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Hum Exp Toxicol [journal]
- Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 May 7.
CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect.
- Development of a method for extraction and assay of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and pesticide inhibition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr 30.
A method of extracting membranes from red blood cells (RBCs) is described, which were in turn used to assay acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The evidence for the enzyme activity was established by selective inhibition using 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl) pentan-3-one dibromide, tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide and neostigmine. Blood samples were exposed to three organophosphorus (dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) and two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) pesticides. Afterwards AChE activities in RBC membranes were determined. The concentrations capable to inhibit the enzyme activity by 50% (IC50) for the pesticides were 10.66 µM (dichlorvos), 21.42 µM (chlorpyrifos), 109.98 µM (carbaryl) and 5.44 µM (carbofuran). The results related to 20% enzyme inhibition (level used in the estimation of threshold limits for anticholinesterase compounds) were below those acceptable daily intake values enacted by relevant national and international regulations. These results suggest that the proposed AChE extraction from RBC and assay could be a suitable method for monitoring occupational exposure to pesticides.
- Effect of subacute exposure to silver nanoparticle on some hematological and plasma biochemical indices in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr 30.
The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) is rapidly increasing, but there are limited data on their effects on the aquatic environment. The present study aimed to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of subacute concentrations of Ag-NPs (Nanocid®: average particle size of 61 nm) on hematological and plasma biochemical indices of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, after 3, 7 and 14 days. The 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values of Nanocid for silver carp were estimated at 0.810, 0.648, 0.383 and 0.202 mg/L, respectively; 20% and 10% of the 96-h LC50 values (0.04 and 0.02 mg/L) were selected for subacute study. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) count and hematocrit (Hct) level were significantly reduced at both concentrations tested (p < 0.05). White blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), cortisol and glucose levels in Nanocid-treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Ag-NPs intoxication resulted in erythrocyte reduction, hematological disturbances, leucocytosis and stress response in silver carp and offered a simple tool to evaluate toxicity-derived alterations.
- An investigation of the effect of thiamine pyrophosphate on cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain tissue compared with thiamine: Thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate effects on cisplatin neurotoxicity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr 30.
This study investigated the effects of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg on oxidative stress induced in rat brain tissue with cisplatin and compared this with thiamine. Cisplatin neurotoxicity represents one of the main restrictions on the drug being given in effective doses. Oxidative stress is considered responsible for cisplatin toxicity. Our results showed that cisplatin increased the levels of oxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation (thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in brain tissue and suppressed the effects of antioxidants such as total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). TPP, especially at a dosage of 20 mg/kg, significantly reduced TBARS and MPO levels that increase with cisplatin administration compared with the thiamine group, while TPP significantly increases GSH and SOD levels. In addition, the level of 8-Gua (guanine), a product of DNA damage, was 1.7 ± 0.12 8-hydroxyl guanine (8-OH Gua)/105 Gua in brain tissue in the control group receiving cisplatin, compared with 0.97 ± 0.03 8-OH Gua/105 Gua in the thiamine pyrophosphate (20 mg/kg) group and 1.55 ± 0.11 8-OH Gua/105 Gua in the thiamine (20 mg/kg) group. These results show that thiamine pyrophosphate significantly prevents oxidative damage induced by cisplatin in brain tissue, while the protective effect of thiamine is insignificant.
- Assessment of genotoxic effects of flumorph by the comet assay in mice organs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr 24.
The present study investigated the genotoxic effects of flumorph in various organs (brain, liver, spleen, kidney and sperm) of mice. The DNA damage, measured as comet tail length (µm), was determined using the alkaline comet assay. The comet assay is a sensitive assay for the detection of genotoxicity caused by flumorph using mice as a model. Statistically significant increases in comet assay for both dose-dependent and duration-dependent DNA damage were observed in all the organs assessed. The organs exhibited the maximum DNA damage in 96 h at 54 mg/kg body weight. Brain showed maximum DNA damage followed by spleen > kidney > liver > sperm. Our data demonstrated that flumorph had induced systemic genotoxicity in mammals as it caused DNA damage in all tested vital organs, especially in brain and spleen.
- In vitro effect of N-acetylcysteine on hepatocyte injury caused by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr 24.
The organochlorine pesticide, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), is still used to combat the spread of malaria in several developing countries despite its accumulation and known hepatotoxic effects that have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a recognized hepatoprotective agent that has been reported to reduce hepatotoxicity initiated by many different compounds. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAC could counter in vitro hepatocyte injury induced by DDT or its two major metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane. HepG2 cell cultures were used to assess the following parameters of toxicity: cellular viability, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and initiation of apoptosis. None of the three test compounds induced ROS generation, yet exposure to any of the three compounds produced mitochondrial hyperpolarization, which was countered by NAC pretreatment. All three test compounds also induced apoptotic cell death, which was inhibited by NAC. Despite NAC counteracting some adverse intracellular changes due to organochlorine exposure, it appeared to aggravate the cytotoxic effects of the organochlorine compounds at low test concentrations. As the same outcome may also occur in vivo, results from the present study raise concern about the use of NAC as treatment for DDT-induced hepatotoxicity.
- Diaion HP-2MG modified with 2-(2,6-dichlorobenzylideneamino) benzenethiol as new adsorbent for solid phase extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of metal ions. [Journal Article]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr; 32(4):371-8.
A solid phase extraction method for enrichment-separation and the determination of cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)), zinc (Zn(2+)) and lead (Pb(2+)) ions in real samples has been proposed. The influences of some analytical parameters like pH, flow rate, eluent type and interference of matrix ions on recoveries of analytes were optimized. The limits of detection were found in the range of 1.6-3.9 µg L(-1), while preconcentration factor for all understudy metal ions were found to be 166 with loading half time (t 1/2) less than 10 min. The procedure was applied for the enrichment-separation of analyte ions in environmental samples with recoveries higher than 94.8% and relative SD <4.9% (N = 5).
- Effect of diindolylmethane on Ca2+ homeostasis and viability in MDCK renal tubular cells. [Journal Article]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr; 32(4):344-53.
The effect of the natural product diindolylmethane (DIM) on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) and viability in MDCK renal tubular cells was explored. The Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 was applied to measure [Ca(2+)]i. DIM at concentrations 1-50 μM induced a [Ca(2+)]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. The response was reduced partly by removing Ca(2+). DIM induced Mn(2+) influx leading to quenching of fura-2 fluorescence. DIM-evoked Ca(2+) entry was suppressed by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365 and protein kinase C modulators. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), incubation with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin (TG) or 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) greatly inhibited DIM-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise. Incubation with DIM abolished TG or BHQ-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 reduced DIM-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise by 50%. At 1, 10, 40 and 50 μM, DIM slightly enhanced cell proliferation. The effect of 50 μM DIM was reversed by chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. In sum, in MDCK cells, DIM induced a [Ca(2+)]i rise by evoking phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry via protein kinase C-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) channels. DIM did not induce cell death.
- Agomelatine: An antidepressant with new potent hepatoprotective effects on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr 12.
Paracetamol was shown to induce hepatotoxicity or more severe fatal acute hepatic damage. Agomelatine, commonly known as melatonin receptor agonist, is a new antidepressant, which resynchronizes circadian rhythms with subjective and objective improvements in sleep quality and architecture, as melatonin does. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of agomelatine on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and to understand the relationship between the hepatoprotective mechanism of agomelatine and antioxidant system and proinflammatory cytokines. A total of 42 rats were divided into 7 groups as each composed of 6 rats: (1) intact, (2) 40 mg/kg agomelatine, (3) 140 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (4) 2 g/kg paracetamol, (5) 2 g/kg paracetamol + 140 mg/kg NAC, (6) 2 g/kg paracetamol + 20 mg/kg agomelatine, and (7) 2 g/kg paracetamol + 40 mg/kg agomelatine groups. Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity was applied and liver and blood samples were analyzed histopathologically and biochemically. There were statistically significant increases in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 8-iso-prostane, and decreases in the activity of superoxide dismutase and level of glutathione in the group treated with paracetamol. Administration of agomelatine and NAC separately reversed these changes significantly. In conclusion, agomelatine administration protects liver cells from paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity via antioxidant activity and reduced proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6.
- Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced apoptosis in neuronal pheochromocytoma cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Exp Toxicol 2013 Apr 12.
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in neuronal death caused by many cytotoxins. Conventional MAPKs consist of three family members: extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. It has been originally shown that ERK1/2 is important for cell survival, whereas JNK and p38 are deemed stress responsive and thus involved in apoptosis. However, information describing the role of MAPKs in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced neurotoxicity is insufficient. The aim of this study was to identify the role of MAPK cascades in TCDD-induced neurotoxicity using differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as a model for neuronal cells. Cell viability assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that TCDD attenuated cell viability with a dose- and time-dependent manner and significantly induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons and PC12 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that TCDD markedly activated the expression of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 in TCDD-treated PC12 cells. Furthermore, PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB202190 (p38 inhibitor) notably blocked the effect of TCDD on cell apoptosis. Based on the findings above, it is concluded that the activation of MAPK signaling pathways may be associated with TCDD-mediated neuronal apoptosis.