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Front Biosci [journal]
- The miRNAs in the pathgenesis of osteosarcoma. [Journal Article]
- Front Biosci 2013.:788-94.
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma of the bone characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA deletions and amplifications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs, usually 18-25 nucleotides in length, which repress translation and cleave mRNA by base-pairing to the 3 untranslated region of the target genes. miRNAs have demonstrated far-reaching effects on the cellular biology of development and cancer. Their role in osteosarcomagenesis remains largely unexplored. A number of reports have investigated the role of microRNAs in osteosarcoma. This review summeizes the recent research progress of miRNA in the osteosarcome.
- The autoimmunity in Graves's disease. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Front Biosci 2013.:782-7.
Graves' disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune syndrome manifesting complications in thyroid and orbital connective tissues. The thyroid gland plays a major role in the human body by producing the hormones necessary for appropriate energy levels and an active life. At the same time, the thyroid is highly vulnerable to autoimmune thyroid diseases. GD arises due to the complex interplay of genetic, environmental and endogenous factors, and the specific combination is required to initiate thyroid autoimmunity. Earlier studies have demonstrated the autoimmune response plays a dominant role in the development of GD. This review summarizes the inflammatory events which occur during the development of GD, such as Th17/Treg cell infiltration, Th1/Th2 cytokine and chemokine production, and the subtypes of immunogloblins (IgGs) generated.
- Role of mast cells in gynecological neoplasms. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Front Biosci 2013.:773-81.
Mast cells are of paramount importance in allergic reactions, pathogen immune responses during infection, and angiogenesis, as well as innate and adaptive immune regulation. Beyond all these roles, mast cells are now increasingly being recognized as modulators of tumor biology and fate. Notwithstanding mounting evidence of mast cell accumulation in tumors, their exact role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is still incompletely understood. Although some evidence suggests that mast cells can promote tumorigenesis, there are some clinical sets as well as experimental tumor models in which mast cells seem to have functions that favor the host. This article focuses on the significant roles of mast cells in the mechanism, early diagnosis, differential diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis of gynecological neoplasms, with particular emphasis on the capacity of these cells to stimulate tumor growth by promoting angiogenesis, and highlight recent findings on the integral roles of mast cells in gynecological neoplasm growth, such as cervical and breast cancer. Information to be presented suggests that mast cells may become useful tools for future anticancer therapies.
- Human monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy: a review of recent developments. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Front Biosci 2013.:765-72.
In the last decade, phage-display technology for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has improved significantly. Several novel human mAbs directed to a wide range of targets have been generated for the treatment of common malignancies. These targets include antigens associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis and solid tumors, as well as tumor growth-related antigens, insulin-like growth factor I receptor and hepatocyte growth factor. The safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of several human mAbs have been evaluated in patients with advanced solid tumors. In conclusion, significant advances in the generation and application of human mAbs in cancer therapy have been made in the last decade.
- Tendon-derived stem cells as a new cell source for tendon tissue engineering. [Journal Article]
- Front Biosci 2013.:756-64.
Tendon injuries are very common in occupational and athletic settings, and the elderly population. Tendons repair and regenerate slowly and inefficiently in vivo after injury. The limited ability of tendons to self-repair and the general inefficiency of current treatment strategies have intensified the need for an effective therapeutic approach. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) have recently been identified within tendon tissues. TDSCs exhibit universal stem cell characteristics, such as clonogenicity, a high proliferative capacity, multi-differentiation potential, non-immunogenicity, and immunosuppression. As a result, implanting TDSCs at damaged sites within tendons may be an effective way for tendon regeneration. This review summarizes the properties of TDSCs and discusses the advantages of its use in tendon tissue engineering.
- MicroRNAs in androgen-dependent PCa. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Front Biosci 2013.:748-55.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in Western countries and is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The growth and progression of PCa is related to androgen levels. In cancer, nicroRNAs (miRs) function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In androgen-dependent PCa, miRs play a role in the growth, development, progression, and metastasis of the disease, and are also involved in the response to therapy and therefore affect the prognosis. In this review, we focus on the role played by miRs concerning the mechanisms of androgen-dependent PCa.
- Role of homeobox genes in the hypothalamic development and energy balance. [Journal Article]
- Front Biosci 2013.:740-7.
Homeobox genes contribute to the regionalization, patterning and cell differentiation during embryogenesis and organ development. During mammalian embryonic development, homeobox genes, including orthopedia (Otp), a brain-specific homeobox transcription factor (Bsx) and a thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), are expressed in the hypothalamus. The genetic ablation of these genes indicated that Otp and TTF-1 are essential for the normal morphological development of the hypothalamus, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), whereas Bsx is not required. In the adult stage, Bsx and TTF-1 continue to be expressed in the hypothalamus, including the ARC, and serve as transcription factors of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. The expression of hypothalamic Bsx and TTF-1 can be altered by the feeding state and appetite regulatory hormones such as ghrelin and leptin. Although Bsx and TTF-1 are essential for normal feeding behavior in adult mice, they exert different effects on the expression of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and body weight homeostasis. Thus, the hypothalamic homeobox genes may contribute to the dissociation of food intake and body weight via AgRP-POMC neurons.
- MicroRNA role in thyroid cancer pathogenesis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Front Biosci 2013.:734-9.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs approximately 22 nucleotides in length that negatively regulate translation of the protein-coding genes. As such, miRNAs are fundamental mediators of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Each miRNA may functionally interact with a multitude of target genes to exert various effects on normal physiology to support human health or pathological processes leading to disease conditions, such as cancer. Genome-wide analyses have generated specific miRNA profiles of thyroid cancers (TCs) and identified the up- and down-regulated miRNAs related to various carcinogenesis stages and prognoses. Here, we summarize the recent knowledge on aberrant miRNA expression in the various TCs, including papillary, follicular, and other rare types. In addition, we discuss the significance of miRNA profiles and individual miRNAs in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of these tumors.
- Root exudates of transgenic cotton and their effects on Fusarium oxysporum. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Front Biosci 2013.:725-33.
The components of the root exudates from two transgenic insect-resistant cotton lines and their parental cotton lines, and their effects on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. The results demonstrated that the resistance of transgenic insect-resistant cotton to F. oxysporum was significantly reduced compared with their parental lines. Likewise, the root exudates from transgenic insect-resistant cotton significantly promoted the spore germination and mycelial growth of cotton F. oxysporum. The types of compounds found in the root exudates of transgenic insect-resistant cotton were similar to those of the parental cotton, but the composition and relative content of the compounds were different. The type and content of the fatty acids and esters were significantly reduced in the root exudates of the transgenic insect-resistant cotton, as were certain specific materials, whereas several alkanes were increased. The inhibition of the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum caused by the root exudates from the transgenic insect-resistant cotton was decreased compared with the parental cotton. This result provides a scientific basis for the decline in disease resistance in transgenic insect-resistant cotton.
- Confronting JC virus and Homo sapiens biological signatures. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Front Biosci 2013.:716-24.
The present report describes the peptide commonality between JC virus (JCV) and the human proteome at the heptamer level. In total, 53 viral heptapeptides occur in functionally important human proteins with potential consequences for host functions and JCV pathogenesis. A paradigmatic example of a crucial peptide match is the SGKTTLA sequence, shared by JCV LT antigen and human nicotinamide/nicotinic acid riboside kinase, an enzyme involved in myelination processes. In general, the JCV-versus-host heptapeptide overlap may result in a competition between viral sequences and identical motifs in host enzymic active sites, adhesive domains, regulatory signaling motifs, etc., thus interfering with essential reactions and posing disadvantages to the cell. Overall, this study provides a starting point for investigating the role of peptide commonality in host-pathogen interactions.