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Gynecol Endocrinol [journal]
- Glucocorticoid synthesis-related genes: HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 May 9.
Objective:To determine whether polymorphisms of the maternal glucocorticoid-related genes (HSD11B1 and HSD11B2) are associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in a haplotype-based case-control study.
Methods:A total of 166 PIH patients and 222 age-matched controls were genotyped, with two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the HSD11B1 gene (rs2235543 and rs846910) and three SNPs for the HSD11B2 gene (rs12920590, rs45483293 and rs3743729) used as genetic markers. After separation into preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) subgroups, PIH patients were assessed.
Results:Significant differences were noted between PE and control groups (p = 0.022, p = 0.034, respectively) for the frequency of genotypes and alleles for rs846910 of HSD11B1. The frequency of the AA genotype of rs846910 was significantly higher in PIH and PE groups compared to controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that this genotype was a risk factor for PIH and PE (adjusted OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.5 and adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.4, respectively). The frequency of the T-A haplotype established by rs2235543-rs846910 was also significantly higher in PIH and PE groups (p = 0.045, p = 0.042, respectively).
Conclusion:rs846910 in the HSD11B1 gene could be a marker for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. The T-A haplotype constructed by rs2235543-rs846910 was also a useful susceptibility marker for PIH and PE.
- Birth weight and childhood growth in daughters of women with irregular menstrual cycles. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):615-8.
Abstract Menstrual irregularity has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and markers of metabolic dysfunction. This study aimed to determine whether irregular menstrual cycles (MCs) in reproductive-age women are associated with the weight of their daughters at birth and growth up to age five. We studied 4863 pregnant women with menstrual history data in a prospective cohort, recruited from the Kaiser Health Plan (1959-1966). Serial measures of their daughters' weight and height were abstracted from medical records. We used analysis of covariance, stratified by maternal body mass index, to explore the association between maternal MC and infant birth weight (BW). We included 4774 daughters in a repeated measures analysis to compare the effect of maternal MC on childhood weight through age five. Daughters of non-obese women with irregular MC had a statistically significant lower BW compared to daughters of women with regular MC; this difference was notably amplified among obese women. The daughters' weights were not statistically different when growth was assessed from birth to five years. We conclude that daughters of obese women with irregular MC, in particular, had significantly lower BW compared to daughters of women with regular MC, which did not persist over five years of follow-up.
- Assisted reproductive technique increases the risk of placental polyp. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):611-4.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk factors and outcomes of placental polyp. This retrospective study was conducted on 1645 patients delivered or aborted in Sapporo Medical University from 2007 through 2011. Transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography, hysteroscopy, contrast-enhanced MRI or 3D-CT angiography were performed. There were 1532 deliveries and 113 abortions. Seventy-one (4.3%) were ART-conceived and the remaining 1574 (95.7%) were non-ART pregnancies. Fifteen (0.91%) cases were confirmed as having placental polyp. Nine cases of placental polyp were identified among the 1574 (0.57%) as non-ART-related pregnancies, and 6 were identified among the 71 (8.5%) as ART-related pregnancies. Thus, pregnancies achieved through ART showed 20x greater incidence of complicating placental polyp than pregnancies achieved through without ART (p = 9.02 × 10(-6); odds ratio, 19.59; 95% confidence interval, 5.27-72.84, logistic regression analysis). Evaluation of blood flow within the polyp showed that in five of seven patients with low blood flow, the polyps spontaneously dropped off 79-115 days postpartum. Thus, ART-related pregnancies may be a risk factor of placental polyp, and spontaneous drop-off of the polyp is often observed in cases with low blood flow within the mass.
- Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):608-10.
Abstract The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ≤6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found.
- High-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization profiling reveals 20q13.33 alterations associated with ovarian endometriosis. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):603-7.
Objective:The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential genetic alterations at DNA level in patients with ovarian endometriosis by high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis.
Methods:Following the laparoscopic surgical and the post-operative pathological examination, genomic DNA was extracted from endometriomas of 11 women with endometriosis and endometrial tissue of the controls and analyzed by array-CGH. Real-time PCR was used for confirmation the result of array-CGH analysis and detected the DNA copy number variations of the eutopic endometrium from the five patients with the duplication in 20q13.33 region.
Results:All 11 patients with ovarian endometriosis were diagnosed through the laparoscopic surgical and the post-operative pathological examination. We found occurrence of genomic duplication at 20q13.33 chromosomal region with gain of GATA5 and SLCO4A1 genes in 5 of 11 endometriomas from patients.
Conclusion:The results of the present study suggest that there was 20q13.33 duplication in women with ovarian endometriosis. This effect might be due to the alterations of GATA5 and SLCO4A1 genes in the gain region, through involving the metabolism of the steroid hormone.
- The impact of single embryo transfer policy on pregnancy outcomes after legislative change. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):600-2.
Abstract We evaluated the effect of mandatory single embryo transfer (SET) on live birth rates and pregnancy outcomes in Turkey. A retrospective study was conducted in Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital. Four hundred and four patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were included in the study. In Turkey, the number of embryos to be transferred in an assisted cycle was limited to three under normal circumstances until 6 March 2010. After that, new legislation was introduced to promote the application of SET. Outcomes were compared in periods of 1 year before and after the new law. We compared pregnancy outcomes of all assisted reproductive cycles in SET cycles (group 1: n = 281) with double embryo transfer (DET) cycles (group 2: n = 123). There were significant differences in oocyte number, multiple pregnancy, gestational age, birth weight and perinatal fetal morbidity between the groups (p = 0.023, 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, respectively). But there were no differences in age, baseline FSH, infertility period, stimulation protocol, stimulation day, gonadotrophin dose, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, live birth rate and cesarean rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that under the new legislation multiple pregnancy rates and perinatal complications are significantly reduced without causing a significant decline in the pregnancy rates.
- Thyroid function in pregnant women: iodine deficiency after iodine enrichment program. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):596-9.
Objective:Significant changes in thyroid function occur during pregnancy which can complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests. Therefore, normative gestational related reference ranges for thyroid hormones tests are required. The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges for free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in Iranian pregnant women.
Methods:This study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department, Akbarabadi University Hospital. A single blood sample from 584 pregnant women was analyzed for thyroid function. Serum levels of TSH, FT4, FT3, total T4 (TT4), T3 resin uptake (T3RU) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab) were measured. Urinary iodine was determined in some cases. Reference intervals based on 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated.
Results:The composition of reference population comprising 584 women included 162 in first trimester and 422 in the third trimester. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles values were used to determine the reference ranges for FT3, FT4, TT4, T3RU and TSH. These values were T3 1.4 and 2.9 pmol/L, FT4 7.1 and 18 pmol/L, TT4 7.2 and 13.5 µg/dL and TSH 0.5 and 3.9 µg/L, respectively. The level of urinary iodine in 80.5% of the subjects was less than normal.
Conclusions:Serum levels of thyroid hormones are different in Iranian population that could be due to racial differences or differences in iodine intake.
- First trimester maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is a predictive factor for early preterm delivery in normotensive pregnancies. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):592-5.
Abstract In this study, we investigated whether the concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) or free β-hCG (fβhCG) in the first trimester can identify women at increased risk of subsequent preterm delivery in the absence of hypertensive disorders. Preterm and early preterm deliveries are defined as those deliveries before completing 37 and 34 weeks, respectively. A total of 868 women were enrolled into this study. According to the level of the markers, the patients were evaluated in three groups: 1 - maternal serum level ≤5th percentile, 2 - between 5th and 95th percentiles, 3 - ≥95th percentile. In the group of patients with a PAPP-A level ≤5th percentile [≤0.35 multiples of the median (MoM)], mean gestational age (GA) at delivery, mean birth weight and the number of the cases with early preterm delivery were significantly lower than the others. Mean level of PAPP-A was significantly lower in cases with early preterm than term deliveries (0.58 ± 0.32 versus1.09 ± 0.69; p = 0.01). Maternal serum level of fβhCG did not show significant difference between these groups (0.84 ± 0.45 versus 1.17 ± 0.77; p = 0.15). Low levels of maternal serum PAPP-A (≤0.35 MoM) (Odds ratio = 7; 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.7; p = 0.0048) significantly predicted early preterm delivery in normotensive pregnancies. Women with low levels of PAPP-A at first trimester have a higher risk of early preterm delivery even in the absence of hypertensive disorders.
- Cytogenetic analysis of 179 Iranian women with premature ovarian failure. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):588-91.
Abstract The importance of chromosomal abnormalities in etiology of premature ovarian failure (POF) is well known but in many cases, POF still remains idiopathic. We investigated the frequency and type of chromosomal aberrations in Iranian women diagnosed with idiopathic POF. Standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 179 patients. Karyotype analysis of these patients revealed that 161 (89.95%) patients had normal female karyotype and 18 (10.05%) patients had abnormal karyotypes. The abnormal karyotypes included sex reverse sex determining region Y (SRY) negative (five Cases), X chromosome mosaicism (five cases), abnormal X chromosomes (three cases), abnormal autosomes (three cases) and X-autosome translocation (two cases). The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 10.05% in this first large-scale report of chromosomal aberrations in Iranian women with POF. The results confirm previous observations and emphasis on the critical role of X chromosome abnormalities as one of the possible etiologies for POF.
- Circulating kisspeptin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) do not correlate with gonadotropin serum levels. [Journal Article]
- Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jun; 29(6):583-7.
Abstract Kisspeptins are known to be the principle regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the regulation of pituitary gonadotropins has been elucidated. We measured plasma concentrations of kisspeptin and PACAP and determined whether the levels of these peptides varied in proportion to circulating gonadotropin levels. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were higher in postmenopausal women and in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) and lower in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) compared with the LH level in normally menstruating women. Similarly, serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were higher in postmenopausal women and in patients with POF but lower in pregnant women and patients with IHH compared with normally menstruating women. Plasma levels of kisspeptins were significantly higher in pregnant women compared with normally menstruating women. However, no significant differences were observed in postmenopausal women, patients with POF, and patients with IHH. On the other hand, plasma levels of PACAP were significantly lower in pregnant women, patients with POF, and in IHH patients when compared with normally menstruating women. No significant differences were observed in PACAP concentration between postmenopausal women and in normally menstruating women. Our observations suggest that the serum levels of kisspeptins and PACAP did not correlate with variations in serum gonadotropin levels.