paste. Peeling would be the critical step for pesticide removal. Processing factors varied among different pesticides studied. The results are useful to address optimisation of the processing techniques in a manner that leads to considerable pesticide residue reduction.
- Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for flunixin in cattle (Bos taurus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 Aug 1.:1-16.
Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted that extravascular routes of administration prolonged flunixin concentrations in milk, which could result in violative milk residues in treated cattle.