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ISRN dermatology [journal]
- Malignant melanoma. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:308279.
Nuclear medicine plays an essential role in the correct staging of patients suffering from melanoma. Both sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and positron emission tomography (PET) represent its main diagnostic tools. SLNB is the choice procedure for lymphatic regional staging of these patients, including the result of this technique in the 2002 American Joint Cancer Committee melanoma staging. SLNB sensitivity is superior than PET/CT for the detection of lymphatic micrometastases in early stages of the disease. PET/CT is mainly used in confirming clinical metastases suspected, detection of recurrences, and recurrence restaging. PET/CT has also shown superiority against conventional diagnostic methods in the detection of distant metastases, being able to detect illness even six months earlier than those methods.
- Papillon-lefèvre syndrome: a series of six cases in the same family. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:139104.
Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare, autosomal recessive heterogeneous disorder, which is characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, early loss of primary and permanent teeth, and associated calcification of the dura mater. Herein we described six cases of PLS in the same family. In this series, six cases (two females and four males) with the mean age of 15.6 ± 10.4 years were recruited. Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis was detected in all of the cases, leading to a difficult and painful walking in two cases due to lesions on the soles. Skin lesions were sharply distinct from adjacent normal skin in all cases. Other skin lesions were located in the external malleolus (5/6), knee (4/6), elbow (4/6), toe and dorsal fingers (3/6), and the thighs (2/6). In three cases, all permanent teeth were exfoliated. In three others, no primary teeth remained. Severe gingivitis was observed in three patients. Radiologic study confirmed alveolar bone destruction in five cases. Delayed diagnosis and insufficient treatment of PLS patients can affect patient's life of by causing edentulism at a young age and may impose PLS patients to increased risk of social, psychological, and economical burdens.
- Ehlers-danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: an underdiagnosed hereditary connective tissue disorder with mucocutaneous, articular, and systemic manifestations. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:751768.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type, constituting a phenotypic continuum with or, perhaps, corresponding to the joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common, though the least recognized, heritable connective tissue disorder. Known for decades as a hereditary condition with predominant rheumatologic manifestations, it is now emerging as a multisystemic disorder with widespread manifestations. Nevertheless, the practitioners' awareness of this condition is generally poor and most patients await years or, perhaps, decades before reaching the correct diagnosis. Among the various sites of disease manifestations, skin and mucosae represent a neglected organ where the dermatologist can easily spot diagnostic clues, which consistently integrate joint hypermobility and other orthopedic/neurologic manifestations at physical examination. In this paper, actual knowledge on JHS/EDS-HT is summarized in various sections. Particular attention has been posed on overlooked manifestations, including cutaneous, mucosal, and oropharyngeal features, and early diagnosis techniques, as a major point of interest for the practicing dermatologist. Actual research progresses on JH/EDS-HT envisage an unexpected link between heritable dysfunctions of the connective tissue and a wide range of functional somatic syndromes, most of them commonly diagnosed in the office of various specialists, comprising dermatologists.
- In vitro evaluation of sunscreens: an update for the clinicians. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:352135.
Topical sunscreens contain molecules or molecular complexes that can absorb, reflect, or scatter UV photons. Evaluation of the efficacy of sunscreen products has been made through the Sun Protection Factor (SPF), a mean of quantitatively assessing in vivo the degree of protection offered by sunscreen products against solar radiation. In vivo evaluation of SPF has several drawbacks. First of all, this evaluation method is expensive in terms of money and time. Moreover, it raises several ethical issues concerning the potential damage to skin volunteers. Several in vitro techniques have been developed, but at present there is no broadly accepted method. In this paper, we will discuss some of the recent advances concerning the in vitro evaluation of sunscreens which would be acceptable for replacing in vivo assays.
- Expression of nuclear factor kappa B and survivin in psoriasis. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:257059.
Objective.Suppression of apoptosis has been proposed as a mechanism responsible for epidermal thickness in psoriasis. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is one of the transcriptional factors that regulate many genes affecting apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine survivin and NF-κB expressions in psoriasis in comparison with normal epidermis. Patients and Methods. Immunohistochemical expressions of survivin and NF-κB were investigated in 41 psoriatic and 21 normal skin samples.
Results.Diffuse nuclear survivin expression in all epidermal layers was seen in all of the psoriatic samples. NF-κB expression in different epidermal locations was seen in all of the psoriatic samples. Nuclear staining was positive in 40 psoriasis samples. Similar survivin and NF-κB expressions were observed in normal skin samples.
Conclusion.Since similar expressions are seen in both normal and psoriatic epidermis, no important roles for survivin and NF-κB can be attributed in epidermal proliferation and thickness seen in psoriasis.
- Effectiveness of keishibukuryogan on chronic-stage lichenification associated with atopic dermatitis. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:158598.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with recurring episodes of itching and a chronic relapsing course. Keishibukuryogan (KBG) is a traditional herbal medicine, composed of five kinds of medical plants and has been administered to patients with blood stagnation in Japan. This study investigated the effect of KBG on the disease activity in AD (n = 45) patients. AD patients were administered KBG for 4 to 6 weeks in addition to their prescribed medications. The results showed that the SCORAD index and VAS score were significantly decreased after the administration of KBG (P < 0.01). KBG also decreased the serum LDH level significantly (P < 0.01). The global assessment of the clinical response in SCORAD index showed that 88.5% of the patients with moderate improvement to excellent response (n = 26) had a high lichenification score (lichenification score ≥2 in SCORAD). On the other hand, only 42.1% of the patients with no improvement to mild improvement (n = 19) had a high lichenification score. Furthermore, long-term administration of KBG for 9-67 weeks showed a marked improvement in patients with a high lichenification score. Therefore, KBG was found to be effective against AD, particularly in cases presenting with lichenified lesions.
- Assessment of the efficacy and safety of a new treatment for head lice. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:460467.
Infestation with head lice is a widespread, persistent, and recurring issue leading to serious health problems if untreated. We are facing resistance phenomena to usual pediculicides and questions about their direct or cumulative toxicity. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of a new product, free of chemical insecticides but with a physical effect. This product contains components whose antilice efficacy has already been demonstrated, as well as Andiroba oil which asphyxiates the lice and Quassia vinegar which dissolves the chitin of the nits (they are then inactivated). 30 patients with head lice infestation, aged 3-39 years, applied the treatment one to three times, 5 days apart. Cure was defined as the absence of live lice after 5, 10, or 14 days, and symptoms are usually associated with infestation. Easiness and safety of the treatment were assessed by the patients and/or their parents. Overall cure rates were 20% on D5 after one treatment, 37% on D10 after two treatments, and 90% on D14 after three treatments. Symptoms such as itch, scalp dryness, redness, and flakiness rapidly diminished. This treatment seems to be a beneficial addition or a valuable alternative to existing treatments, considering the total absence of chemical insecticides, the absence of drug-resistance induction in head lice, the absence of major toxicological risks compared with usual pediculicides, and the favourable patient use instructions.
- Treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type a: our experience in 50 patients from 2007 to 2010. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:702714.
Background.Local injections of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) are an effective and safe solution for primary bilateral axillary hyperhidrosis. Traditional treatments are often ineffective and difficult to tolerate. This study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of these diseases and to evaluate the reliability of patient's subjective rating in the timing of repeat injections. Methods. From 2007 to 2008, we included in the study and treated a total of 50 patients, and we used the Minor's iodine test and the hyperhidrosis diseases severity scale as initial inclusion criteria and also for evaluating the followup, comparing to patient's subjective rating. We used also a specific questionnaire to evaluate the level of pain, the onset of the effect, any eventual adverse effect of the treatment, the onset of compensatory hyperhidrosis, and the global grade of satisfaction. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods.
Results.88% of patients were totally satisfied and all patients repeated the treatment during all the study. The symptom-free interval was in median 6 months with an average improving of HDSS of 1.5 points. In 86%, there was a complete accordance between the subjective patient's demand of the repetition of the treatment and the positivity to Minor test and HDSS. No major side effects happened.
Conclusion.Local injections of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) result in an effective and safe solution for bilateral axillary primary hyperhidrosis for the absence of significant morbidity, side effects, and lack of efficacy or duration. The only defects are the need of repetition of the treatment and relative costs.
- Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Rural Area of India: Is MRSA Replacing Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in the Community? [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:248951.
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and nosocomial infections. In developed countries there is a major concern about the rise of community-associated methicillin-resistant SA (CA-MRSA), but data from developing countries are scarce. In this study we describe the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of CA-MRSA and healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) in a district hospital from rural India. We identified 119 CA-SA infections and 82 HA-SA infections. The majority of infections were SSTI, and the proportion of MRSA in CA-SA and HA-SA infections was 64.7% and 70.7%, respectively. The proportion of CA-MRSA in children <5 years was 73.7%. We did not observe any linezolid or vancomycin resistance. CA-SA had high levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin and low levels of resistance to chloramphenicol, doxycycline, rifampicin, and clindamycin. CA-MRSA had higher proportion of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and cotrimoxazole than CA methicillin-susceptible SA (CA-MSSA). HA-MRSA had higher proportion of resistance to clindamycin and doxycycline than CA-MRSA. The results of this study indicate that MRSA is replacing MSSA in CA-SA infections. If these findings are confirmed by other studies, the spread of CA-MRSA can be a major public health problem in India.
- Common Dermatoses in Children Referred to a Specialized Pediatric Dermatology Service in Mexico: A Comparative Study between Two Decades. [Journal Article]
- ISRN Dermatol 2012.:351603.