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- Roger cotton histopathology prize 2012. [Editorial]
- Histopathology 2013 Jun; 62(7):975.
- Splenic manifestations of chronic autoimmune disorder: a report of five cases with histiocytic necrotizing change in four cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Histopathology 2013 Mar 22.
AIMS:Autoimmune diseases (AD) are associated with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Changes in the spleen have not been characterized completely in AD; we describe splenectomy specimens from five patients with chronic AD, highlighting the presence of necrotizing histiocytosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS:Of the patients (three males and two females; mean 40 years), four had systemic lupus erythematosus; one had rheumatoid arthritis. All had moderate splenomegaly (213-803 g, mean 421 g). Four cases exhibited necrosis with apoptosis and karyorrhectic debris occurring in the white pulp and minimal acute inflammation; one showed florid follicular hyperplasia. Splenic involvement ranged from focal to extensive. Plasma cells were negative for IgG4. Haematoxylin bodies were not identified. Stains for infectious organisms were negative. Immunohistochemical studies showed that lymphocytes surrounding the necrosis were a mixture of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; CD123-positive plasmacytoid dendritic cells were not present, and staining for kappa and lambda light chains showed no clonality. 16S rDNA PCR was performed; no amplification was seen in three of four cases tested for bacteria specific rDNA. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization studies highlighted rare positive cells in four cases.
CONCLUSIONS:Splenomegaly in AD is thought to be hyperplasic, but we present four cases showing histiocytic necrosis, a finding which should be considered part of the spectrum of AD in the spleen.
- Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase-2 expression is an independent negative prognostic factor in human breast cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Histopathology 2013 Mar 26.
AIMS:Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphatase that plays an essential role in the downstream signalling pathways of multiple growth factor receptors, thus representing a potential target for cancer therapy. Recent studies suggest that SHP2 contributes to tumour initiation, progression and metastasis in breast cancer, yet the impact of SHP2 expression on prognosis in human breast cancer has not been evaluated.
METHODS AND RESULTS:To explore further the role of SHP2 in breast cancer, we conducted an immunohistochemical study using a tissue microarray encompassing 1401 formalin-fixed breast cancer specimens with detailed clinical annotation and outcome data. Of 1401 evaluable breast cancers, 651 (46%) were positive for SHP2. SHP2 expression was associated positively with tumour grade, lymph node status and tumour stage. In univariate survival analysis, cases with SHP2 expression had a significantly worse overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, SHP2 remained an independent negative prognostic factor for OS. SHP2 expression was a negative prognostic factor for OS in the luminal A and the luminal B HER2(-) intrinsic subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate for the first time that SHP2 is an independent predictor of survival in breast cancer, suggesting that SHP2 may be a potential target for therapy.
- Nipple-sparing mastectomy: can preoperative biopsy findings predict retroareolar margin involvement? [LETTER]
- Histopathology 2013 Mar 20.
- Expression of Ep-CAM, but not of E48, associates with nodal involvement in advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx. [Journal Article]
- Histopathology 2013 May; 62(6):954-61.
To evaluate epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) and E48 expression, and their relationship with histological differentiation and nodal metastasis, in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).The expression of Ep-CAM and E48 was investigated using immunohistochemistry in a series of 66 SCC (stages 3 and 4) and their adjacent non-neoplastic epithelia. Ep-CAM expression increased with the progression from normal squamous epithelium to SCC. It was detected in 96% of carcinomas and high levels of Ep-CAM expression (50% or more positive cells) were associated with poorer differentiation (P = 0.003) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.001). E48 expression was characteristically strong and diffuse in non-neoplastic squamous epithelium, and decreased with progression to SCC. Poorly differentiated (grade 4) tumours had lower proportions of E48-positive cells than well- to moderately- differentiated cases (P < 0.001).Expression of both Ep-CAM and E48 correlated with cell differentiation, although in inverse fashion. In particular, the association between high levels of Ep-CAM expression and high frequency of nodal metastases suggests that Ep-CAM plays a role in the development of lymph node metastases in SCC of the larynx.
- Presence of C11orf95-MKL2 fusion is a consistent finding in chondroid lipomas: a study of eight cases. [Journal Article]
- Histopathology 2013 May; 62(6):925-30.
