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Indian J Med Res [journal]
- Experimental studies on the hypocholesterolemic effect of Commiphora mukul Engl. (Guggul). 1969. [Classical Article, Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Feb; 137(2):14 p following p403.
- Elephantiasic pretibial myxoedema. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):568.
- Tophaceous gout of the spine masquerading as spondylodiscitis. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):566-7.
- Phenotypic screening of resistance mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):564.
- Serological survey of toxoplasmosis in a district in Tamil Nadu: Hospital-based study. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):560-3.
- Pupal productivity of dengue vectors in Kolkata, India: implications for vector management. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):549-59.
Background & objectives: Entomological surveillance of the dengue vectors using pupal productivity as indicators can be helpful in effective management. On this basis, an assessment was made on the relative importance of the larval habitats of Aedes mosquitoes in Kolkata, an endemic zone for dengue in West Bengal, India.
Methods:Monthly collection of larvae and pupae of Aedes from larval habitats categorized as earthen, plastic and porcelain containers and tyres, was carried out from selected sites. Pupal weight was recorded and degree of sexual dimorphism was calculated. The data on pupal weight, sexual dimorphism and immature density were used for regression analysis.
Results:The number of positive sites for each type of larval habitats varied with months and mosquito species. Based on mean density per month, the plastic containers were the most productive habitats and the tyres were least productive for both Aedes species. The pupal weight of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus varied with the relative density and type of larval habitats. Significant differences in pupal productivity, positive sites and the proportion of pupae were observed in the habitats. Species-specific differences in the degree of dimorphism were noted with the females being larger in size than males, irrespective of the habitats. Interpretation & conclusions: Pupal productivity of Aedes mosquitoes in Kolkata differed in terms of the type of the larval habitats with the immature density affecting the body size of the adults. This habitat-based study is a pioneer effort considering Kolkata and calls for a management plan for source reduction of these habitats to minimize Aedes mosquitoes and thus potential risk of dengue.
- Ellagic acid & gallic acid from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. inhibit HIV-1 infection through inhibition of HIV-1 protease & reverse transcriptase activity. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):540-8.
Background & objectives: Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used as traditional medicines and are effective in controlling diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-HIV property of the extracts prepared from the leaves and stems of banaba, and further purification and characterization of the active components.
Methods:Aqueous and 50 per cent ethanolic extracts were prepared from leaves and stems of banaba and were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV activity using in vitro reporter gene based assays. Further, three compounds were isolated from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract of banaba leaves using silica gel column chromatography and characterization done by HPLC, NMR and MS analysis. To delineate the mode of action of the active compounds, reverse transcriptase assay and protease assay were performed using commercially available kits.
Results:All the extracts showed a dose dependent inhibition of HIV-1-infection in TZM-bl and CEM-GFP cell lines with a maximum from the 50 per cent ethanolic extract from leaves (IC 50 = 1 to 25 μg/ml). This observation was confirmed by the virus load (p24) estimation in infected CEM-GFP cells when treated with the extracts. Gallic acid showed an inhibition in reverse transcriptase whereas ellagic acid inhibited the HIV-1 protease activity. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a novel anti-HIV activity of banaba. The active components responsible for anti-HIV activity were gallic acid and ellagic acid, through inhibition of reverse transcriptase and HIV protease, respectively and hence could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HIV-1 agents.
- Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):533-9.
Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women.
Methods:A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual/postcoital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent conventional Pap smear, Hybrid Capture 2® (HC2) testing for HPV and CT DNA and colposcopy, with directed biopsy of all lesions.
Results:HPV DNA was positive in 108 (18.0%) women, CT DNA in 29 (4.8%) women. HPV/CT co-infection was observed in only four (0.7%) women. Of the 127 (21.2%) women with Pap >ASCUS, 60 (47.2%) were HPV positive and four (3.1%) were CT positive. Of the 41 women with CIN1 lesions, 11 (26.8%) were HPV positive, while two were CT positive. Of the 46 women with CIN2+ on histopathology, 41 (89.1%) were HPV positive, two (4.3%) were CT positive and one was positive for both. The risk of CIN2+ disease was significantly increased (P<0.05) by the following factors: age <18 yr at first coitus, HPV infection and a positive Pap smear. Older age (>35 yr), higher parity, use of oral contraceptives or smoking did not show any significant association with HPV or abnormal histopathology. Parity >5 was the only risk factor positivity associated with CT infection (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that CT infection was not significantly associated with CIN, and most of its risk factors, including HPV infection, in symptomatic women. Longitudinal studies with carefully selected study sample would be able to answer these questions.
- Effects of poly (ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor on cisplatin resistance & proliferation of the ovarian cancer C13 FNx01 cells. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):527-32.
Background & objectives: Drug resistance is the primary cause of failure in the treatment of cancers. It has been suggested that the enhancement of DNA repair capability may be responsible for the drug resistance of the tumour cells, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation plays an important role in DNA repair. This study investigated the effect of PARP inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) on the cisplatin resistance and proliferation of the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer C13 FNx01 cells in vitro.
Methods:C13 FNx01 cells were treated with various concentrations of 3-AB in vitro. MTT assay was used to determine the effect of 3-AB on the cisplatin sensitivity and proliferation of cells. The expression levels of PARP-1 mRNA and protein in the C13 FNx01 cells were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, and changes caused by 3-AB treatment were investigated. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to detect the localization and expression of the PARP-1 proteins before and after treatment with 5 mmol/l 3-AB.
Results:The inhibitory ratio and the cisplatin sensitivity of C13 FNx01 cells significantly increased with the increase of the concentration of 3-AB (P<0.05). The RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of PARP-1 mRNA was decreased when platinum (Pt) and 3-AB were combined. The expression levels of PARP-1 protein were decreased by 23.15 ± 2.53, 59.11 ± 2.23 and 73.24 ± 3.88 per cent, respectively, in C13 FNx01 cells with the increase of the concentration of 3-AB (P<0.05). The immunofluorescence microscopy results indicated that the expression level of PARP-1 protein was significantly decreased after treatment with 3-AB (P,<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: 3-AB inhibited the proliferation activity of C13 FNx01 cells, and increased the cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Our findings show that the PARP inhibitor 3-AB can downregulate the expression of PARP-1 at transcriptional and translational levels in C13 FNx01 cells.
- Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Med Res 2013 Mar; 137(3):521-6.
Background & objectives: Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy a , Fy b , Jk a , Jk b , M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors.