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Hepatitis monthly [journal]
- Hepatitis B viral DNA among HBs antigen negative healthy blood donors. [Journal Article]
- Hepat Mon 2013 Mar; 13(3):e6590.
Presence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) renders HBs antigen (HBsAg) undetectable by ELISA. Therefore it is valuable to evaluate the frequency of OBI among healthy blood donors to improve and perhaps change the strategies of blood screening to reduce the risk of HBV transmission.The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HBcAb and HBV DNA among Iranian HBsAg negative healthy blood donors who donated their blood to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Center during 2011.1000 serum specimens negative for HBsAg, HCV antibody and HIV antibody were collected from healthy blood donors and tested for HBcAb. Presence of hepatitis B viral DNA was checked in HBcAb positive samples by nested PCR with two sets of primers to amplify part of HBV S gene.There were 64 women and 936 men in the population under study. The mean ± SD age of the donors was 38 ± 11 years. 80 out of 1000 samples (8%) were found to be positive for HBcAb. HBV DNA was detected in 50% of HBcAb positive specimens. The mean ± SD age of donors without HBV DNA was 37.7 ± 10.5 years and for donors with HBV DNA was 40.9 ± 11.2 years (P = 0.05).OBI was prevalent among 50% of HBcAb positive healthy blood donors. The frequency of positive HBcAb among healthy HBsAg negative blood donors was comparable to previous studies reported from Iran. On the other hand, the frequency of HBV DNA in HBsAg negative blood donors was higher than previous reports.
- Should we rely on the findings of each published randomized controlled study? [Journal Article]
- Hepat Mon 2013 Mar; 13(3):e8355.
- Evaluation of Knowledge and Practice of Hairdressers in Women's Beauty Salons in Isfahan About Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and AIDS in 2010 and 2011. [Journal Article]
- Hepat Mon 2013 Mar; 13(3):e6215.
Blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have some common epidemiological characteristics, and have infected millions of people throughout the world. Patients infected by acute hepatitis or HIV infections may not be aware of the disease, and thereby cause transmission to others. During haircut, shave, or pedicure, barbers may accidentally expose to their clients' blood, transmit their own infection to them, or transmit the infection from one client to another. Thus the beauty salon staff has a potential role in expansion of infections.As being barbers and barbering are risk factors to some infectious diseases, determining the role of knowledge and awareness of barbers and hairdressers about topics related to AIDS, and hepatitis B and C is important.This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in 2010-2011 on 281 women's beauty salons located in eleven urban districts of Isfahan town. A multistage cluster sampling was performed and knowledge assessment questionnaire accompanied by practice checklist regarding hepatitis B and C, and AIDS were completed by trained interviewers. Knowledge and practice scores were determined in 0-20 and 0-10 scales, respectively. The content validity of questionnaire was confirmed by three expert opinions and the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was determined to be 0.83 in a pilot study on 30 participants. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way ANOVA test by SPSS software, version 18.In the study, 281 hairdressers participated. There was a statistically significant relationship between education level and knowledge score of hairdressers (P < 0.001). We found a statistically significant relationship between knowledge level and job history of hairdressers according to the Pearson's correlation coefficient (P = 0.004). The results did not show any statistically significant relationship between education level and practice scores (P = 0.5). Furthermore, the job history of hairdressers and their practice score did not show a significant relationship (P = 0.77).We obtained promising results about the knowledge and practice levels of staffs of women's beauty salons in Isfahan about AIDS, and hepatitis B and C. The target group exhibited an intermediate level of knowledge about the diseases because of important role of barbers in virus transmission; we should provide the best control, evaluation, and continuous teaching programs.
- Three doses of hepatitis B vaccine or four doses in chronic renal failure. [Journal Article]
- Hepat Mon 2013 Mar; 13(3):e10040.
- Vaccine-Induced Anti-HBs Level in 5-6 Year-Old Malnourished Children. [Journal Article]
- Hepat Mon 2013 Feb; 13(2):e7048.
Malnutrition is the most common cause of immune deficiency. It results in reduced secretion of T-cells and B-cell-stimulating factors leading to declining of special immunoglobulins. On the other hand, hepatitis B, as a major world health problem, can be prevented effectively by vaccination. Three doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine induce protective levels of anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) in 95% of healthy children. This level decreases gradually over time.The goal of this study was to assess anti-HBs in malnourished children, who confronted to some degrees of immune deficiency.This is a cross-sectional study conducted during May to August 2010 in therapeutic clinics of Yazd, Iran. Samples were selected simply and consecutively among 5-6 year-old children with a history of three doses of HBV vaccine in infancy. On the basis of World Health Organization's definition on malnutrition, which considers anthropometric measurements, malnourished children entered the study. Totally 83 cases (37 boys and 46 girls) were gathered and classified into three groups of mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition. One milliliter of venous blood was taken and anti-HBs were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA).Overall, seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-HBs were 60.2% and 15.47 ± 10.92 mIU/mL, respectively. Seroprotection rate was 71.4%, 55.2%, and 72.7% in mild, moderate, and severe malnourished children, respectively. GMT was 30.78 mIU/mL, 12.15 mIU/mL, and 22.95 mIU/mL in these groups, respectively. None of these two indices were significant in these groups (P = 0.471, P = 0.364). Seroprotection rate and GMT were 54.1% and 13.26 ± 11.59 mIU/mL in boys, and 65.2% and 17.5 ± 10.59 mIU/mL in girls, respectively, showing no significant relationship with gender (P = 0.302, P = 0.602). Lowest seroprotection rate was in stunted cases (47.1%) and highest in wasted children (77.8%). This difference also was not significant (P = 0.43).The seroprotection rate and GMT of anti-HBs observed in this study do not show a high level of immunity. These two indices were not related to severity of malnutrition. We conclude that severity of malnutrition does not affect vaccine-induced antibody level and seroprotection rate; however small sample size in each group of study hinders decisive conclusion. Moreover, GMT and seroprotection rate showed no relationship with type of abnormal anthropometric index, including weight for height, weight for age, and height for age.
- Different faces of hepatocellular carcinoma as a health threat in 21st century. [Journal Article]
- Hepat Mon 2013 Feb; 13(2):e9308.