Chondroid lipomas are benign adipose tissue tumours. Their rarity and peculiar morphology can lead to misinterpretation, especially in small biopsies. Based on a recurrent translocation t(11;16)(q13;p13), the C11orf95-MKL2 fusion gene has been found in a few cases. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to look for this fusion gene in a larger cohort.We describe eight further cases from four females and four males with an age range of 21-81 years (median 49 years). The tumours were situated in the lower arm (three), lower leg (two), thigh (one), back (one) and head (one); seven lesions were deep-seated and one was located subcutaneously. Sizes ranged from 3 to 12 cm (median 6.3 cm). All patients were treated by simple excision, and follow-up, available for six patients (range 2 months-12 years; median 15 months), demonstrated recurrence in one case. Histologically, the circumscribed and lobulated tumours showed a variable composition of adipocytes, lipoblasts, hibernoma-like cells and chondroblast-like cells embedded in a chondroid matrix. Immunohistochemistry, performed in four cases, revealed positivity for S-100 and pancytokeratin in two of three neoplasms stained for each marker. A C11orf95-MKL2 fusion gene was shown by RT-PCR analysis in seven of the eight cases.Molecular analysis can be used to support the diagnosis of chondroid lipoma, especially in small samples. This may be helpful in planning treatment when the differential diagnosis includes malignant lesions.
- Guidelines and considerations for conducting experiments using tissue microarrays. [Journal Article]
- Histopathology 2013 May; 62(6):827-39.
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a powerful method for undertaking large-scale tissue-based biomarker studies. While TMAs offer several advantages, there are a number of issues specific to their use which need to be considered when employing this method. Given the investment in TMA-based research, guidance on design and execution of experiments will be of benefit and should help researchers new to TMA-based studies to avoid known pitfalls. Furthermore, a consensus on quality standards for TMA-based experiments should improve the robustness and reproducibility of studies, thereby increasing the likelihood of identifying clinically useful biomarkers. In order to address these issues, the National Cancer Research Institute Biomarker and Imaging Clinical Studies Group organized a 1-day TMA workshop held in Nottingham in May 2012. The document herein summarizes the conclusions from the workshop. It includes guidance and considerations on all aspects of TMA-based research, including the pre-analytical stages of experimental design, the analytical stages of data acquisition, and the postanalytical stages of data analysis. A checklist is presented which can be used both for planning a TMA experiment and interpreting the results of such an experiment. For studies of cancer biomarkers, this checklist could be used as a supplement to the REMARK guidelines.
- Assessment of MUC4 expression in primary bone tumours. [LETTER]
- Histopathology 2013 May 13.
- Comparison of p40 (ΔNp63) and p63 expression in prostate tissues - which one is the superior diagnostic marker for basal cells? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Histopathology 2013 Feb 26.
AIMS:p63 is one of the standard markers for basal cells of the prostate gland. Recently, it has been suggested that the p63 isoform p40 might be more specific as a basal cell marker. In this study we compare the staining characteristics of p63 and p40 in normal and malignant prostate tissues.
METHODS AND RESULTS:A prostatectomy cohort (n = 640) in tissue microarray format was evaluated for p63 (clone 4A4) and for p40 (rabbit polyclonal) immunoreactivity in malignant and normal tissues. Immunoreactivity of basal and secretory cells was evaluated in a semiquantitative manner and compared case-wise. In normal tissues, p40 showed highly similar immunoreactivity compared to p63. The staining patterns were absolutely identical in 88% of cases. Additional cytoplasmic p40 staining in tumour cells occurred in 59.6% of cancer cases. Differences were seen in nuclear staining of carcinomas: 1.4% of carcinomas were p63-positive, whereas 0.6% were p40-positive.
CONCLUSIONS:In most cases, p40 stains prostatic basal cells as reliably as p63, with only minor differences. Aberrant staining of tumour cells is seen more rarely than with p63 (clone 4A4), establishing its higher specificity. However, additional cytoplasmic immunoreactivity narrows its eligibility for antibody cocktails (e.g. with alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase).
- Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression in soft tissue sarcomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Histopathology 2013 May 9.